Act XIX of 1998

on Criminal Proceedings[1]

 

PART ONE

Chapter I.  BASIC PROVISIONS

Division of the tasks related to the proceedings

Section 1 In criminal proceedings prosecution, defence and sentencing shall be separate functions.

The basis of the court procedure

Section 2[2] (1) In the course of sentencing, the court proceeds based upon an accusation.

(2) The charge is legitimate if the person entitled to file the charges initiates judicial proceeding on account of a precisely circumscribed act which is defined by the Criminal Code and committed by an individual who is defined in the motion addressed to the court.

(3) The court may only ascertain the criminal liability of the person against whom the accusatory instrument was filed, and in the course thereof may only contemplate acts contained in such instrument.

(4) The court must exhaust the charges, may not go beyond the charges, but the court is not obligated to the motion of the prosecutor regarding the legal classification of an act added to the charges according to the Criminal Code, as well as meting out punishments or applying measures.

 

Right to court procedure and the right to remedy[3]

Section 3 (1) Everyone has the right to have the charge filed against him adjudicated by a court.

(2)[4] It is the exclusive right of the court to ascertain the liability of a person in committing a criminal offence and to impose punishment therefore.

(3)[5] Judicial remedy is available – as it is prescribed by this Act – against the decisions of the court, the prosecutor and the investigating authority, as well as against the measures taken by the prosecutor and the investigating authority, moreover, on account of omission of measure should have been taken by the court, the prosecutor and the investigating authority.

(4)[6] Ordinary remedy is not available against the decisions of the Supreme Court[7].

Burden of proof

Section 4[8] (1) The charge shall be proven by the accuser.

(2) Facts not proven beyond a reasonable doubt may not be contemplated to the detriment of the defendant.

Right to defence

Section 5 (1) The defendant shall have the right to defence.

(2) Everyone has the right to defend himself at liberty.  This right may only be restricted as well as a person may be deprived of his freedom only for the reason and only in virtue of the procedure allotted in this Act.

(3)[9] The defendant may undertake his own defence, and may be defended by a counsel at any phase of the proceedings.  The court, the prosecutor and the investigating authority shall ensure that the person against whom criminal proceedings are conducted can defend himself as prescribed in this Act.

(4) In the cases specified in this Act, it is compulsory to retain a defence counsel.

Ex officio procedure, initiating criminal proceedings and exemptions objections of the criminal proceedings[10]

Section 6 (1) It is the obligation of the court, the prosecutor and the investigating authority to initiate as well as conduct the criminal proceedings if the conditions set forth in this Act are met.

(2) Criminal proceedings may only be initiated upon the suspicion of a criminal offence and only against the person reasonably suspected of having committed a criminal offence.

(3)[11] No criminal proceedings may be initiated, and criminal proceedings in progress shall be terminated or a verdict of acquittal be rendered if

  1. a) the action does not constitute a criminal offence, or was not committed by the defendant (the denounced person),
  2. b) it cannot be ascertained either that the criminal offence has been committed or that it has been committed by the defendant (the denounced person),
  3. c) with the exceptions set forth in this Act, grounds for the preclusion or termination of punishability exist,

d)[12] a final court verdict has already been delivered on the action of the defendant; however, this provision does not apply to the procedures defined in Part Four and Titles II and III of Chapter XXIX.[13]

(4)[14] With the exception of the procedures specified in Part Four (extraordinary legal remedy), subsection (3) d) shall apply even if the action of the offender constitutes several criminal offences, but the court – in accordance with the classification in the indictment – does not ascertain the guilt of the defendant in all offences that could be established based on the facts of the indictment.

(5)[15] Prior to the retrial procedure defined in the Act of Misdemeanour[16] no criminal proceedings may be instituted against the person who has been declared liable in a court decision delivered in a procedure for misdemeanour, if the facts of the case have not changed.

Presumption of innocence

Section 7 No person shall be considered guilty until, according to the law, finally convicted by the court.

Prohibition of self-incrimination

Section 8 No one may be compelled to give testimony against himself or herself or to furnish evidence against himself or herself.

Use of the native language

Section 9 (1) Criminal proceedings shall be conducted in the Hungarian language. No disadvantage may be suffered by anyone who lacks the command of the Hungarian language.

(2)[17] In criminal proceedings all those involved may use, both verbally and in writing, their native language, or, pursuant to an international agreement promulgated by law may use their regional or minority language concerning issues definied by the international agreement, or – lacking in command the Hungarian language – another language defined by the party concerned as a language spoken.

(3)[18] Translation of the decisions and other official documents to be served pursuant to this Act shall be the responsibility of the court, prosecutor or investigating authority which has adopted the decision or issued the official document.

(4)[19] If an Act does not order it differently, the documents to be delivered ought not to be translated, if the person concerned renounces this expressly.

Independent judgement of criminal liability

Section 10 When establishing whether the defendant has committed a criminal offence and what type of criminal offence, the court, the prosecutor and the investigating authority shall be bound neither by decisions adopted in other procedures, thus especially in civil proceedings, procedure for misdemeanours or disciplinary actions, nor by the facts set forth therein.

Scope of the Act

Section 11 (1) Criminal proceedings shall be conducted in compliance with the law in force at the time of judging the action.

(2) In cases falling under Hungarian criminal jurisdiction [Sections 3 and 4 of Act IV of 1978 on the Criminal Code (hereinafter: Criminal Code)] the proceedings shall be conducted in accordance with this Act.

Chapter II THE COURT

Function of the court

Section 12 (1) The court shall be responsible for the administration of justice.

(2) Unless provided otherwise by this Act, courts shall be responsible for making a decision on controlling or depriving somebody of his or her liberty.

(3) The court shall carry out other duties as well as set forth in this Act.

(4) Unless provided otherwise in this Act, prior to the indictment the tasks of the court shall be performed by the investigating magistrate.

Trial courts

Section 13 (1)[20] The court of first instance shall be the Local Court and the Court of Justice.

(2) The court of second instance shall be

a)[21] the Court of Justice in the cases falling within the competence of the Local Court,

b)[22] the High Court of Appeals in the cases falling within the competence of the Court of Justice,

c)[23] the Supreme Court in the cases falling within the competence of the High Court of Appeals, if an appeal is possible against the decision of the High Court of Appeals pursuant to this Act.

(3)[24] The court of third instance shall be

a)[25] the High Court of Appeals in the cases where the Court of Justice proceeded as the court of second instance,

b)[26] the Supreme Court in the cases where the High Court of Appeals proceeded as the court of second instance.

(4)[27] In the cases specified in this Act the secretary of the court vested with independent signatory rights may also act in lieu of the single judge or the presiding judge in cases falling within the competence of the court of first instance.  In such cases the actions of the secretary of the court shall be governed by the provisions set forth in this Act for court procedures.

(5)[28] In the cases specified in separate legal regulation, the court executive vested with independent signatory rights may also act – under the direction and supervision of the judge – out of trial.  In such cases the actions of the court executive shall be governed by the provisions set forth in this Act for court procedures.

Composition of the court

Section 14 (1) The Local Court shall act

a)[29] in a council consists of one professional judge and two associate judges, if the criminal offence is punishable by the law by 8 years or more imprisonment,

  1. b) without the involvement of associate judges (as single judge) in the cases not falling under item a).

(2)[30] Unless provided otherwise by this Act, the Court of Justice acting as a court of first instance may conduct its procedure in a panel consisting of one professional judge and two associate judges.

(3)[31] In the case specified in subsection (1) b), the Local Court may act in a panel consisting of one professional judge and two associate judges, if it establishes a classification of the criminal offence underlying the prosecution differently from that indicated in the indictment or if the single judge relegated the case to the council of the court.

(4)[32] In the cases specified in this Act, the Local Court and the Court of Justice acting as a court of first instance may conduct its procedure in a council consisting of two professional judges and three associate judges.

(5)[33] The court of second and third instance act in a council of three professional judges. The Supreme Court shall act in a council consisting of three professional judges, or if this Act orders so, in a council of five professional judges.

(6) Both the single judge and the presiding judge shall be professional judges; in the course of administering justice, the professional judge and the associate judges have identical rights and obligations.

(7)[34] In the case of criminal offences enumerated in Section 17 (5) and (6) in the first instance the presiding judge (single judge), in the second instance and – excluding the Supreme Court –  in the third instance one of the members of the council shall be a judge designated by National Judiciary Council’s Office.

Competence of the court of first instance

Section 15 [35] Judgement of criminal offences shall fall within the competence of the Local Court in the first instance, unless they are referred to the competence of the Court of Justice by this Act.

 

Section 16 (1)[36] The following shall fall within the competence of the Court of Justice[37]

  1. a) criminal offences punishable by imprisonment for a term up to 15 years or life imprisonment by law; and
  2. b) criminal offences against the state (Chapter X. of the Criminal Code);
  3. c) crimes against humanity (Chapter XI of the Criminal Code);

d)[38] preparations for murder, negligent homicide [Section 166 (3) and (4) of the Criminal Code], murder committed in the heat of passion (Section 167 of the Criminal Code), physical injury creating a substantial risk of death or causing death [third sentence part in Section 170 (6) and (7) of the Criminal Code], kidnapping (Section 175/A of the Criminal Code), trafficking in human beings (Section 175/B of the Criminal Code), offences related to medical treatment and offences against the order of medical research and medical self-determination (Title II of Chapter XII of the Criminal Code);

e)[39] criminal offences against the order of elections, referenda, the people’s motions and European people’s motions (Section 211 of the Criminal Code), violation of state and official secrets (Title III of Chapter XV of the Criminal Code), abuse of public office (Title IV of Chapter XV of the Criminal Code), violation against an internationally protected person (Section 232 of the Criminal Code), riot of prisoners (Section 246 of the Criminal Code), criminal offence against the administration of justice at an international court (Section 249/B of the Criminal Code), criminal offences against the integrity of public life (international public life) (Title VII and VIII of Chapter XV of the Criminal Code);

f)[40] terrorist acts (Section 261 of the Criminal Code), violation of international legal obligations (Section 261/A of the Criminal Code), seizure of aircraft and railway vehicles, vessels and road vehicles of mass transportation or vehicles suitable for the mass transportation of goods (Section 262 of the Criminal Code), participation in criminal organisation (Section 263/C of the Criminal Code);

g)[41] abuse of product service of military technology, as well as of dual-use goods (Section 263/B of the Criminal Code), insider trading (Section 299/A), capital investment fraud (Section 299/B of the Criminal Code), organisation of a pyramid scheme (Section 299/C of the Criminal Code), money laundering (Section 303 of the Criminal Code);

h)[42] causing public danger resulting in particularly major or greater financial loss [Section 259 (2) b) of the Criminal Code], interference with the operation of public utilities causing particularly major or particularly significant financial loss [Section 260 (3) and (4) of the Criminal Code], criminal offence against computer systems and data, causing particularly major or particularly significant damage [Section 300/C (4) b) and c) of the Criminal Code], budget fraud resulting in a particularly major or particularly significant loss of revenue and failure of  monitoring and supervisory obligations committed in connection with such budget fraud [Section 310 (4) a), (5) a)  and the adequately classified 310 (6), 310/A of the Criminal Code], misuse of cash substitutes causing particularly major or particularly significant damage [Sections 313/C (5) a) and 313/C (6) of the Criminal Code], theft of particularly major or particularly significant value [Sections 316 (6) a) and 316 (7) of the Criminal Code], embezzlement of particularly major or particularly significant value [Sections 317 (6) a) and 317 (7) of the Criminal Code] of major or exceptionally large value, fraud causing particularly major or particularly significant damage [Sections 318 (6) a) and 318 (7) of the Criminal Code], misappropriation of funds resulting in particularly major or particularly significant financial loss [Section 319 (3) c) and d) of the Criminal Code], negligent mismanagement of funds resulting in particularly major or greater financial loss [Section 320 (2) of the Criminal Code], robbery of particularly major or greater value [Section 321 (4) b) of the Criminal Code], despoliation of particularly major or greater value [Section 322 (3) a) of the Criminal Code], vandalism causing particularly major or particularly significant damage [Sections 324 (5) and 324 (6) of the Criminal Code], receiving of stolen goods of particularly major or particularly significant value [Section 326 (5) a) and (6) of Criminal Code]; violation of copyright or associated rights [Section 329/A (3) of the Criminal Code] and violation of rights protected by industrial patent law [Section 329/D (3) of the Criminal Code] resulting in particularly major or particularly significant financial loss.

i)[43] criminal offences subjected to military law;

j)[44] communist crimes, and criminal offences which do not have a statute of limitations according to international law as determined by the Act on the punishability and exclusion of prevalence of statue of limitatiosn concerning crimes against mankind, as well as the prosecution of certain crimes committed during communist dictatorship.

(2)[45] Defendants having committed offences falling within the competence of various courts shall be prosecuted by the Court of Justice.

Jurisdiction of the court of first instance

Section 17 (1)[46] Unless provided otherwise by this Act, the court of jurisdiction shall be the court having exclusive control over the geographical area where the criminal offence was committed.  The geographical jurisdictions of the courts are specified in the Act on the establishment of the name, competence and jurisdiction of courts.

(2) If the offence has been committed in the area of more than one courts, or the crime scene cannot be established, the court of jurisdiction from among the courts of equal competence shall be the one that had taken measures earlier in the case (preceding authority) – not considering, however, the procedure conducted by the investigating judge.  If the scene of the crime becomes known prior to the commencement of the trial, the procedure shall be continued by the court located at the geographical area where the criminal offence has been committed, as requested in the motion of the prosecutor, the defendant, the defence counsel, the substitute private accuser or the private accuser.

(3)[47] The court located at the place of the residence of the defendant shall also have jurisdiction to proceed in the case, if the prosecutor, the private accuser or – unless provided otherwise in this Act – the substitute private accuser files the indictment there.

(4)[48] In the event of several defendants, the court having jurisdiction over any of the defendants may also adjudicate the case of the others, unless it exceeds its competence.  If there is more than one court which meets this condition, the “principle of preceding authority” shall decide the jurisdiction.

(5)[49] Causing public danger (Section 259 of the Criminal Code) and interference with the operation of public utilities (Section 260 of the Criminal Code) shall fall under the jurisdiction of the Local Court located at the seat of the Court of Justice, or, within the geographical jurisdiction of the Metropolitan Court of Justice of Justice, the Pest Central District Court.  The jurisdiction of these courts in respect of such criminal offences shall extend to the territory of the county or Budapest, respectively.

(6)[50] Abuse of nuclear materials (Section 264 of the Criminal Code), abuse of the operation of nuclear facilities (Section 264/A of the Criminal Code), abuse of the application of nuclear energy (Section264/B of the Criminal Code) and economic crimes (Chapter XVII of the Criminal Code) – not including violation of the rules of public accountancy [Section 289 of the Criminal Code] and financial offences (Title III of Chapter XVII of the Criminal Code) – shall fall under the jurisdiction of the Local Court located at the seat of the Court of Justice, or, within the geographical jurisdiction of the Metropolitan Court of Justice, the Pest Central District Court. The jurisdiction of these courts in respect of such criminal offences shall extend to the territory of the county or Budapest, respectively.

(7) In the case of defendants having committed criminal offences falling under the jurisdiction of several courts, the court having jurisdiction over any of the offences pursuant to subsections (5)–(6) shall proceed.

(8)[51] The jurisdiction of the court competent in respect of the offender shall be extended to the abettor and the receiver of stolen goods as well.

(9)[52] The court of jurisdiction in procedure in prominent cases (section 554/B of Criminal Procedure Code) shall be the court where the prosecutor files the indictment – by right of the decision of the Supreme Prosecutor – in order to adjudicate the case within reasonable time or rather out of turn.

(10)[53] The metropolitan Court of Justice shall act regarding crimes determined by Section 16 (1) j).

 

Section 18 (1)[54] Criminal offences committed outside the boundaries of Hungary shall be prosecuted by the court having jurisdiction at the place where the defendant resides or stays, failing this, the court having jurisdiction at the place where the offender is detained.

(2)[55] If the defendant has committed the criminal offence outside the boundaries of Hungary and the procedure is conducted in his absence, the court of jurisdiction shall be the court having jurisdiction at the place of the last residence or stay of the defendant.

(3)[56] If according to Subsection (1) and (2) the court of jurisdiction can not be appointed, in cases falling under the jurisdiction of the Local Court the Pest Central District Court shall proceed, in cases falling under the jurisdiction of the Court of Justice the Metropolitan Court of Justice shall proceed.

Examination of competence and jurisdiction

Section 19 The court shall examine its competence and jurisdiction ex officio.

Designation of the acting court

Section 20 (1) In the event of a conflict in the competence or jurisdiction of courts, the acting court shall be designated after obtaining the motion of the prosecutor.

(2) The decision on the designation

a)[57] shall be adopted by the panel of second instance of the Court of Justice, if the conflict arises among Local Courts located in its jurisdiction,

b)[58] shall be adopted by the High Court of Appeals, if the conflict of competence arises between the Court of Justice and the Local Court, or a conflict of jurisdictions arises among the Court of Justices or Local Courts located within the jurisdiction of various Court of Justices,

c)[59] shall be adopted by the Supreme Court, if the conflict of competence arises between the Court of Justices and Local Courts belonging to various High Court of Appeals, the military panel of the Court of Justice and another division of the Court of Justice or another Court of Justice, between the Court of Justice and the High Court of Appeals, the military panel of the Metropolitan High Court of Appeals and another panel of the High Court of Appeals or another High Court of Appeals, or between the Supreme Court and the High Court of Appeals, further, if the conflict of jurisdiction arises between High Courts of Appeals or Court of Justices and Local Courts belonging to various High Court of Appeals.

(3)[60] The acting court shall also be designated by the Supreme Court if the conditions for determining jurisdiction cannot be established.

 

Section 20/A[61] (1) The Supreme Court shall appoint on the motion of the president of the National Judiciary Council’s Office a court of the same competence but of a different jurisdiction to judge the case if the judgment of the cases cannot be granted otherwise within a reasonable time due to the exceptional workload of the court and the appointment does not lead to disproportionate overload of the appointed court.

 

Exclusion of judges

Section 21 (1) No one may act as a judge,

  1. a) who has acted in the case as a prosecutor or a member of the investigating authority, or who is a relative of the prosecutor or a member of the investigating authority having acted or acting in the case,
  2. b) who is or has been involved in the case as a defendant or a defence counsel, or a victim, a private accuser, a substitute private accuser, private party, denouncer or the representatives thereof, further, the relatives of the above,
  3. c) who is or has been involved in the case as a witness, expert or advisor,
  4. d) who has made a decision, under the relevant legal regulation on covert information gathering in the case, regardless of whether the information thus collected has been actually used in the course of the criminal proceedings,
  5. e) who cannot be expected to form an unbiased opinion for other reasons.

(2) The provisions set forth in subsection (1) above shall also apply to the investigating judge.

(3) In addition to the cases regulated in subsection (1) above,

  1. a) the person having acted as an investigating judge in the case shall be excluded from subsequent court procedures,

b)[62] the judge having participated in the judgement of the case in the first instance shall be excluded from the procedure in the second instance, as well as the judge having participated in the judgement of the case in the first or second instance shall be excluded from the procedure in the third instance,

c)[63] further, when proceedings of first or second instance are re-instituted due to repealing the original decision, the judge who has participated in adopting either the repealing decision or the decision repealed owing to lack of grounds shall be excluded from the re-instituted proceedings,

d)[64] when proceedings of first or second instance are re-instituted due to retrial, the judge who has participated in the adopting either the order of the retrial or the decision appealed by the retrial shall be excluded from the re-instituted proceedings,

e)[65] the judge who has participated in the adoption of the decision appealed by a motion for extraordinary legal remedy shall be excluded from the extraordinary legal remedy procedure.

(4) In the case specified in subsection (3) the judge whose relative participated in the adoption of the appealed decision shall also be excluded from the judgement of the case.

(5)[66] In the case of subsection (3) c) the judge who took part in adopting the resolution of repealing the original decision shall not be excluded from the review of the decision made in virtue of the re-instituted procedure.

(6)[67] In the case of subsection (3) e) participation of the judge in the adoption of a decision not affected by the motion for extraordinary legal remedy shall not constitute a ground for exclusion.

 

Section 22[68] With the exception of the Supreme Court, when a ground for exclusion regulated in Section 21 (1) a)–c) exists in respect of the president or vice-president of a court, the given court may not proceed in the case.

 

Section 23 (1) The judge affected by a ground for exclusion and the presiding judge gaining cognisance of the existence of a ground for exclusion in respect to a member of the panel shall immediately notify the president of the court thereof.

(2) The ground for exclusion may also be reported by the prosecutor, the defendant, the defence counsel, furthermore, by the victim, the private accuser, the substitute private accuser, the private party, and the representatives thereof.

(3)[69] After the commencement of the trial, the persons in subsection (2) may only validly refer to the ground for exclusion specified in Section 21 (1) e), if they justify that the fact underlying the notification came to their cognisance only after the commencement of the trial and announce it forthwith.

(4)[70] Upon gaining cognisance of a ground for exclusion, the president of the court shall initiate the exclusion of the judge ex officio.

(5)[71] If the ground for exclusion determined in Section 21 (1) d) rules, the judge is not bound by the secrecy obligation defined by separate laws towards the executive who assigns the cases.

 

Section 24[72] (1) If the ground for exclusion is announced by the judge himself or the presiding judge in respect of the judge, from the time of the announcement the judge concerned shall not be involved in the case.

(2) Apart from the cases specified in subsection (1) the judge may remain involved in the case until the motion is given effect, however, the judge may not participate in the adoption of the conclusive decision.

(3) The restriction set forth in subsection (2) may not rule in the case when the ground for exclusion is based on Section 21 (1) e).

(4) The restriction set forth in subsection (2) shall not apply to the judge, if after the dismissal of the first motion; the same party makes a further motion for the exclusion of the judge referring to the same item of Section 21 (1) and (3).

(5) Motion of unfounded ground for exclusion against the same judge, based on the same articles of Section 21 (1) and (3), reported repeatedly may be rejected without justification.

(6) The president of the court shall ensure the designation of another judge if the ground for exclusion has been notified by the judge himself or the presiding judge in respect of the judge, or the judge has consented to the exclusion.  In such cases no separate decision is required thereon.

(7) If the exclusion cannot be arranged as regulated in subsection (6), and

  1. it was filed against the single judge of the court, it shall be adjudged by another single judge of the court and two associate judge,
  2. it was filed against the panel of the court, it shall be adjudged by another panel of the court.

 

Section 24/A[73] (1)[74] In the case set forth in Section 22, or if the court division has no panel which is unaffected by the ground for exclusion, the exclusion shall be resolved by the court of second instance, or, if the motion on the ground for exclusion applies to the court of second instance, the exclusion shall be resolved by the court of third instance.  If the ground for exclusion applies to the High Court of Appeals as the court of third instance, the decision shall be made by the Supreme Court.  Should the motion for exclusion be admitted, designation of the acting court shall be governed by the provisions of Section 20.

(2) The decision on the exclusion shall be adopted by the court at a panel meeting.  If the motion for the exclusion was made by a party other than the judge, or the judge did not approve of the exclusion, a declaration shall be obtained from the judge.

(3) The decision on the exclusion may not be appealed; the denial of the exclusion may be contested in the form of an appeal against the conclusive decision.

(4) The court decide on the appeal against the exclusion of the mediator, which was filed during the mediation process defined by separate laws, according to the rules of Section 24 and Section 24/A.

 

Section 25[75] If the defendant, the defence counsel, the victim, the private accuser, the substitute private accuser, the private party or the representative thereof repeatedly announces an unfounded ground for exclusion in respect of the same judge, a disciplinary penalty may be imposed on them in the decision on the denial of the exclusion.

 

Section 26 (1) The provisions regarding the exclusion of judges shall also apply to associate judges.

(2) With regard to the exclusion of investigating judges the provisions of Sections 23–25 shall apply; however, if the investigating judge did not consent to the exclusion based on the ground announced against him, he may remain involved in the case until the motion is given effect.

 

Section 27[76] The provisions regarding the exclusion of judges shall also apply to the exclusion of secretaries of the court, keepers of the records and court executives.

Chapter III THE PROSECUTOR

Function of the prosecutor

Section 28 [77](1) The prosecutor shall act as the public accuser. The prosecutor shall be obliged to consider both the circumstances aggravating and extenuating for the defendant and the circumstances aggravating and mitigating the criminal liability in all phases of the proceedings.

(2) The prosecutor shall exercise the rights vested in the prosecutor’s office where the prosecutor works.

(3) The prosecutor shall order or perform an investigation to establish the conditions for accusation.

(4)[78] When the investigating authority conducts an investigation or certain investigative actions independently [Section 35 (2)], the prosecutor shall supervise compliance with this Act throughout the procedure and ensure that the persons participating in the procedure can assert their rights.  With this in view, the prosecutor

  1. a) may order an investigation, assign the investigating authority to conduct the investigation, and may instruct the investigating authority to perform – within the its own geographical jurisdiction – further investigative actions or further investigation, or to conclude the investigation within the deadline designated by the prosecutor,
  2. b) may be present at the investigative actions, and may examine or send for the documents produced during the investigation,
  3. c) may amend or repeal the decision of the investigating authority, and shall consider the complaints received against the decision of the investigating authority,
  4. d) may reject the denunciation, terminate the investigation and order the investigating authority to terminate the investigation,
  5. e) may take over the proceedings.

(5) In the event that the prosecutor conducts the investigation, it may instruct any investigating authority to perform – within its own geographical jurisdiction – an investigative action, and in the course of an investigation by the prosecutor’s office, the Supreme Prosecutor may employ the members of other investigating authorities upon the consent of the national head of the given authority.

(6) The prosecutor shall oversee lawful enforcement of coercive measures ordered in the course of the criminal proceedings and entailing the restriction or deprival of personal freedom.

(7) If the conditions set forth in this Act prevail, the prosecutor shall file an indictment and – unless the charge was pressed by a private accuser or a substitute private accuser – represent the charge before the court, or decide on the postponement or partial omission of filing an indictment.  The prosecutor may abandon or modify the charge.  In the course of a court action, the prosecutor may examine the documents of the case and shall have the right of motion in any issue arising in connection with the case in which the court has the right to decide.

 

Section 29 It shall fall within the exclusive competence of the prosecutor’s office to conduct investigation in the following criminal offences:

  1. a) [79] criminal offences committed by persons enjoying immunity due to holding a public office [Section 551 (1)] and by persons enjoying international immunity [Section 553 (1)], violence against such persons in their capacity as officials and criminal offences committed against such persons in connection with their work, as well as violence against internationally protected persons (Section 232 of the Criminal Code),

b)[80] murder and violence against a judge, a prosecutor, a clerk or secretary or executive of the court or the prosecutor’s office, an inspector at the prosecutor’s office, an independent bailiff, a Court of Justice bailiff or their respective deputies, a notary public or an assistant notary public, or a sworn officer of the police in their capacity as official persons, further, kidnapping an official person, violence against an official person and robbery against official persons in the course of their official proceedings [Sections 166 (2) e), 175/A (2) c), 229, 321 (3) d), (4) c)-d), 321 (5) b) of the Criminal Code],

c)[81] with the exception of the sworn members of the police, any criminal offence committed by the persons listed under item b), as well as criminal offences committed by an associate judge in connection with the administration of justice,

d)[82] bribery of the persons listed in item b) [Section 253 (1) and (2) of the Criminal Code], bribery by an official person holding a senior position or entitled to take measure in matters of importance [Section 250 (2) a) and the second item in Section 250 (3) of the Criminal Code], the form of bribery specified in Section 255 of the Criminal Code, failure to report a bribery (Section 255/B of the Criminal Code) and trafficking in influence [256 Section (1) and (2) of the Criminal Code],

e)[83] criminal offences committed by the sworn members of the police, penal institutions and civil national security services, if the offence is not subjected to military law, and any criminal offence committed by a sworn member of the National Tax and Customs Office and official disaster recovery institution or a financial investigator,

f)[84] from among criminal offences against the administration of justice (Chapter XV of Title VI of the Criminal Code) false accusation (Sections 233 to 236 of the Criminal Code), misleading the authority (Section 237 of the Criminal Code), perjury (Sections 238 to 241 of the Criminal Code), soliciting perjury (Section 242 of the Criminal Code), obstruction of official procedure (Section 242/A of the Criminal Code), distraction of  official procedure (Section 242/B of the Criminal Code), suppressing extenuating circumstances (Section 243 of the Criminal Code), harbouring crime by official persons in the course of their proceedings [Section 244 (3) b) of the Criminal Code], misuse of power of attorney (Section 247 of the Criminal Code), unlawful legal practice (Section 248 of the Criminal Code), criminal offence against the administration of justice before an international court (Section 249/B of the Criminal Code), (international public life),

g)[85] criminal offences committed against foreign official persons (item 3 of Section 137 of the Criminal Code) and criminal offences against the integrity of international public life (Title VIII of Chapter XV of the Criminal Code),

h)[86] communist crimes, and criminal offences which do not have a statute of limitations according to international law as determined by the Act on the punishability and exclusion of prevalence of statue of limitatiosn concerning crimes against mankind, as well as the prosecution of certain crimes committed during communist dictatorship.

Competence and jurisdiction of the prosecutor’s office

Section 30 (1)[87] As a rule, the competence and jurisdiction of the prosecutor’s office shall depend on the competence and jurisdiction of the court where it operates.  The organisation of the prosecutor’s office shall be determined by the Supreme Prosecutor pursuant to the relevant law.

(2) In the event of criminal offences falling within the jurisdiction of various prosecutors’ offices, the acting prosecutor’s office shall be the one that had taken measures in the case earlier.

(3)[88] If instructed by the Supreme Prosecutor, the prosecutor general for appeals or the county prosecutor general, the prosecutor may also proceed in cases otherwise not falling under his competence or jurisdiction.

(4) In the event of a conflict of competence or jurisdiction between prosecutor’s offices, the acting prosecutor’s office shall be designated by the superior prosecutor.

Exclusion of the prosecutor

Section 31 (1) No one may act as a prosecutor in criminal proceedings,

  1. a) who has acted as a judge in the case, or a relative of a judge acting or having acted in the case,
  2. b) who is or has been involved in the case as a defendant or a defence counsel, or a victim, a private accuser, a substitute private accuser, private party, informant or the representatives thereof, further, the relatives of the above,
  3. c) who is or has been involved in the case as a witness, expert or advisor,
  4. d) who cannot be expected to form an unbiased opinion for other reasons.

(2) The prosecutor having conducted the investigation or performed investigative actions, has filed the indictment or represented the charge in the underlying offence may not participate in the re-trial procedure.

(3) It shall not constitute a ground for exclusion, if the prosecutor has filed a denunciation on a criminal offence coming to his cognisance within his official competence.

(4)[89] With the exception of the Supreme Prosecutor’s office, when a ground for exclusion regulated in subsection (1) a) or b) exists in respect of the head or deputy head of the prosecutor’s office, the given prosecutor’s office may not act in the case.

(5)[90] When a ground for exclusion regulated in subsection (1) a) or b) exists in respect of the county prosecutor general or his deputy, the local prosecutor’s office located in the area of the county prosecutor general’s office may not act in the case.

 

Section 32 (1)[91] The prosecutor affected by a ground for exclusion shall immediately notify the head of the prosecutor’s office thereof. From the time of the notification of a ground for exclusion, the prosecutor may not act in the case.

(2)[92] The ground for exclusion may also be reported by the defendant, the defence counsel, furthermore, by the victim, the private accuser, the substitute private accuser, the private party, and the representatives thereof.

(3)[93] Upon gaining cognisance of a ground for exclusion, the head of the prosecutor’s office shall initiate the exclusion of the prosecutor ex officio.

(4)[94] If the ground for exclusion is not reported by the prosecutor himself, the prosecutor may proceed in the case until the motion is given effect, however – with the exception of a ground for exclusion regulated in Section 31 (1) d) – he shall have no power to dismiss a denunciation, terminate the investigation, apply coercive measures, file an indictment or represent the charge.

(5)[95] The decision on the exclusion of the prosecutor and the head of the local prosecutor’s office located at the seat of the county prosecutor general’s office, furthermore the prosecutor of the prosecutor general’s office shall be adopted by the prosecutor general. The decision on the exclusion of the prosecutor general and the prosecutor of the supreme prosecutor’s office shall be adopted by the Supreme Prosecutor. If the prosecutor general is affected at the same time by the request for exclusion of the prosecutor and the head of the local prosecutor’s office, furthermore the prosecutor of the prosecutor general’s office, then the exclusion shall be decided by the Supreme Prosecutor.

(6)[96] The prosecutor decides on the complaint which was filed in the course of the mediation process controlled by separate law against the decision refusing to exclude the mediator by applying Section 32 (1)-(5) implicitly.

 

Section 33 [97](1) The restriction set forth in subsection Section 32 (4) shall not apply to the prosecutor, if after the dismissal of the first motion, the same party makes a further motion for the exclusion of the prosecutor referring to the same item of Section 31 (1) or to Section 31 (2).

(2) If the defendant, defence counsel, the victim, the private accuser, the private party or the representative of the victim, the private accuser or the private party repeatedly announces an unfounded ground for exclusion in respect of the same prosecutor, a disciplinary penalty may be imposed on them in the decision on the denial of the exclusion.

 

Section 34 [98] The provisions regarding the exclusion of the prosecutor shall also apply to the exclusion of the investigator of the prosecutor’s office, deputy prosecutor, draftsman of the prosecutor’s office, representative of the prosecutor’s office and the keeper of the minutes.

 

Chapter IV THE INVESTIGATING AUTHORITY

Function of the investigating authority

Section 35 (1) The investigating authority conducts the investigation upon the order of the prosecutor or independently.

(2) [99]The investigating authority shall conduct the investigation or perform certain investigative actions independently, if the criminal offence was detected by, or the denunciation filed with, the investigating authority itself, or the offence came to the notice of the investigating authority in another way.

The investigating authorities

Section 36 (1) The general investigating authority is the police.

(2)[100] The National Tax and Customs Office shall conduct the investigation in the following criminal offences[101]:

a)[102] violation of international legal obligations (Section 261/A of the Criminal Code), abuse of product or service of military technology, as well as of dual-use goods  (Section 263/B (1) c) of the Criminal Code), foreign trade without a licence (298 Section of the Criminal Code), furthering misuse of excise duty (Section 311/B of the Criminal Code);

b)[103] false marking of goods (Section 296 of the Criminal Code), usurpation (Section 329 of the Criminal Code), violation of copyright or associated rights (Section 329/A of the Criminal Code), evasion of technical measures guaranteeing copyright or associated rights (Section 329/B of the Criminal Code), forgery of data relating to the management of rights (Section 329/C of the Criminal Code) and violation of rights protected by industrial patent law [Section 329/D of the Criminal Code],;

c)[104] violation of the orders of public accountancy (Section 289 of the Criminal Code), fraudulent trading (Section 290 of the Criminal Code), misuse of social insurance, social or other allowances (Section 309 of the Criminal Code), budget fraud (Section 310 of the Criminal Code), failure of  monitoring and supervisory obligations committed in connection with budget fraud fraud(Section 310/A of the Criminal Code), receiving of stolen goods, if it involves non-Community goods withheld from customs inspection or goods not subjected to excise taxation (Section 326 of the Criminal Code), money laundering (Sections 303 and 303/A of the Criminal Code), failure f the registration with the police concerning money laundering (Section 303/B of the Criminal Code),

  1. d) forgery of public deeds (Section 274 of the Criminal Code), forgery of private deeds (Section 276 of the Criminal Code), forgery of a unique identification mark (Section 277/A of the Criminal Code) and forgery of stamps (Section 307 of the Criminal Code), if committed in connection with the criminal offences specified in items a) to c) above,

e)[105].

(3) [106]

(4)[107] The investigation in the criminal offences committed by Hungarian citizens or – with the exception of the cases set forth in Sections 3 (2) and 4 of the Criminal Code – any other person on a Hungarian commercial vessel or civil aircraft, the commanding officer of the vessel or the aircraft shall have the power to apply the regulations pertaining to the investigating authority.

(5)[108] If the conditions set forth by separate laws are met – with the permission of the Supreme Prosecutor –  the investigating authorities shall set up or take part in a joint task force to proceed in a specific case or in specific group of cases, with the participation of the investigating authorities of the Member States of the European Union, furthermore with the participation of European Police Office (EUROPOL).

Competence and jurisdiction of the investigating authority

Section 37 (1) The competence and jurisdiction of the investigating authorities is stipulated in the relevant separate laws. [109]

(2)[110] In the event of a conflict of competence among the investigating authorities listed in Section 36 (1) to (3), or, if an offence falling within the competence of the National Tax and Customs Office combined with an offence falling in the competence of the police and the National Tax and Customs Office can not have competence for this offence, moreover the procedure cannot be practically separated, the acting investigating authority shall be designated by the competent prosecutor.  The prosecutor may also designate as the acting investigating authority an investigating authority which, pursuant to Section 36 (2) and (3) would not otherwise be competent in the investigation of the offence.

(3)[111] Upon the agreement of their heads and the consent of the prosecutor, the investigating authorities may set up a joint task force to investigate a specific case or a specific group of cases.

Exclusion of a member of the investigating authority

Section 38 (1) No one may act as a member of the investigating authority in criminal proceedings,

  1. a) who has acted as a judge in the case, or a relative of a judge acting or has acted in the case,
  2. b) who is or has been involved in the case as a defendant or a defence counsel, or a victim, a private accuser, a substitute private accuser, private party or the representatives acting or has acted thereof, further, the relatives of the above,
  3. c) who is or has been involved in the case as a witness or expert,
  4. d) who can not be expected to form an objective opinion for other reasons.

(2) The member of the investigating authority having participated in the investigation of the underlying offence may not participate in the investigation conducted during the re-trial procedure.

(3) It shall not constitute a ground for exclusion, if the member of the investigating authority has filed a denunciation on a criminal offence coming to his cognisance in the course of discharging his duties.

(4) The investigating authority may not act in the case, when a ground for exclusion regulated in Section 38 (1) exists in respect of its chief.  If the ground for exclusion occurs in respect of the chief of the investigating authority with nation-wide competence, the investigation shall be conducted by the prosecutor’s office.

 

Section 39 (1) If the ground for exclusion is not reported by the member of the investigating authority himself, such member may proceed in the case until the motion is given effect, without, however, having the power to apply coercive measures.

(2) The decision on the exclusion of a member of the investigating authority and the head of the investigating authority shall be adopted by the head of the investigating authority and the head of the superior investigating authority, respectively. The decision on the exclusion of the head of the investigating authority with nation-wide competence shall be adopted by the competent prosecutor.

 

Section 40[112] In other respects, to the exclusion of a member of the investigating authority the provisions set forth in Sections 32 (1) to (4) and 33 shall apply as appropriate, however, it shall be the prosecutor’s right to impose the disciplinary penalty.

 

Section 41 The provisions regarding the exclusion of the members of the investigating authority shall also apply to the exclusion of the keeper of the minutes.

 

V Chapter PERSONS PARTICIPATING IN CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS

Section 42 [113] In addition to those listed in Chapters II–IV, the following persons participate in criminal proceedings: the defendant, the counsel for the defendant, the private accuser, the substitute private accuser, the private party, other interested parties as well as the representatives thereof and the aides.

The defendant

Section 43 (1) The defendant is the person against whom criminal proceedings have been instituted.  The defendant is called suspect in the course of the investigation, accused in the course of the court procedure and convict after the final imposition of the sentence, or the definitive imposition of the reprimand, probation or corrective education.

(2) The defendant is entitled to

  1. a) receive information on the suspicion, on the charge and any changes therein,
  2. b) – unless provided otherwise by this Act – be present at the procedural actions, and inspect the documents affecting him or her in the course of the procedure,
  3. c) be granted sufficient time and opportunity for preparing his or her defence,
  4. d) present facts to his or her defence at any stage of the procedure, and to make motions and objections,
  5. e) file for legal remedy,
  6. f) receive information from the prosecutor and the investigating authority concerning his or her rights and obligations during the criminal proceedings.

(3) [114] The detained defendant is entitled to

  1. a) contact his or her defence counsel, and, in the case of foreign citizens, the representative of the consulate of his or her native country and communicate with them both in writing and verbally without control,

b)[115] conduct verbal communication with his or her relatives personally under supervision, and written communication under control, based on the decision of the prosecutor and the court before and after the bill of indictment is filed, respectively.

(4) Without prejudice to the right set forth in subsection (2) c) above, the defendant shall be granted the possibility for making preparations without causing unreasonable difficulties for conducting the procedure.

(5) [116] The defendant residing in the territory of of Hungary shall report his or her place of residence or place of stay and any change therein to the court, prosecutor or investigating authority within 3 working days after moving, which conducts criminal proceedings against him or her. Unless this Act stipulates other legal consequences, upon the failure to report the above, in addition to imposing a disciplinary penalty, the defendant may be obliged to pay the resulting costs. The defendant shall be advised thereof at the first interrogation during the investigation and at the delivery of the indictment during the court procedure.

(6) [117]When the relative (heir) of the defendant is granted the right of motion by this Act, the rights of the defendant shall apply, as appropriate, to the rights of the relatives (heirs).  Upon the death of a defendant was a member of a church and was prevented from entering into marriage due to the order of the church which he belonged to or due to an oath made, in the absence of a relative (heir), his principal at the relevant church shall have the rights of a relative in direct line.

The counsel for the defendant

Section 44 [118](1)[119] The counsel for the defendant may be a lawyer acting upon a power of attorney or an official appointment, or rather in case of conditions defined in separate laws European lawyer may act.

(2) More than one counsels for the defence may act on behalf of a single defendant.  In the event that powers of attorney are given to several counsels for defence – unless the power of attorney indicates otherwise – any of the assigned defence counsels may act on behalf of the defendant at procedural actions or upon making a legal statement.

(3) If several counsels act on behalf of a single defendant, the official documents – including the subpoena and notices – shall be served on the counsel of record, and any statement concerning legal remedy or pleading may only be made by the counsel of record or the defence counsel designated by him.  Until the counsels unanimously denominate another person, the counsel of record shall be the one who had first submitted his power of attorney.

(4) The same counsel may act on behalf of several defendants, provided that the defendants do not have adverse interests.

(5)[120] Apprentice lawyers shall not act as a defence counsel, beside a counsel or as a deputy of the counsel at the public session as well as on the trial of the Court of Justice, the High Court of Appeals or the Supreme Court.

 

Section 45 (1) The following shall not act as defence counsel:

  1. a) the victim, the private prosecutor, the substitute private prosecutor, the private party as well as the representatives and relatives thereof,
  2. b) who acted in the case as a judge, prosecutor or a member of the investigating authority, or who is a relative of the judge, prosecutor or a member of the investigating authority acted or is acting in the case,
  3. c) whose conduct was against the interests of the defendant, or whose interest is against those of the defendant,
  4. d) who is or was involved in the case as an expert or consultant,

e)[121] who is or was involved in the case as a witness, unless the person could not be heard pursuant to Section 81 (1) b) or refused to give testimony pursuant to Section 82 (1) c).

f)[122] who is or has been involved in the case as a mediator

g)[123] who is involved in the case as a defendant.

(2) The lawyer acting in the interest of a witness cannot act simultaneously as a defence counsel.

(3) The court decides about the exclusion of the defence counsel.

 

Section 46 The participation of a defence counsel is statutory in criminal proceedings, if

a)[124] the offence sentenced by imprisonment of 5 years or longer in accordance with the law,

b)[125] the defendant is detained,

c)[126] the defendant is disabled in hearing, suffers from deafblindness, blind, mute or – regardless of his legal responsibility – mentally disabled,

d)[127] the defendant does not speak the Hungarian language or the language of the procedure,

e)[128] the defendant is unable to defend himself personally for any other reasons,

f)[129] it is expressly prescribed by this Act.

 

Section 47 (1) [130]A defence counsel may primarily be retained by the defendant.  A power of attorney may also be conferred by legal representative or a relative of legal age of the defendant, or, in the case of foreign citizens, the officer at the consulate of their native country.  The defendant shall be notified of the retainer.

(2)[131] The power of attorney shall be submitted to the court, prosecutor or investigating authority before which the criminal proceeding is held at the time of conferring the power of attorney.  The retained defence counsel may exercise his procedural rights after submitting the power of attorney.

(3)[132] If the defendant is detained, the institution executing the detention shall be notified immediately about the identity and contact details of the retained defence counsel by the court, prosecutor or investigating authority before which the proceeding is held.

(4)[133] The defendant may withdraw the power of attorney, regardless of whether the counsel of defence was retained by himself or another person.

(5)[134] If the defence counsel must be present at the trial and the retained counsel has not arranged a substitution for himself, the court shall appoint a substitute defence counsel. The defence counsel appointed by the court is entitled to get remuneration and refunding of costs in accordance with the provisions regarding the appointed defence counsel. The retained counsel shall be obliged to reimburse – with the exceptions defined by this Act – these costs.

 

Section 48 (1) [135] The court, the prosecutor, or the investigating authority shall officially appoint a defence counsel, if defence is statutory and the defendant has not retained a defence counsel.  The defendant shall be notified of the person of the defence counsel after the official appointment thereof.  In the case of Section 46 b), the defence counsel shall be appointed not later than the first questioning of the defendant. The defence counsel must be informed about the place of the detention of the defendant, moreover of the proposed place and time of the questioning by the resolution about the official appointment.

(2) The court, the prosecutor or the investigating authority shall also appoint a defence counsel, if defence is not statutory, but the defendant requests the appointment of a counsel on the ground of inability to make arrangements for his defence due to his financial circumstances.

(3)[136] If it seems to be necessary according to the interest of the defendant, at the request of those listed in Section 47 (1) or ex officio, the court, the prosecutor or the investigating authority shall appoint a defence counsel.

(4)[137] If the defendant or an authorized proxy retains a defence counsel, the court, the prosecutor or the investigating authority revokes the appointment thereof. The official appointment shall lose effect by the revocation

(5)[138] The appointment of a defence counsel shall not be subject to legal remedy; however, the defendant – with justification – may request the appointment of another counsel.  The request shall be judged by the court, prosecutor or investigating authority before which the proceeding is held.

(6)[139] In justified cases the appointed defence counsel may request his/her absolution of the appointment. The request shall be judged by the court, prosecutor or investigating authority before which the proceeding is held.

(7)[140] The defence counsel shall forthwith inform the defendant, as well as the court, prosecutor or investigating authority before which the proceeding is held of the person acting on behalf of him/her if the defence counsel employs an assistant after his/her appointment.

(8)[141] If the defendant is detained, the institution executing the detention shall be notified immediately about the identity and contact details of the appointed defence counsel by the authority appointed him/her.

(9)[142] The appointed defender shall be entitled to remuneration for appearing before the court, the prosecutor or the investigating authority when summoned or notified as well as for studying the files of the case, furthermore, for counselling the detained defendant at the institution executing the detention, as well as he/she is entitled to reimbursement of his verified out-of-pocket expenses incurred in connection with his actions.[143]

 

Section 49 (1)[144] The appointment and – unless indicated otherwise therein – the power of attorney shall remain valid until the final conclusion of the criminal proceedings, but shall also extend to retrial, review and special procedures.

(2)[145] With the exception of the event regulated in subsection (1) above, the appointment of the defence counsel will lose effect only upon the decision of the acting court, prosecutor or investigating authority, even if the legal cause for the appointment has ceased to exist.

 

Section 50 (1) The defence counsel shall

  1. a) establish contact with the defendant without delay,
  2. b) use all legal means of defence in the interest of the defendant in due time,
  3. c) inform the defendant of the legal means of defence and his rights,
  4. d) urge the reconnaissance of facts aggravating and mitigating the liability of the defendant,

e)[146] take care of his substitution if he is unable to attend – except if a beforehand not known and unavoidable obstacle arose – in case the counsel is obliged to be present at the procedural action,

f)[147] inform the court, the prosecutor and the investigating authority taking actions about the hindrance – if it is possible –  before the beginning of the procedural action in case the counsel is obliged to be present at the procedural action and he cannot arrange substitution due to a beforehand not known and unavoidable obstacle.

(2)[148] In favour of the defence, the defence counsel may make enquiries, and may obtain and collect data in compliance with the law.

(3) With the exception of the rights attached exclusively to the person of the defendant, the rights of the defendant may also be exercised by his counsel independently.

The victim

Section 51 (1) The victim is the party who’s right or lawful interest has been violated or jeopardised by the criminal offence. [149]

(2) The victim shall be entitled to

  1. a) be present at the procedural actions (unless provided otherwise by this Act) and to inspect the documents affecting him or her in the course of the procedure,
  2. b) make motions and objections at any stage of the procedure,
  3. c) receive information from the court, the prosecutor and the investigating authority concerning his or her rights and obligations during the criminal proceedings,
  4. d) file for legal remedy in the cases specified in this Act.

(3)[150] Victims who died, either prior to, or following the institution of criminal proceedings, may be replaced by a relative who lies in direct line of descent, a spouse, life partner or legal representative who may exercise the rights specified in subsection (2) above.  Upon the death of a victim who was a member of a church and was prevented from entering into marriage due to the order of the church which he belonged to or due to an oath made by him, in the absence of a relative (heir), his principal at the relevant church shall have the rights of a relative in direct line.

 

The private prosecutor

Section 52 (1) Unless provided otherwise by this Act, in the case of an assault, invasion of privacy, violation of secrecy of correspondence, libel, defamation and irreverence prosecution shall be represented by the victim as a private prosecutor, provided that the offender may be prosecuted by private motion.

(2) In the event of the death of a private prosecutor he may be replaced by a relative within 30 days.

(3) [151] In case of a proceeding is instituted based on the report filed by either party because of mutual assault, libel or defamation – and there is a close connection between the personal and real aspects of the actions – the other party filing a private motion in compliance with this Act shall act as a recriminator.  The provisions in this Act pertaining to the private prosecutor shall also apply to the recriminator.

(4)[152] Libel and defamation committed against an official person in the course or because of his official proceedings as well as committed against an authority in connection with its official operations shall be prosecuted by public accusation.

The substitute private prosecutor

Section 53 (1) [153] In the cases specified herein, the victim may act as a substitute private prosecutor, if

  1. a) the prosecutor or the investigating authority rejected the denunciation, or terminated the investigation,
  2. b) the prosecutor decided not to file formal charges only in respect of a part of the indictment,
  3. c) the prosecutor dropped the charges,

d)[154] the prosecutor did not establish an offence which is subject to public prosecution as a result of the investigation, therefore the prosecutor does not present indictment or take over  – as a result of the investigation during a proceeding initiated by a private accuser – the representation of the charges,

e)[155] the prosecutor dropped the charges at the hearing because the offence is not considered to be a subject to public prosecution.

(2) In the event of the death of the substitute private prosecutor, he may be replaced – within 30 days – by a relative who lies in direct line of descent, a spouse, life partner or legal representative.

(3)[156] In the event of the termination of a legal person acted as substitute private prosecutor it may be replaced – within 30 days counted from the time the succession took place – by its successor.

The private party

Section 54 (1) The private party is the victim enforcing a civil claim in criminal proceedings.

(2) The private party may enforce the civil claim against the defendant which arose as a consequence of the act being the subject of the accusation.

(3) The fact that the victim did not take action as a private party shall not preclude the possibility of enforcing a civil claim by other legal means.

(4)[157] Under the conditions specified in the Code of Civil Procedure[158], the civil claim may also be enforced by the prosecutor.

(5) [159]

(6)[160] If the victim died, his heir may take action as a private party, however, the heir shall only be entitled to the rights regulated in Section 51 inasmuch as the enforcement of the civil claim is concerned.

(7)[161] Procedural issues related to the enforcement of a civil claim not regulated in this Act shall be governed by the rules of civil procedures, provided that such rules are not contradictory to this Act or the nature of the criminal proceedings.  The defendant may not enforce a claim against the private party, nor may he file an offset claim. The court may not approve the agreement of the defendant and the private party.

(8)[162] The decision directing the enforcement of a civil claim to other legal means shall not be subject to an appeal.  The court may not declare that the part of the sentence pertaining to the civil claim is subject to preliminary execution.  The civil claim filed in the procedure of first instance may not be extended or its amount raised in the procedure of second instance.

Other interested parties

Section 55 (1)[163] Anyone whose right or lawful interest may be directly affected by the decision, which is made in the course of criminal proceedings, may make motions and objections in connection with the related issues, may lodge an appeal against the provision of the decision concerning him and may attend the trial.

(2)[164] In proceedings involving a criminal offence subject to confiscation or forfeiture of property, to the rights of other interested parties whose property may be confiscated as well as to the rights of the owners of the property which may be ordered to be forfeited, the rights of the victim shall apply [Section 51 (2) ].

(3)[165] In the case of subsection (2), if the court ordered confiscation or forfeiture of property, other interested parties may enforce their ownership claim by other legal means after the order has become final.

Representatives

Section 56[166] (1)[167] Unless this Act stipulates the obligation of personal cooperation, the victim, the private prosecutor and other interested parties may exercise their respective rights by way of a representative.  Such representative may be a lawyer or a relative of full age, or acting based upon an authorisation.

(2) Incompetent and partially incompetent victims, private accusers and other interested parties shall be represented by their legal representatives, in the event of a conflict of interests the provisions of the Civil Code shall apply.  In the case specified in this Act the temporary guardian shall also be entitled to act as a representative.

(3) Government bodies and economic organisations may also be represented by an authorised representative or a member or employee who is entitled to handle administrative issues.

(4)[168] Substitute private accusers shall be represented by a lawyer unless they are natural persons having taken an examination in law.

(5)[169] Representation of private parties shall be governed by the rules of civil procedures.

(6)[170] No one may act as a representative who has been validly prohibited from participation in public affairs. A non-lawyer relative of full age shall attach a certificate of clean criminal record to his or her authorisation.

 

Section 57[171] (1)[172] A power of attorney may be issued by the victim – or, upon the death of the victim, the persons specified in Section 51 (3) –, the private accuser, other interested parties, as well as the relatives of full age thereof, in the case stipulated in Section 56 (2) the legal representative and the child welfare agency, and in the case of Section 56 (3) the member and the employee of the government body or economic organisation vested with the right of representation.  Relatives of full age may be authorised personally by the victim, the private accuser and the other interested party.

(2) Powers of attorney and authorisations shall be made in writing and filed prior to the first procedural action made by the representative.  Representatives failing to file the power of attorney of authorisation may be ordered to rectify the situation on one occasion, setting a deadline not exceeding 8 days.  The deadline may exceed the time limit for a private motion.

(3)[173] The organization defined by law shall authorize a legal aid counsel to represent victims, private accusers, private parties and other interested parties if the conditions set forth by the Act on legal aid have met. If the court learns that the condition of authorization of a legal aid counsel have met regarding any of the above written parties, the court shall inform the party in question that he or she can ask for the authorization of a legal aid counsel. Furthermore, the court may also point out to the prosecutor if the prosecutor is entitled to initiate a suit under the Code of Civil Procedures.

 

Section 58 (1) If a criminal offence has several victims, they may select from among themselves the natural person or legal entity, as appropriate, who will exercise the victim’s rights.

(2) If several parties are entitled to lay or represent a private prosecution or substitute private prosecution, the person of the representative shall be decided by way of an agreement.  In the absence of such an agreement, the court shall designate the representative from among them.

(3) [174] In the course of the procedure, a non-profit organisation falling within the scope of the Act on Non-Profit Organisations [175] established to represent the interests of the victims or groups of victims may act as the representative of the victim, or – if the criminal offence has several victims or a larger, indefinable group of persons is to be regarded as victims – the victims.

 

The aides [176]

Section 59 [177] The aides may take actions defined by this Act in the interest of the defendant, the witness and other persons defined by this Act.

 

 

 

Chapter VI

REGULATIONS ON PROCEDURAL ACTIONS

 

Title I

GENERAL RULES FOR ACTIONS TAKEN BY THE COURT, THE PROSECUTOR AND THE INVESTIGATING AUTHORITY DURING PROCEEDINGS

 

Section 60 (1)[178].When procedural actions are being taken the dignity of the human being, the personal right of the concerned parties and the integrity of a deceased person shall be respected, and it shall be guaranteed that the data regarding private life will not become public without need.

(2)[179] If this Act gives permission to restrict the constitutional rights – in the event of coercive measures – of the person involved, such action may be ordered, even if other conditions have been met, only when the objective of the proceedings could not be attained by other actions requiring lesser restrictions.

 

 

Section 61 [180]The court and the prosecutor may assign the notary of the local government or other authority to perform the procedural action required for the criminal proceeding; such assignment shall be complied with promptly by the authority.

 

Section 62 Prior to performing the procedural action, the court, the prosecutor and the investigating authority shall inform and advise the person involved in the action of his/her rights and obligations.

 

Section 63 (1) Personal data of individuals participating in the proceedings may only be inspected and managed by the court, the prosecutor, the investigating authority, the expert, and the authority consulted by the court or the prosecutor, in order to perform their respective duties set forth herein. The scope of personal data of the defendant of the criminal records and the rules of managing personal data are stipulated by a separate law.[181]

(2) The personal data of individuals participating in the criminal proceedings shall only be recorded in the minutes to the required extent.

(3) Unless otherwise provided herein, personal data recorded in the course of criminal proceedings may not be deleted.

(4)[182] The personal data provided in the course of the criminal procedure may be used for statistical purposes in a manner that the person can not be identified.

 

Measures to be taken for crime prevention and initiation of other procedures

 

Section 63/A[183] (1)[184] The court, the prosecutor and the investigating authority shall inform the organization of the state or the local government which is entitled to take actions regarding crime prevention about the reasons and conditions which enabled the commitment of the criminal offence and was established in the course of the criminal procedure if it is necessary, right away, but not later than the time of the conclusion of its procedure.

(2)[185]If the court, the prosecutor or the investigating authority establishes a fact or detects a condition which gives reason to initiate or conduct further judicial, tax, administrative or other procedure ex officio, the court, the prosecutor or the investigating authority shall inform the body entitled to initiate or conduct such procedures.

(3) The information shall include the historical findings of fact which is necessary to initiate and conclude the procedure, and the personal data of the witness and the accused provided in the course of the criminal procedure only if the addressee is entitled to handle these data.

(4) According to subsection (3) the personal data of the victim may be forwarded only if he or she was heard as a witness or the omission of his or her testimony did not take place due to obstacles defined by Section 81 (1) a) or b) or Section 81 (2).

(5) The measures specified by subsection (1) and (2) may not be appealed.

 

 

Title II

GENERAL RULES OF PROCEDURE

 

Deadlines

 

Section 64 (1) The time available for the performance of various procedural actions (deadline) and the time that should pass between two procedural actions (time interval) is stipulated by this Act; the deadline shall be established by the court, the prosecutor or the investigating authority pursuant to this Act. The deadline shall be specified in hours, days, months or years.

(2) In the event the deadline is prescribed in hours, each hour started shall be regarded as a whole hour. In the event the deadline is established in days, the day on which the circumstance causing the commencement of the period falls (starting day) shall be disregarded. Deadlines specified in months or year shall expire on the day with the same number as the starting day, or, if no such day exists in the month, on the last day of the month.

(3) If the deadline expires on a holiday, it shall be deemed to expire on the next working day.

(4) The deadline for applications and requests submitted to the court, the prosecutor and the investigating authority, and the deadline for procedural actions that may be performed before the said, shall expire at the end of the official hours. If a document is mailed on the last day of the time period then it shall not be regarded as a missed deadline.

(5) The time determined for performing a procedural action is the closing date. The closing date shall be established by the court, the prosecutor or the investigating authority.

 

Procedure out of turn[186]

 

Section 64/A[187] The criminal procedure shall be conducted out of turn

  1. in case the victim of crimes against life, limb and health (Title I. of Chapter XII of the Criminal Code) and crimes against marriage, family, youth and sexual morals (Chapter XIV of the Criminal Code) was a minor,
  2. in addition to subsection a), if the victim of other violent crimes against a person was a minor and the interest of the minor gives reason to conduct the criminal procedure as soon as it is possible, in particular, if the crime endangered significantly the bodily, mental and moral development of the victim or if the defendant nurses, supervises or looks after the victim or otherwise lives close to the victim.
  3. [188] in prominent cases in accordance with Section 554/B.

 

Justification

 

Section 65 (1) Unless provided otherwise herein, in the event the defendant, the defence counsel, the victim, the private accuser, the private party, the substitute private accuser, the witness or the expert, or, in the case of court proceedings, the prosecutor has missed the deadline or closing date, or the person entitled to legal remedy missed the deadline through no fault of their own, a justification may be put forward.

(2) The application for justification may be submitted within 8 days following the last day of the deadline or closing date missed. In the event the default comes to the notice of the defaulting party at some later time, or the obstacle has been eliminated subsequently, the period for submitting the application for justification shall commence on the day of recognising the default or on the day of eliminating the obstacle. No application for justification may be filed over the period of 6 months.

(3) The application for justification shall state the reason of the default and the circumstances supporting that the default was not imputable to the applicant.  In the event of missing a deadline, simultaneously with submitting the application for justification, the defaulted action shall be rectified.

(4) The application for justification shall be given a fair judgement.

(5) An application for justification has no delaying effect on the progress of the proceedings or on the enforcement of the decision.  If the application for justification seems to justify that the defaulting party is not culpable, or that the defaulted action has been or will be rectified, the procedural action or the enforcement of the decision may be suspended.

 

Section 66 (1) The application for justification shall be judged by the same court, prosecutor or investigating authority, which had prescribed the deadline or the closing date.  In the event that a deadline for legal remedy was missed, the application will be judged by the party entitled to decide in respect of the legal remedy.

(2) The application for justification shall be rejected without examining its merit, if

  1. a) the justification is prohibited herein,
  2. b) the application has not been submitted on time,
  3. c) if a deadline was missed and the applicant failed to recover the omission simultaneously with the submission of the application, even though it would have been possible.

(3)[189] If the court, the prosecutor or the investigating authority accedes to the application for justification, the action subsequently made by the applicant shall be deemed as if it had been taken within the defaulted deadline, and the procedural action taken on the defaulted closing date shall be duly repeated. Pending on the result of such repeated action, a decision shall be made on upholding or revoking – either fully or partially – the previous procedural action.

(4) The decision acceding to an application for justification may not be appealed.

(5)[190] The justification filed and rejected in the course of the mediation process defined by separate law shall be decided by the prosecutor prior to the indictment, and by the court after the indictment has been filed with the implicit application of subsection (1)-(4).

 

 

Subpoena and notice

 

Section 67 (1)[191] Unless provided otherwise herein, the court, the prosecutor and the investigating authority shall serve a subpoena on the person whose presence is statutory for the procedural action and serve a notice on those whose presence is not statutory but permitted by law.  The person summoned by the subpoena is compelled to appear before the court, prosecutor or investigating authority having sent the subpoena.

(2)[192] As a rule, subpoenas and notices are made in writing, or by way of verbal communication upon personal attendance before the court, the prosecutor or investigating authority.  The subpoena and notice shall state:

  1. a) when and where the recipient of the subpoena is compelled to appear and in what capacity,
  2. b) when and where the recipient of the notice may appear and in what capacity,
  3. c) the probable duration (in hours) of the procedural actions underlying the subpoena and notice,
  4. d) a warning of the consequences of absence,
  5. e) after filing the indictment, the name of the accused and the description of the criminal action underlying the proceedings.

(3)[193] If justified by the short time available, or, in the case of notices, the substantial number of those involved requires so, a subpoena or notice may also be communicated in a way or by means other than those referred to in subsection (2), particularly by telephone, fax or computer. Should the excessive number of those concerned require so, notices may be published in the form of a press announcement.

(4) In each case, the recipient shall be informed of the court, prosecutor’s office or investigating authority having sent the subpoena or notice; the fact that a subpoena or notice was served shall be recorded in the case files.

(5)[194] The person summoned by the subpoena may be requested to bring, in addition to the documentation regarding the case, notes or other evidence that may be used as evidence.

(6) Written subpoenas and notices shall be sent in a sealed envelope.  In the event of an announcement in the press, the name of the persons involved may not be published.

 

Section 67/A[195] (1) The court, the prosecutor’s office, the investigating authority and the defence councel shall forward their written communications through a central system determined by separate laws.

(2) The court, the prosecutor’s office, the investigating authority and the attorney or lawyer acting as a legal representative shall forward their written communications through a central system determined by separate laws.

 

Section 68 (1)[196] As a rule, subpoenas and notices may be served on soldiers [Section 122 (1) of the Criminal Code] through their commanding officer.  The subpoena or notice may also be delivered directly to the soldier, with the simultaneous notification of the commanding officer, if the recipient has no commanding officer at the location of the sender’s seat and the delay would endanger the performance of the procedural action. In case of any crime committed by a permanent staff member of the Hungarian Defence Forces the commanding officer entitled by his official status to decide on the suspension shall be informed through the commanding officer about the initiation of the criminal proceedings simultaneously with the serving of the subpoenas to the questioning of the member in question as a suspect.

(2) The ward of a minor shall be notified on the subpoena served together with a request to ensure the attendance of the minor.  Subpoenas and notices shall be served on minors under fourteen years of age through their ward.  The legal representative of the minor shall also be notified of the fact that a subpoena or notice has been served.

 

Consequences of defaults related to subpoenas

 

Section 69 (1) If the defendant, the witness or the expert fails to attend in spite of having received a subpoena, and fails to provide well-grounded justification thereof either in advance — upon gaining cognisance of the obstacle — or, if this is no longer possible, immediately after the obstacle has ceased to exist, or leaves the procedural action without permission[197],

  1. a) a writ may be issued to bring the defendant to court,
  2. b) a writ may be issued to bring the witness to court, or a disciplinary penalty may be imposed on him/her,

c)[198] a disciplinary penalty may be imposed on the expert.

(1a)[199] If the defence counsel fails to attend at a procedural action where his presence is obligatory and he does not arrange for replacement, a disciplinary penalty may be imposed and he shall be ordered to reimburse the costs resulted by him.

(1b)[200] The legal consequences set forth in subsection (1a) shall not be applied if the defence counsel met his obligations determined by Section 50 (1) f) or he failed to meet this obligation due to the nature of the beforehand not known and unavoidable obstacle. If it can be established afterwards that the obstacle was known beforehand and avoidable, the legal consequences set forth by subsection (1a) shall be applicable.

(2)[201] Should the defendant, the defence counsel, the witness or the expert appear, through the fault of their own, in a condition preventing their hearing, or in a state in which they are not able to meet their obligations in respect of the proceedings, a writ may be issued to bring the defendant to court for the next hearing or for enforcing the fulfilment of their respective obligations, a disciplinary penalty may be imposed or a writ may be issued to bring the witness to court, or a disciplinary penalty may be imposed on the defence counsel and the expert. The above individuals shall be ordered to cover the costs caused by their conduct.

(3)[202] In the cases specified in subsection (1) above, the defendant, the witness and the expert shall be compelled through an order to reimburse the costs resulting from their absence or leaving.

(4) In the case of default by solders summoned in compliance with Section 68. (1), the provisions set forth in subsection (1)–(3) shall be applied.

(5) If a minor summoned in compliance with Section 68. (2) fails to attend, and his/her ward fails to verify that he/she is not culpable for the absence of the minor, a disciplinary penalty may be imposed on the ward and he/she may be compelled through an order to reimburse the costs resulting from the minor’s absence.

(6) If the prosecutor fails to appear at the time and place stated in the notice of the court at a procedural action where his/her presence is statutory, the court shall advise the superior prosecutor thereon.

(7) The consequences of defaults related to subpoenas are only applicable if the subpoena complies with the provisions set forth in Section 67-68., and the service of the subpoena has met the requirements stipulated herein and in the specific law as well as other regulations.

 

Delivery

 

Section 70 (1) Official documents of the court, the prosecutor or the investigating authority may be served on (delivered to) the addressee in the following manner:

  1. a) personally,
  2. b) by mail,[203]
  3. c) in the form of an announcement,
  4. d) by the delivery-man of the court, the prosecutor’s office or the investigating authority,
  5. e) through an international legal aid,

f)[204] as determined by separate laws.

(2) The addressee may also receive the document at the sender’s place.

(3)[205] With the exception of the subpoena, documents addressed to a victim or other interested parties having a proxy, shall be delivered to the proxy.

(4)[206] Delivery shall be deemed to have been duly performed, if the official document was received by the addressee or other person on behalf of the addressee, as specified by a separate legal regulation. The official document shall be considered to have been duly delivered, if its receipt has been refused, or if it was received without having signed the delivery voucher (acknowledgement of receipt card).

(5)[207] In the case of a defendant who is residing at an unknown place, official documents shall be served in the form of an announcement.  In such cases the announcement shall state the address of the court, the prosecutor’s office or the investigating authority where the document may be taken over by the addressee.

(6)[208] The announcement shall be posted on the notice board of the competent court, prosecutor’s office or local government of the last known domestic address of residence or place of stay of the addressee (if any) for 15 days.  The document shall be deemed to have been delivered on the fifteenth day following its posting at the court, prosecutor’s office or investigating authority.

(7)[209] Official documents mailed with a delivery voucher (acknowledgement of receipt card) shall be deemed to have been duly served on the fifth working day following the second attempt of delivery, if delivery failed because the addressee did not take over the document.

(8)[210] Documents to be served on soldiers [Section 122. (1) of the Criminal Code] shall be delivered through their commanding officer.  Delivery may also be made directly to the soldier, with the simultaneous notification of the commanding officer, if the recipient has no commanding officer at the location of the sender’s seat and the delay in delivery would endanger the success of the proceedings, or violate the soldier’s right or appreciable interest. If the military service of the soldier is terminated during the criminal proceedings, delivery shall be governed by the general rules.

(9)[211] If the addressee is under arrest, documents to be served on him/her shall be delivered through the chief warden of the penal institution – in the case of a subpoena and a notice, simultaneously with a writ to bring the defendant to court addressed to the penal institution.

Section 70/A[212] (1) The addressee may request in order to disprove the presumption of delivery defined by Section 70 (7) if

  1. the delivery took place by violating the law regarding the delivery of official documents, or
  2. the addressee did not receive the documents for reasons other than those defined by subsection a), and it was not his fault either.

(2) The reasons and conditions proving the infringement of the delivery or in case of subsection (1) b) due to which it is likely that it was not the fault of the addressee shall be stated in such a  request.

(3) The request for the disproval of the presumption of delivery shall be decided by the court, prosecutor or investigating authority which was acting in the procedure when the delivery took place. The rules of the application for justification (Sections 65 and 66) shall be applicable to the presentation and adjudication of the request but the missed action does not need to be recovered simultaneously with the submission of the request.

(4) If the defendant, the defence counsel, the private prosecutor or the substitute private prosecutor files the request for the disproval of the presumption of delivery and the court, the prosecutor or the investigating authority approves of the request the consequences of the presumed delivery are of no effect and the delivery, the already taken measures and procedural actions shall be repeated to the necessary extent. As compared to the result of the repeated actions a decision needs to be passed on sustaining effective or repealing partly or fully the former procedural actions.

(5) In case of a request filed by addressees other than those enumerated in subsection (4) and it is approved by the court, the prosecutor or the investigating authority, the legal consequences of the delivery prevailing concerning the addressee cannot be applied and the delivery shall be repeated.

 

Copying a document produced in the course of the proceedings[213]

 

Section 70/B[214] (1) At the request of the individuals participating in the criminal proceedings, the court, prosecutor or investigating authority processing the case shall issue a copy of documents produced during in the course of proceedings – including documents obtained by the court, the prosecutor or the investigating authority, as well as documents submitted or attached by the participants in the criminal proceedings – within eight days of the presentation of such request, in compliance with subsections (2)–(7).

(2) Until the conclusion of the investigation, the suspect, the defence counsel, the legal representative of a minor, the victim and the representative thereof may receive a copy of the expert opinion and of documents produced on investigation procedures where their presence is authorized by this Act; or of other documents, provided that this does not interfere with the interest of the investigation.  The victim may receive a copy of other documents produced in the course of investigation after being heard as a witness.

(3) The denouncer – unless he falls under any category of persons listed under subsection (2) above – may only receive a copy of the denunciation.

(4) If the documents referred to in subsection (2) above are produced after the hearing of the defendant under Section 179. (1), or the official appointment or authorisation of the defence counsel, the defendant may receive a copy after the delivery of the subpoena for the first hearing, and the defence counsel after receiving the decision on official appointment or filing the authorisation.

(5) After the conclusion of the investigation

  1. a) the defendant, the defence counsel and the legal representative of the minor may receive a copy of the documents produced during the investigation, which they are entitled to examine pursuant to Section 193. (1), and
  2. b) the victim and his/her representative may receive a copy of the documents produced during the investigation, which they are entitled to examine pursuant to Section 229. (2).

(6)[215] Unless provided otherwise herein, no restrictions may be applied to the issue of a copy for the accused, the defence counsel, the legal representative of the minor, the victim, the private accuser, the private party and the representatives thereof during court proceedings.

(7)[216] Other interested parties and their representatives may receive a copy of documents of their concern. Witnesses may receive a copy of the minutes or pages of the minutes containing their testimony. The aid acting on behalf of the defendant, the witness or other persons defined by this Act may receive a copy of such documents of the investigation, of which a copy could be given to the persons of whom the aid act upon.

(8) The issuance of a copy may not be appealed.  Refusal of issuing a copy is subject to a separate legal remedy.

(9) The title of the document copied, the recipient and the number of copies issued shall be recorded in the files of the case.

(10)[217] After the legally binding conclusion of the procedure, the court proceeded at the first instance; after the termination of the investigation, the prosecutor or the investigating authority; after the termination of the procedure or partially omitted impeachment, the prosecutor may issue a copy of the documents arose in the course of the procedure on the request of the persons participated in the procedure – according to the rules defined by Section 70/ B (6)-(8) – within 8 days reckoned from the day the request was filed. The copy may be issued by the use of electronic storage module by the person obliged to issue the copy.

 

 

Learning classified data[218]

 

Section 70/C.[219] (1)[220] In the course of criminal proceedings, the defendant, the defence counsel, the legal representative, the victim, the private accuser, the substitute private accuser, the private party, other interested parties, as well as the representatives of the victim, the prosecutor, the substitute private accuser, the private party and other interested parties are entitled to learn of classified data which are contained in documents that they are permitted to examine pursuant to this Act.

(2)[221] The organisation classifying or managing the secret as specified in the Act on Protection of Classified Data[222] shall ensure that the parties enumerated in subsection (1) above may have access to the classified data that they are permitted to learn during the criminal proceedings even if the specific conditions thereof, set forth in a separate law have not been fulfilled.  In such a case, the acting court, the prosecutor and the investigating authority shall advise those concerned of their obligation to keep the classified data, as well as the criminal consequences of breaching classified data.  The above advice shall be recorded in a minutes.

(3) In respect of the delivery of documents containing classified data the provisions of Section 70 shall be applied, with the following differences:[223]

a)[224] The document containing classified data shall only be served on the addressee at a court, the prosecutor’s office or the investigating authority in compliance with the Act on Protection of Classified Data,

b)[225] the addressee shall make a statement on his/her adherence to the conditions set forth in the Act on Protection of Classified Data; should the addressee state that he/she does not comply with these requirements or fails to make a statement, the addressee may not take the document containing such information out of the room of the court, the prosecutor’s office or the investigating authority designated for storing classified information, and only an abstract of the document, not containing any classified data may be delivered to such addressee.  The organisation classifying documents shall make a statement regarding the fact that the abstract contains no classified data,

c)[226] If the addressee makes a statement on compliance with the requirements set forth in the Act on Protection of Classified Data, the court, the prosecutor, or the investigating authority will deliver the document containing classified data to the addressee,

d)[227] The restrictions stipulated in paragraphs a)-b) shall not apply to organisations having internal regulations on the protection of classified information.

(4)[228] Prior to the service under paragraph (3) c), the court, the prosecutor or the investigating authority shall verify whether the statement made by the addressee is true to the facts.  For this, the court, the prosecutor or the investigating authority may also consult the officer in charge of classified information.

(5) The reproduction of documents containing classified data and the management of such copy shall be governed by the following provisions:[229]

a)[230] If observance of the Act on Protection of Classified Data by those listed in subsection (1) cannot be ensured, the persons entitled thereto shall be provided with a copy of the document containing classified data, however, they shall not be entitled to take this copy out of the room designated at the court, the prosecutor’s office or the investigating authority for storing classified information,

  1. b) The copy shall be kept at the court of hearing, the prosecutor or the investigating authority, however, it shall be ensured that the copy may be examined by the persons entitled thereto during official hours without restrictions, and that the copy is made available to the same persons in the official premises of the court during the hearing of the case.

Section 70/D.[231] (1)[232] Section 70/C (1) of this Act shall be applied to learning documents containing classified data after the legally binding conclusion of the procedure, after the termination of the investigation or the procedure, or after the partially omitted impeachment.

(2) After the legally binding conclusion of the procedure, the court proceeded at the first instance; after the termination of the investigation, the prosecutor or the investigating authority; after the termination of the procedure or partially omitted impeachment, the prosecutor shall act according to Section 70/C (2) of this Act.

(3)[233] Section 70/C (5) a) shall be applied to the copying and management of copies of documents containing classified data after the legally binding conclusion of the procedure, after the termination of the investigation or the procedure, or after the partially omitted impeachment. The copy shall be guarded by the court of the first instance after the legally binding conclusion of the procedure; by the prosecutor or the investigating authority after the termination of the investigation or the procedure, or after the partially omitted impeachment, but it shall be ensured that the entitled persons may examine the copy during official hours without restrictions.

 

Official requests for information

 

Section 71 (1)[234] The court, the prosecutor and the investigating authority may contact national and local government agencies, authorities, public bodies, business organisations, foundations, public endowments and public organisations to request the supply or transmission of information, data or documents, and may prescribe a time limit for fulfilling such request ranging between a minimum of eight and maximum of 30 days.  Encrypted data and information made unrecognisable in any other manner shall be restored in their original condition by the supplier prior to communication or delivery, or shall be made recognisable to the requestor thereof.  Data supply – which includes in particularly the process, the record in written or in an electronic manner and the transfer of data – shall be free of charge.  Unless stipulated otherwise by law, the organization contacted shall fulfil the request within the prescribed deadline or state the reason for non-compliance therewith.

(2) The court, the prosecutor and the investigating authority may also contact the local government and other authorities for the supply of documents.

(3) Requests concerning the provision of personal data shall only extend to the amount and type of data indispensable for the achievement of the objective of the request.  The request shall precisely state the purpose of the data supply and scope of data required.

(4) If the personal data coming to the notice of the requestor as a result of the request are not relevant for the achievement of the objective of the request, the data shall be deleted.

(5) If the personal data specified in subsection (4) are contained in the original copy of a document, an abstract shall be made on the data relevant for the achievement of the objective of the request, and simultaneously the document shall be returned to the sender.

(6)[235] If the organization contacted fails to fulfil the request within the prescribed deadline, or unlawfully refuses to fulfil the request, a disciplinary penalty may be imposed.  In the event of unlawful refusal to comply with the request, the coercive measures stipulated herein may also be ordered in addition to imposing the disciplinary penalty, provided that the conditions set forth by law are met.

(7)[236] If the organization requested is unable to fulfil the request on account of being prohibited by law, no further procedural action towards such organization may be taken to obtain the information possessed by it.

(8)[237] If the conditions of entering to and stay in Hungary set forth by separate laws are otherwise not fulfilled, the prosecutor and the court may make a motion to the authority responsible for emigration and immigration to issue a permission for the admission and stay of the foreign citizen, and in consideration of this foreign citizen his/her relative, whose testimony may hold evidence which presumably would not be available otherwise.

 

Document management[238]

 

Section 71/A.[239] (1) The documents of the case shall be numbered in the order of their production or arrival to the court, the prosecutor or the investigating authority.  In the course of the investigation, other document management rules may also be adopted.

(2) The documents of the case shall be filed together and sealed with the seal of the court, the prosecutor or the investigating authority at the place of filing.  If documents of the case and the attachments thereto cannot be filed together, it shall be ensured that such attachments are kept and remain identifiable in some other way.

(3) Upon recognising, or establishing the fact that a document was lost or destroyed, a report shall be submitted to the chairman of the court, the head of the prosecutor’s office, the head of the investigating authority and the competent prosecutor not later than at the end of the following working day. The chairman of the court, the head of the prosecutor’s office, and the head of the investigating authority shall order to seek or replace the lost or destroyed document.  To this end, the persons participating in the proceedings may be heard and copies may be obtained.

(4) It is not required to replace the documents of the case, if the proceedings have been concluded with a decision made on the basis of the lost or destroyed documents.  In such a case, it is sufficient to obtain a certified copy of the decision.

 

Section 71/B.[240] (1) The court, the prosecutor and the investigating authority shall send the documents of the case or the certified copy thereof or shall permit insight thereto on the request of the court, the prosecutor, the notary, the bailiff, the probation officer, the legal aid, the investigating authority or administrative authority – for the time and extent necessary in order to fulfil their tasks as defined by law.

(2) The court, the prosecutor and the investigating authority shall furnish information about the case – if necessary, including the personal data of the persons concerned -, permit insight into the documents of the case and give certified copy of the documents of the case on the request of a body established by international treaty promulgated by law or legal action of the European Community – for the time and extent necessary in order to fulfil their tasks as defined by the international treaty of the body or the obligatory legal act of the European Community.

 

Consolidation and severance of criminal cases

 

Section 72 (1) If more than one defendant is involved in the same criminal action, as a rule, they may be prosecuted in a single criminal procedure.

(2) Furthermore, cases may be consolidated if the joint examination thereof is deemed justified due to the subject or the participants of the proceedings, or for other reasons.

(3) If the establishment of liability in a single procedure would be difficult due to the high number of defendants or for other reasons, the cases shall be dealt with separately.

(4) The documents of the separated case shall be forwarded to the competent court, prosecutor or investigating authority of jurisdiction.

 

Search for unknown persons, or persons and objects of unknown locations[241]

 

Section 73[242] (1) The fact that the location of the defendant is unknown shall not be an obstacle of the proceedings.  In such a case, the court, the prosecutor and the investigating authority shall take measures to locate the place of stay of the defendant; to this end, they may order an investigation to establish the residence or place of stay, or the apprehension of the defendant and in the cases specified herein, issue a warrant of arrest.

(2)[243] For the establishment of the residence or place of stay, the reregister of personal data and addresses shall be consulted.  Apprehension shall be the responsibility of the police in adherence to the rules set forth in separate law.

(3) In the case of criminal acts punishable with imprisonment and in other cases set forth herein, located and apprehended defendants may be ordered to be brought before a specific court, prosecutor or investigating authority (warrant of arrest).  The person searched under a warrant of arrest shall be arrested after having been located, and within 24 hours, brought before the prosecutor or investigating authority having issued the warrant of arrest or designated therein, and shall be brought before the court having issued the warrant of arrest or the court designated therein within 72 hours.

(4) Should an authority or an official person gain cognisance of the residence or place of stay of a defendant against whom the actions specified in subsections (1) and (3) have been ordered, they shall inform the court, prosecutor or investigating authority that issued the order thereof.

(5) The orders specified in subsections (1) and (3) shall be withdrawn, if the reason for their issue ceases to exist.  The party having issued the order shall take prompt measures for such withdrawal.  Apprehension ordered by the investigating authority may also be cancelled by the prosecutor.  If the reason for apprehension ceases to exist during court proceedings, the order may also be withdrawn by the court.

(6) If the residence or place of stay, or the identity of a suspect in a criminal action is unknown, a warrant of apprehension may be issued in order to establish the residence or place of stay, or the identity of the suspect. Moreover, in order to establish the residence or place of stay, the court or the prosecutor may order the apprehension of a person whose testimony is required in the court proceedings.  The warrant of apprehension shall be withdrawn when the reason for issuing the said ceases to exist.

(7) The court, the prosecutor or the investigating authority may order a search for an object with an unknown location, if it may be seized by law, or if it was ordered to be seized or sequestrated.  The order shall be withdrawn when the reason thereof ceases to exist.

(8) In the course of court proceedings, the actions set forth in this Section may also be taken by the chairperson of the council and – with the exception of the issue of a warrant of arrest – the secretary of the court.

(9)[244] Actions taken in order to establish residence or place of stay, as well as the decision on the order of search and issuance of arrest warrant shall not be appealed.

Section 73/A.[245] (1) Section 73 shall be applied in case of a European arrest warrant or an international arrest warrant issued according to the Act on International Legal Aid in Criminal Matters.

(2) The court, the prosecutor and the investigating authority shall issue an European arrest warrant or an international arrest warrant also or take action therefore, if an arrest warrant has been issued against the defendant and the court, the prosecutor and the investigating authority learns that in an other procedure European arrest warrant or international arrest warrant has been issued against the same defendant according to the Act on International Legal Aid in Criminal Matters –  if the conditions set forth by law are met regarding the defendant or the crime affected by the arrest warrant.

 

Cost of criminal proceedings

 

Section 74 (1) The cost of criminal proceedings shall mean

a)[246] the cost advanced by the state from the commencement of the proceedings until the end of the enforcement of the sentence, in the course of proceedings for extraordinary legal remedy and special proceedings,

  1. b) out-of-pocket expenses incurred by the defendant, victim, private party, substitute private accuser and the private accuser, and the legal representatives of the defendant and the victim, even if such costs have not been advanced by the state, and
  2. c) out-of-pocket expenses and fees of the officially appointed defence counsel and the representatives of the victim, the private party and the substitute private accuser, if they have not been advanced by the state.

(2)[247] The cost referred to in paragraph (1) a) shall include, in particular, the costs related to the attendance of the witnesses, fees and cost reimbursements established for experts and consultants, costs related to the transportation and storage of seized objects and the fee and cost reimbursement of interpreters.

(3)[248] If, based on the income and property of the defendant, he is presumably unable to cover the cost of criminal proceedings, and has certified the above in compliance with the provisions of the relevant legal regulation, the court or the prosecutor may decide on a personal exemption from paying the costs at the request of the defendant or the defence counsel.  In the event of a personal exemption,

  1. a) the court, the prosecutor or the investigating authority will appoint a defence counsel upon the request of the defendant [Section 48. (2)],
  2. b) [249]
  3. c) [250] the fee and verified out-of-pocket expenses of the officially appointed defence counsel is paid by the state.

(4)[251] The appeal against a decision on the personal exemption from the payment of costs or the part of a decision ordering the payment of the costs shall have a delaying effect.

(5)[252] Costs incurred as a result of apprehension (Section 162) and bringing a person to court, prosecutor or investigating authority after collar and finding the defendant (Section 73 (3)) may not be included in the costs of criminal proceedings. The reimbursement of the costs due such actions shall be governed by separate law.

 

Title III[253]

DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION, PROVIDING INFORMATION TO THE GENERAL PUBLIC IN THE COURSE OF CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS [254]

 

Section 74/A[255] (1) Information to the press may be provided by the following persons: prior to the conclusion of the investigation, the member of the investigating authority authorised to do so in the relevant legal regulation; prior to the indictment, the prosecutor or the person authorised thereby; and during the court procedure, the person authorised by the Act on the Legal Status and Remuneration of Judges.

(2) The press shall be entitled to provide information on public court hearings.

(3)[256] Disclosure of information to the press shall be refused if this would violate classified data, or would jeopardise the successful conclusion of the proceedings in any way.

 

Section 74/B[257] (1) Any sound or video recordings at the court hearings shall be subject to the permission of the presiding judge, and sound or video recordings of persons present at the hearing – with the exception of the members of the court, the keeper of the minutes, the prosecutor and the defence counsel – shall be subject to the consent of the person concerned.  The presiding judge may refuse to grant permission or may withdraw the permission at any stage of the court procedure in order to ensure an uninterrupted and undisturbed trial.

(2) The press shall not provide information and no information may be disclosed to the press of hearings or parts of hearings conducted in camera, unless the publicity of a hearing was denied due to reasons stipulated in Section 245 (5).

(3) Unless an exception is granted by this Act, the documents of pending or concluded criminal proceedings may only be inspected by persons authorised to do so herein.

(4) Documents specified in subsection (3) above may be subject to research according to the rules set forth in the Act on Public Deeds, Public Archives and the Protection of Documents in Private Archives[258] prior to the classification period specified therein.

(5) With the exception of the case specified in Section 74/A above, information may be disclosed to any party having legal interest in conducting the procedure or in the result thereof, permission for the inspection of the documents or the provision of the necessary information – after the justification of the legal interest therein – shall be granted by the prosecutor prior to filing the bill of indictment, and by the presiding judge during the court procedure.

(6)[259]

 

Chapter VII EVIDENCE

Title I

GENERAL RULES OF EVIDENCE

Object of proof

Section 75[260] (1) Evidence shall cover the facts which are relevant to the application of criminal statutes and legal regulations on criminal proceedings.  The objective of gathering evidence shall be the thorough and complete elucidation of the true facts, however, if the prosecutor does not suggest, the court is not obliged to gather and examine evidence supporting the indictment.

(2) Evidence may also extend to facts significant for the adjudication of ancillary issues – with special regard to civil claims – of the criminal proceedings.

(3) Facts of common knowledge and facts officially known by the acting court, the prosecutor or the investigating authority need not be proven.

(4)[261] Persons participating in the procedure shall be obliged and entitled to co-operate in the evidentiary procedure in the cases and in the manner set forth in this Act.

Means of evidence

Section 76 (1) Means of evidence shall be the testimony of the witness, the expert opinion, physical evidence, documents and the testimony of the defendant.

(2) Documents and physical evidence produced or obtained by an authority – performing, in its own scope of competence, its responsibilities specified by law – prior to the institution of the criminal proceedings may be utilised in the course of the criminal proceedings.

Legality of evidence

Section 77 (1) Evidence shall be traced, gathered, secured and used in compliance with the provisions of this Act.  The specific method of performing certain acts of the evidentiary procedure, examination and recording of means of evidence, and conducting the evidentiary procedure may be stipulated by law.

(2) In the course of the acts of the evidentiary procedure, the human dignity, the personality rights and right of reverence of those involved shall be respected, and unnecessary disclosure of data on privacy shall be prohibited.

Evaluation of evidence

Section 78 (1) In the course of criminal proceedings, all means of evidence specified by law and all evidentiary procedures may be used without restriction. However, the use of certain means of evidence may also be statutory.

(2) Neither the means of evidence nor proofs have a legally prescribed probative force.

(3) The court and the prosecutor shall freely weigh each piece of evidence separately and collectively and establish the conclusion of evidence based on their belief thus formed.

(4) Facts derived from means of evidence obtained by the court, the prosecutor or the investigating authority by way of committing a criminal action, by other illicit methods or by the substantial restriction of the procedural rights of the participants may not be admitted as evidence.

Title II

A TESTIMONY OF THE WITNESS

Section 79 (1) Those persons may be heard as a witness who may have knowledge of the fact to be proven.

(2)[262] Unless an exemption is provided for in this Act, anyone summoned as a witness shall give testimony.

(3)[263] At the request of the witness, the acting court, prosecutor or investigating authority shall establish and refund the cost – to the extent specified in a separate legal regulation[264] – incurred in connection with the appearance of the witness.  The witness shall be advised of this in the subpoena and at the time of the conclusion of the examination.[265]

 

Section 80 [266] The witness may retain a lawyer to act in his interest, if deems it necessary for obtaining information of his rights.  The witness shall be advised of this in the subpoena.

Obstacles to testifying as a witness

Section 81 (1) The following may not be heard as witnesses:

  1. a) clergymen and churchmen on issues subject to the obligation of professional secrecy,
  2. b) the counsels for the defence on issues which have come to their cognisance or which they have communicated to the defendant in their capacity as a defence counsel,
  3. c) who apparently cannot be expected to give correct testimony due to their physical or mental condition,

d)[267]  the state witness on facts, data and circumstances subjected to the obligation of secrecy, and has not been relived there from by the court, the prosecutor or the investigating authority.

(2)[268] Those who have not been relieved from the obligation of secrecy may not be heard as witnesses on classified data.

(3)[269] In the case specified in subsection (2) the person entitled for classification as stipulated in the Act on Protection of Classified Data[270] shall decide on granting the relief or maintaining the secrecy obligation based on the request of the prosecutor or the court.  The request for relief shall indicate, in a manner suitable for identification, the issues regarding which the relief is requested.

 

Section 82 (1) The following may refuse to testify as a witness:

  1. a) the relative of the defendant,
  2. b) [271] those who – with the exception of subsection (4) – would incriminate themselves or their relatives, on the related issues, even if they have not refused to testify under item a),

c)[272] those – excluding the case of secrecy obligation set forth in 81 (2) – who are bound by secrecy owing to their profession or public office, if their testimony would violate such secrecy obligation, unless they have been relieved by a person authorised pursuant to a separate legal regulation, or unless the person authorised pursuant to a separate legal regulation is obliged to transmit the data subject to secrecy obligation under a separate legal regulation at the request of the court, the prosecutor or the investigating authority.

(2)[273] Prior to the examination, the witness shall be advised of the grounds from exemption as well as of his rights.  Both the advice and the response of the witness thereto shall be recorded into the minutes.  Upon the failure to give such advice and to record the response thereto into the minutes, the testimony of the witness may not be admitted as evidence.

(3) Decision on the legitimacy of the refusal to testify shall fall in the competence of the acting court, the prosecutor or the investigating authority.

(4) [274] No one may refuse to testify as a witness pursuant to Section 82 (1) b), whose response would be self-incriminating in connection with a criminal offence

  1. a) regarding which the denunciation was rejected under Section 175 (1) against him,
  2. b) regarding which the investigation was terminated under Section 190 (1) f) or Section 192 (1) against him,
  3. c) regarding which the criminal proceeding was terminated due to active regret [Section 221/A (7), Section 267 (1) l), Section 332 (1) f)] against him,
  4. d) regarding which the criminal proceeding was terminated under Section 226 (1)-(2) or Section 332 (1) g) against him, and
  5. e) regarding which he is not punishable due to cooperation with the authorities specified by the Special Part of the Criminal Code.

(5)[275] The investigation may not be ordered to be resumed due to the criminal offence stated in the testimony of the witness pursuant to subsection (4) [Section 191 (2)], nor may the testimony of the witness regarded as new evidence for a re-trial [Section 408 (1) a)].  This provision shall apply to criminal offences revealed in the course of the testimony of the witness, for which no criminal proceedings had been instituted against the witness, but the denunciation on the criminal offence revealed in the testimony may be rejected, or the related investigation or proceedings may be terminated on any ground.

 

Section 83 [276](1)[277] The obstacles to testifying as a witness shall be recognised both if they had existed during the commission of the criminal offence and at the time of the examination.  Upon the existence of a ground for exemption under Section 82 (1) b) the witness may also refuse to testify – with the exception of the case set forth in Section 82 (4) – if the commission of the criminal offence in question had been established by way of a final decision, or the prosecutor has postponed filing an indictment against the witness.

(2)[278] The exemption of the witness specified in Section 81 (1) a) and b) h– unless they were granted a relief from the obligation of secrecy – shall remain valid even after the cessation of the underlying relationship.  In such a case, the witness may not be examined in respect of issues to be proven but subject to the secrecy obligation.

(3) If the witness has not been relieved from the obligation of secrecy specified in Section 82 (1) c), he shall be bound by such obligation for the time period stipulated in a separate legal regulation.

 

Section 84[279] The testimony of witnesses examined in violation of the provisions of Section 83 and Section 85 (3) shall not be admitted as evidence.

Questioning of the witness

Section 85 (1) Each witness shall be questioned separately.

(2) At the commencement of the questioning, the witness shall be requested to state the following: his name, date and place of birth, mother’s name, place of residence and place of stay, occupation, personal identification document number and whether he is a relative of the defendant or the victim, or whether he is interested or partial in the case for other reasons.  The witness shall be obliged to respond to such questions even if otherwise he may refuse to testify.

(3)[280] At the commencement of the questioning, it shall be elucidated whether there are any obstacles to testifying as a witness (Sections 81–82).  In the absence of such obstacles, the witness shall be warned about his obligation to tell the truth to his best knowledge and conscience and warned that giving false evidence is punishable by imprisonment.  Both the advice and the response of the witness thereto shall be recorded into the minutes. Upon the failure to record such advice and the response thereto in the minutes, the testimony of the witness may not be admitted as evidence.

(4)[281] The lawyer acting on behalf of the witness may attend the questioning and may inform the witness of his rights, however, the lawyer may not perform any other activity, nor may he influence the testimony. After the questioning, the lawyer may inspect the minutes taken and may make comments thereon either in writing or verbally.

(5) [282]The court, the prosecutor or the investigating authority may permit the witness to make a written testimony following or in lieu of the oral questioning.  In such a case, the witness shall write his testimony in his own hands and sign it, affixes his certified electronic signature on the testimony taken in the form of a computer file, or the testimony of the witness written in any other form is certified by a judge or a notary public.  Regardless of making a written testimony, subsequently, the witness may be summoned by the court, the prosecutor or the investigating authority for a questioning, if deemed necessary.

(6)[283] If the witness gives his testimony in writing without an oral questioning, or after an oral questioning, the written testimony shall indicate that the witness was aware of the obstacles to testifying (Sections 81 and 82) and the consequences of giving false evidence.  The witness shall be advised thereof simultaneously with permitting the provision of a written testimony, by informing him of the obstacles to testifying and the consequences of giving false evidence.

 

Section 86 (1) Persons under fourteen years of age may only be heard as a witness if the evidence expected to be provided by his testimony cannot be substituted by any other means.  Upon the questioning of such persons, the warning about the consequences of giving false evidence shall be omitted.

(2) Those who have limited capacity to understand the meaning of refusing to testify as a witness due to their mental or other state, may only be heard as a witness if they wish to testify and their legal representative or the relative designated by the witness consents thereto.  The legal representative or the representative or the relative designated by the prospective witness may detain a lawyer to act on behalf of the witness.

(3) [284]At the hearing of a witness under the age of 18 or a witness specified by subsection (2), the legal representative and guardian thereof may be present.

(4)[285] In the event of a conflict of interests between the witness and the legal representative or guardian and the relative appointed by the witness, the rights stipulated in subsection (2) shall be exercised by the court of guardians.

 

 

Section 87 Before the trial, the witness may be heard at court, if

  1. a) the witness is in a condition directly jeopardising his life,
  2. b) there is reasonable cause to believe that the witness cannot attend the trial.

 

Section 88 (1) [286]In the course of the questioning, the witness shall answer the questions asked from him, however, the witness shall also be granted the opportunity to state his testimony as a comprehensive whole; in the course of this – while observing the rules pertaining to the protection of the witness – it shall also be elucidated how the witness learnt of the facts included in his testimony.  The cause for any discrepancy from the former testimony of the witness shall be elucidated.  Upon the repeated questioning of the witness in the same stage of the proceedings, the personal data of the witness – unless they have changed in the meantime – need not be recorded once again.

(2) Upon the request of the witness, the designated parts of his testimony shall be included in the minutes literally.

 

Sections 89–92 [287]

Coercive measure against the witness

Section 93 Witnesses illegitimately refusing to testify or co-operate in the procedural action despite being warned about the consequences, may be subject to the imposition of a disciplinary penalty and obliged to pay the costs caused.

 

Section 94 If the witness refuses to testify on the ground of exemption, the appeal of the dismissal thereof shall have a dilatory effect.

 

Title III

PROTECTION OF THE WITNESS

Section 95 In order to protect the life, physical integrity or personal freedom of the witness as well as to ensure that the witness fulfils the obligation of giving testimony and the testimony is given without any intimidation, the witness shall be provided protection as specified in this Act.

Confidential treatment of the personal data of the witness

Section 96 (1)[288] The court, the prosecutor and the investigating authority may order ex officio or upon the request of the witness or the legal counsel acting upon the behalf of the witness that the personal data [Section (2) 85] of the witness shall be treated confidentially and separately among the files. In such cases the confidentially treated data of the witness may be examined only by the court, prosecutor and investigating authority proceeding in the case. The court, the prosecutor and the investigating authority shall omit the confidential treatment of certain parts of the personal data of the witness which is required in order to be able to perform their tasks, if the tasks prescribed by this Act cannot be executed in any other manner.

(2)[289] With the effect of the order concerning the confidential treatment of the personal data of a witness

  1. a) the court, the prosecutor and the investigating authority proceeding in the case shall ensure that the data of the witness treated confidentially may not become known from other data of the procedure,
  2. b) the court, the prosecutor and the investigating authority establishes the identity of the witness by way of examining documents suitable for identification,
  3. c) the confidential treatment of the personal data of the witness may only be terminated with the consent of the witness.

(3)[290] From the time of ordering the confidential treatment of the personal data of the witness, the copies of documents containing the personal data of the witness may only be given to the participants in the criminal proceedings without the personal data of the witness.

Specially protected witness

Section 97 A witness may be declared specially protected if

  1. a) his testimony relates to the substantial circumstances of a particularly serious case,
  2. b) the evidence expected by his testimony cannot be substituted,

c)[291] the identity, the place of stay and the fact that he is intended to be heard by the prosecutor or the investigating authority is not known by the accused and the defence counsel,

  1. d) the exposure of the identity of the witness would seriously jeopardise the life, limb or personal freedom of either the witness or the relatives thereof.

Personal protection of the participants of criminal proceedings [292]

Section 98[293] (1) In exceptionally justified cases the chairperson of the panel of the court proceeding in the case, the prosecutor or the investigating authority may initiate that the defendant, the counsel for the defendant, the victim, the other interested party, the representative of the victim and the other interested party, further, the witness, the expert, the advisor, the interpreter, the official witness, or another person in consideration of any of those listed, be protected as specified in a separate piece of legislation[294].

(2) The request may be submitted to the court, prosecutor or investigating authority proceeding in the case, while a verbal request shall be recorded in a report.

(3) The personal protection of the staff of the court, the prosecutor’s office, the investigating authority and the penal institution or another person in consideration of the above may be initiated by the president of the court, the head of the prosecutor’s office, the head of the investigating authority or the commander of the penal institution, respectively.

(4) The documents pertaining to personal protection shall be kept together with the documents of the criminal case.  With the exception of the decision regarding the request and initiation, the documents shall be handled confidentially.

Regulations pertaining to persons participating in the witness protection program [295]

Section 98/A[296] The participation of the defendant, victim and witness in the witness protection program specified in separate law[297] shall not affect their respective rights and obligations related to the criminal proceedings; and in respect of the participants of the program, the provisions of this Act shall apply with the following derogation:

  1. a) persons participating in the program shall be summoned or notified by way of the body responsible for his protection, further, official documents to be served on such persons may only be delivered by way of the body responsible for their protection,
  2. b) persons participating in the program shall state their original personal identification data during criminal proceedings, but give the address of the body responsible for their protection as their place of residence or stay,
  3. c) no one – including the authorities – may be provided with a copy of documents containing the personal data of persons participating in the program and any information regarding such persons, unless they hold the permission by the body responsible for the protection of such persons,
  4. d) costs incurred in connection with the appearance and participation of persons participating in the program may not be accounted for as cost of criminal proceedings,
  5. e) the witness and the defendant may refuse to give testimony regarding data that imply their new identity or new place of residence or stay.

 

Title IV

THE EXPERT OPINION

Employment of an expert

Section 99 (1) An expert shall be employed if the establishment or evaluation of a fact to be proven requires special knowledge.

(2) It is statutory to employ an expert if

a)[298] if the fact to be proven or the issue to be decided on is the mental disability of a person or the addiction of a person to narcotic substances,

b)[299] if the fact to be proven or the issue to be decided on is the necessity of involuntary medical treatment,

  1. c) if the identification is performed by way of biological tests,
  2. d) upon the exhumation of a deceased person.

(3)[300] Experts may be employed by the court, the prosecutor and the investigating authority.

 

Section 100 (1) An expert shall be employed by way of an assignment. The order on the assignment of an expert shall state

  1. a) the subject to be examined by the expert and the issues to be answered by the expert,
  2. b) the documents and objects to be handed over to the expert, or, if this is not possible, the place and time where the documents and objects may be inspected,
  3. c) the deadline for submitting the expert opinion.

(2) An urgent partial examination required for the preparation of the expert opinion may also be performed without an assignment order, upon the verbal instruction of the prosecutor or the investigating authority.

 

Section 101 (1) As a rule, one expert shall be employed.  If required by the nature of the examination, more than one expert may be employed.  In such cases, the order on assignment may designate only the head of the expert team and authorise him to involve other experts.

(2) Two experts shall be employed when the subject of the examination is the cause and circumstances of death or the mental state of a person.  The employment of more than one expert may be rendered statutory by law in other cases as well.

The expert

Section 102[301] (1)[302] As an expert, the court, the prosecutor and the investigating authority may assign a forensic expert listed in the register of experts, or business association entitled to give expert opinion (hereafter: business association), experts’ institute, or body, institute or organization of the government defined by separate laws (hereafter: organization), and if this is not possible, a person or institution (hereafter: ad hoc expert) possessing the adequate knowledge.

(2) The professional issues in which a specific institution or body of experts is entitled to give opinion may be defined by separate laws.  In the event of the assignment of an institution or body, the head thereof shall designate the expert to act.

(3)[303] The defendant, the defence counsel and the victim shall be notified of the assignment of an expert by the assignor 8 days reckoned from serving the decision on assignment; and if the expert has been assigned by the court, the court shall also notify the prosecutor.

(4)[304] The assignor shall be notified about the person who is about to act as an expert by the head of the business association, experts’ institute, the organization and the experts’ corporation within 8 days reckoned from serving the decision on assignment. Within 8 days reckoned form the above mentioned notification the assignor shall inform the persons and bodies listed in subsection (3) about the content of the notification.

Exclusion of an expert

Section 103 (1) The following may not act as an expert:

  1. a) those who participated or have been participating in the case as a defendant, defence counsel, a victim, denouncer or a representative thereof, or who is a relative of the above,

b)[305] those who act or have acted in the case as a judge, prosecutor or a member of the investigating authority, or who is a relative thereof,

  1. c) those who participated or have been participating in the case as a witness,
  2. d) at the examination of the cause and circumstances of the death and at the exhumation the medical doctor having treated the deceased directly prior to the death thereof and the medical doctor who pronounced the person dead,

e)[306] the expert of an expert institution or organization, or a member of an expert body, if the ground for exclusion specified in Section 103 (1) a) exists regarding the head of the institution or organization, or the expert body,

f)[307] the member of the business association if the reason for exclusion specified by Section 103 (1) a) exists regarding the head or the executive officer of the business association or if somebody is a member or employee of a business association which is a member or the employee of another business association acted previously in the case,

g)[308] those who have been employed in the case as a professional advisor,

h)[309] who cannot be expected to form an unbiased expert opinion for other reasons.

(2)[310] The person does not serving, according to the legislation applicable to him, in the crew of the investigating authority shall not be considered to be a person having official relation to the investigating authority concerning subsection (1) b).

(3)[311] The expert shall immediately report the existence of any ground for exclusion to the assignor. In the case of the assignment of a business association, experts’ institute, an organization or experts’ corporation, the report shall be made through the head thereof.

(4)[312] The decision on the exclusion of an expert shall be adopted by the court, prosecutor or investigating authority proceeding in the case.

(5)[313] The provisions of Sections 83–84 shall be appropriately applied to experts.

Professional examination

Section 104 (1) The expert shall be obliged to make a contribution to the case and to give an expert opinion.

(2) For important reasons, the expert may be relieved of the assignment by the decision of the court, prosecutor or investigating authority proceeding in the case.  The expert – in the event of the assignment of a business association, an experts’ institute, an organization or an experts’ corporation, through the head thereof – shall notify the assignor if[314]

  1. a) the professional issue does not fall within the scope of his professional knowledge,
  2. b) pursuant to a separate piece of legislation, specific institution or body is entitled to give an expert opinion on the professional issue,
  3. c) he is materially hindered in performing the expert activity, thus especially by the lack of the conditions for the undisturbed performance of the activity or the partial examinations.

 

Section 105 (1) The expert shall give an opinion based on a professional examination.  The expert shall conduct the examination by using the tools, procedures and methods available according to the present state of science and modern professional knowledge.

(2) The expert shall be obliged and entitled to get acquainted with all data required for the fulfilment of his task, for this purpose, the expert may inspect the documents of the case, be present at the procedural actions, and may request information from the defendant, the victim, the witnesses and the other experts involved in the proceedings.  If required for the performance of the tasks, the expert may request further data, documents and information from the assignor.  With the authorisation of the assignor, the expert may inspect and test, and take sample of subjects not handed over to him.

(3) In the course of the examination, the expert may examine and ask questions from persons and may inspect and test objects.  Upon inspecting an object which changes or is destroyed due to the test, if possible, the expert shall save a part of the object in its original state so that it can still be identified and/or its origin established.

(4) The assignor may specify the examinations to be performed by expert in the presence of the assignor.

(5) The expert shall notify the assignor if any measure or procedural action needs to be performed within the scope of authority of the assignor.

(6)[315] The expert shall be entitled to remuneration for the professional examination, the preparation of the expert opinion and appearance before the court, the prosecutor or the investigating authority based on a subpoena, further, the expert shall be entitled to the reimbursement of the verified out-of-pocket expenses incurred in the course of his actions.[316]  The remuneration of the expert shall be established in a decision by the assignor, or the court, prosecutor or investigating authority proceeding in the case, based on the tariff schedule submitted by the expert, after receipt of the expert opinion or – if the expert is heard – the hearing, but not later than within 30 days.

(7)[317] The decision establishing the remuneration of the expert shall be subject to separate legal remedy.

 

Obligation to provide assistance during the professional examination

Section 106 (1)[318] Any professional examination affecting the inviolability of the person to be examined may only be conducted upon a separate order by the assignor. The defendant and the victim shall submit themselves to the professional examination or treatment, unless it involves an operation or an examination procedure qualifying as such.  The victim shall facilitate the performance of the professional examination in other ways (e.g. by supplying information) as well.  Upon a separate order by the assignor, the defendant, the victim and the owner of the object of inspection shall tolerate that the thing in his possession be subjected by the expert to an examination – even if this involves damage to or destruction of the object.

(2) The damage caused by the professional examination shall be subject to indemnification, as specified in a separate legal regulation.

(3)[319] If the defendant fails to fulfil the obligation of assistance, coercive measures may be applied.  If the victim fails to fulfil the obligation of assistance, a disciplinary penalty may be imposed.

(4) The provisions of (1)–(3) above pertaining to the victim shall also apply to the witness, however, the provisions of Sections 81 and 82 shall prevail.

Diagnosis of mental state

Section 107 (1)[320] If the expert opinion concludes that assessment of the mental state of the defendant requires a longer time, the court – before the submission of the indictment, at the motion of the prosecutor – shall order the observation of the defendant’s mental state.  Detained defendants shall be referred to the Forensic Diagnostic and Mental Institution, while defendants at liberty to the psychiatric in-patient institution specified by law[321].  The duration of the observation may be 1 month; the court may extend this deadline on one occasion by one month upon the opinion of the institution performing the observation.

(2) The appeal submitted owing to the order of a diagnosis of mental state shall not have a delaying effect, unless the defendant is at liberty.

(3)[322] In the course of the observation of the mental state of a defendant at liberty, the personal freedom of the defendant may be restricted in compliance with the provisions of the Act on Health Care.  If the defendant evades the observation of his mental state, the psychiatric institution shall forthwith notify the court ordering the diagnosis.

Submission of the expert opinion

Section 108 (1) The expert opinion may be presented in the form of an oral statement by the expert, or submitted in writing, within the deadline set by the court, the prosecutor or the investigating authority.

(2) The expert opinion shall include:

  1. a) information regarding the subject, the procedures and tools of the examination as well as the changes in the subject of the examination (diagnosis),
  2. b) a brief description of the examination method,
  3. c) a summary of professional assessments (professional assessment of facts),
  4. d) conclusions drawn from the professional assessment of facts and the answers given to the questions raised (opinion).

(3) The expert shall provide the expert opinion in his own name.

(4) If several experts have participated in the examination, the name of the expert having performed any given examination shall be indicated in the opinion.  If several experts arrive at the same conclusion, they may submit an expert opinion jointly (joint expert opinion). In professional issues covering various fields of expertise, the experts may combine their expert opinions (combined expert opinion).

(5)[323] The written expert opinion shall be signed by the expert.

(6)[324] Unless the expert needs to be summoned, the expert needs only be notified of subsequent procedural actions, if he requested so concurrently with the submission of the written expert opinion. The expert shall be advised thereon in the assignment order.

(7) The defendant, the witness or the victim may request to handle the part of the expert opinion – which expert opinion is related to them – specified by subsection (2) a) confidentially.  Such request may also be submitted by the counsel for the defendant and the lawyer acting on behalf of the witness.

(8)[325] The statement of the accused, witness and victim made in front of the expert concerning the act underlying the proceedings, which constitute a part of the expert opinion under subsection (2) a) above, may not be admitted as evidence.

 

Section 109 If the expert opinion is incomplete, unclear, contradicts itself or it is required for other reasons, the expert shall – at the request of the court, the prosecutor or the investigating authority – provide the relevant information or complement the expert opinion.

Hearing of the expert

Section 110 (1)[326] Before an expert makes an oral statement, his identity and the absence of any reason for his exclusion shall be verified.  Ad hoc expert shall be warned of the consequences of providing a false expert opinion.  The warning and the response of the expert to the warning shall be included in the records.  After the expert has presented the expert opinion, he may be cross-examined.

(2) [327]

(3)[328]

Employment of another expert

Section 111[329] (1) If the information requested from the expert or the complemented expert opinion still fails to bring the desired result, or it is necessary for other reasons, another expert shall be assigned.

(2) In the course of the investigation the defendant and the counsel for the defendant may motion for the assignment of another expert.  Decision on the assignment shall fall within the scope of authority of the prosecutor.

(3) –(4) [330]

(5) If the expert opinions prepared based on the same examination material regarding the same fact to be proven differ on a professional issue which has a substantial bearing on a decision in the case, and such difference cannot be clarified by requesting information from the experts, complementing the expert opinion or hearing the experts in the presence of each other (Section 125), the court, the prosecutor or the investigating authority may order, either ex officio or upon a motion, that a new expert opinion be obtained.

(6) The expert opinion obtained pursuant to subsection (5) shall take a position in respect of the cause of difference among the expert opinions, whether any of the expert opinions should be complemented and whether another expert opinion should be obtained in the case.

 

Section 112 (1) The defendant and the counsel for the defendant may advise the prosecutor or the court that they intend to obtain and submit an expert opinion.

(2)[331] The decision on the involvement of the person (business association, experts’ institute, organization, experts’ corporation) requested by the defendant or the counsel for the defendant to prepare an expert opinion shall fall within the scope of authority of the court or the prosecutor.  The expert invited – after having been recognised in his capacity as such – may participate in the professional examinations; in the course of the court procedure, he shall be entitled to the same rights and bound by the same obligations as the expert assigned by the court or the prosecutor. The experts shall mutually inform each other about the examinations to be done; the informed expert may be present at the examination of the other expert.

(3) If the court or the prosecutor refuses to involve the person invited, the opinion prepared may be used according to the rules pertaining to documents.

Consequences of non-compliance with the expert’s obligations

Section 113 (1) If the expert refuses to co-operate or provide an opinion for no justified reason after having been warned of the consequences thereof, in addition to imposing a disciplinary penalty, the expert may be obliged to pay the resulting costs.

(2)[332] A disciplinary penalty may also be imposed on the expert if he delays the submission of the expert opinion for no justified reasons. If the expert of the appointed organization or institute delays the submission of the expert opinion for no justified reason, the disciplinary penalty or the order for bearing the caused expenses shall be borne by the appointed business association, experts’ institute, body or experts’ organization.

(3) If the expert refuses to deliver an opinion by referring to his exemption, the expert shall not be ordered to co-operate until the appeal against the decision denying the exemption is judged.

The interpreter

Section 114 (1)[333] If a person whose native language is not Hungarian, intends to use in the course of the proceedings their native language, or – pursuant to and within the scope of an international agreement promulgated by law – their regional or minority language, an interpreter shall be employed.  If the use of the native language involvs unreasonable difficulties, the use of another language defined by the person not commanding the Hungarian language as a language spoken, shall be provided by way of an interpreter.

(2)[334] As a rule, persons disabled in hearing shall be questioned either by way of an interpreter of sign language, or by way of written testimony. If the person to be questioned is deafblind, upon his request he shall be heard by a way of an interpreter of sign language. If the person to be questioned is disabled in talking, upon his request he shall give a written testimony instead of hearing.

(3)[335] The provisions of this Act pertaining to experts shall also apply to interpreters, provided that only persons having the qualification stipulated in a separate law may be employed as an interpreter; if this is not possible other person having sufficient knowledge of the language in question (ad hoc interpreter) may be appointed.  The term “interpreter” shall include translators as well.

Opinion of the probation officer [336]

114/A. Section[337] (1)[338] Before a punishment or measure is imposed, or the filing of an indictment is postponed or referring the procedure to mediation, the court and the prosecutor may order to obtain an opinion from the probation officer.  The obligation to obtain an opinion from the probation officer may be stipulated by law.  The opinion of the probation officer shall be prepared by the probation officer.

(2) The opinion of the probation officer shall depicts the facts and circumstances characterising the personality and living conditions of the defendant – thus, in particular, the family conditions, state of health, any addictions, dwelling conditions, level of education, skill, place of work or, failing this, data on the employment, income and financial status of the defendant – and presents the relationship between the facts and circumstances revealed and the commission of the criminal offence.[339]

(3)[340] In the opinion the probation officer provides information on possibilities of work suiting the capabilities of the defendant, or on health or welfare institutions which could provide for the defendant, and may also propose that a special rule of conduct be ordered in respect of the defendant.

(4) If the court or the prosecutor orders so, the opinion of the probation officer shall also include whether the defendant agrees to comply with the prospective rules of conduct or obligations and whether the victim agrees with the compensation to be granted.

(5) The probation officer shall be obliged and entitled to learn all data necessary to prepare the opinion, and for this purpose may inspect the documents of the case, and request information from the defendant, the victim, the witnesses and other persons involved in the proceedings.  If necessary for the fulfilment of his duty, the probation officer may request further data, documents and information from the prosecutor or the court.

(6) The provisions of this Act pertaining to the expert shall also apply to the probation officer preparing the opinion of the probation officer, provided that Section 105 (6) and (7), Sections 106–107 and Sections 111–113 shall not be applicable to the probation officer.

 

 

Title V

PHYSICAL EVIDENCE AND DOCUMENTS

Physical evidence

Section 115 (1)[341] Physical evidence shall be all objects (things) suitable for proving the facts to be proven, thus in particular, objects bearing the marks of the commission of the criminal offence as well as bearing the marks of the perpetrator in relation to the perpetration of the criminal offence or having been created through the criminal offence, objects used as a tool for the commission of the criminal offence and the subject of the criminal offence.

(2) For the purposes of this Act, physical evidence shall include documents, drawings and any objects recording data by way of technical, chemical or other methods.  The provisions of this Act pertaining to documents shall be construed as pertaining to data media as well.

Documents

Section 116 (1) Document shall mean all means of evidence prepared and suitable for proving that a fact or data is true, that an even has taken place or that a statement has been made.

(2) The provisions pertaining to documents shall also apply to abstracts made from documents and to objects produced in compliance with the method specified in Section 115 (2) for the purpose of verifying that a fact or data is true, that an even has taken place or that a statement has been made.

(3)[342] Section 2 is not applicable for the provisions set forth in section 151 (2).

 

 

Title VI

TESTIMONY OF THE DEFENDANT

 

Section 117 (1)[343] Prior to the commencement of the interrogation of the defendant, his identity shall be verified, therefore, the defendant shall be requested to state the following: his name, birth-name, former name, date and place of birth, mother’s name, place of residence and place of stay, personal identification document number and citizenship The defendant shall be obliged to respond to such questions even if otherwise he refuses to testify.

(2)[344] At the commencement of the interrogation, the defendant shall be advised that he is not under the obligation to testify, that he may refuse to testify or to respond to any of the questions in the course of the interrogation, but may freely decide to testify at any time even if he has previously refused to do so.  The defendant shall also be advised that anything he says or provides may be used as evidence.  Upon the failure to record such warnings and the response thereto in the minutes, the testimony of the defendant cannot be admitted as evidence.

(3) The interrogation of the defendant shall start with questions concerning the occupation, place of work, education, family conditions, income and financial status, further, to former punishments and – depending on the subject of the proceedings – military rank and honours. This is followed by the detailed interrogation of the defendant.

(4)[345] If the defendant refuses to testify, he shall be advised that this fact does not interfere with the continuation of the proceedings.  If the defendant chooses to testify, he shall be advised that he cannot accuse falsely others of the perpetration of a criminal offence in the testimony.  No further questions may be asked from the defendant in respect of the criminal offence he refused to testify to, and the defendant may not be confronted with the other defendants or the witness, unless he decides to testify beforehand.  The refusal to testify shall not affect the right of the defendant to ask questions, or to make objections or motions.

(5) If the defendant wishes to testify, the possibility thereof shall be granted.

 

Section 118 (1)[346] The defendant shall be granted the opportunity to state his testimony as a comprehensive whole; thereafter, the defendant may be cross-examined.  The cause for any discrepancy from the former testimony of the defendant shall be elucidated.

(2) Unless provided otherwise by this Act, in the event of the defendant admits the perpetration of the criminal offence, other evidence shall also be obtained.

(3) The defendants shall be heard separately.  The defendant may write his testimony with his own hands or otherwise, this shall be attached to the documents of the case.

 

Title VII

EVIDENTIARY PROCEDURES

Inspection

Section 119 (1) An inspection may be ordered and conducted by the court or the prosecutor, if the elucidation or establishment of a fact to be proven requires the examination of a person, an object or site, or the observation of an object or site.

(2)[347] If deemed necessary, an expert may be involved in the inspection.

(3) During the inspection the conditions material for establishing the criminal offence shall be entered in the records in detail.  At the time of the inspection, all physical means of evidence shall be tracked down and gathered, and their proper safe-keeping ensured. Inasmuch as it is possible or necessary, audio and/or video records, drawings or drafts should also be made of the object of the inspection, and they shall be attached to the records.

(4) If the object of the inspection cannot transported to the court, the prosecutor or the investigating authority, or if this would result in significant difficulties or costs, the inspection shall be carried out on the scene.

(5)– (6)[348]

 

Questioning on the scene[349]

 

Section 120 (1)[350] The court, the prosecutor or the investigating authority shall question the defendant and the witness on the scene (questioning on the scene), they are required – even after previous hearings – to make a statement on the scene of the criminal offence, and show the spot where the criminal offence took place, other spots having a connection with the criminal offence, physical means of evidence or the course of events during the criminal offence.

(2) Prior to being questioned on the scene, the defendant or the witness shall be asked about the conditions of noticing the given site, act or physical means of evidence and how would they recognise them.

Reconstruction

Section 121 (1) The court or the prosecutor shall order and stage a reconstruction, if they wish to establish or verify whether an event or occurrence could, in fact, take place at a specific place and time, in a specific way or under specific circumstances.

(2) As much as possible, the reconstruction shall take place under the actual or assumed conditions as the investigated event or occurrence happened or might have happened.

Presentation for identification

Section 122 (1)[351] The court or the prosecutor shall order and perform a presentation for identification, if this is required to identify a person or an object.  The defendant or the witness shall be shown at least three persons or objects for identification.  In the absence of other means of identification, the defendant or the witness may be presented a photo or other audio or video records of the person or object.

(2) Prior to the presentation for identification, the person to make the identification shall be questioned in detail concerning the conditions of noticing the given person or object, his relationship with the person or the object, and the known distinguishing marks thereof.

(3) In the event of presentation of persons, individuals not involved in the case and not known by the person to make the identification shall be lined up, who have the same main distinguishing marks – thus, especially, same gender, similar age, built, complexion, personal hygiene level and clothing – as the given person. In the case of objects, the object to be identified shall be placed among similar objects.  The positioning of the given persons or objects within the group may not be significantly different than that of the others or conspicuous.

(4) Even if there are several persons making the identification, the presentation shall take place separately, in the absence of the others.

(5) If required for the protection of the witness, the presentation for identification shall take place under conditions preventing the person presented from identifying or noticing the witness.  In the event of an order to handle the personal data of the witness confidentially, this shall be ensured during the presentation for identification as well.

 

Section 123 (1) The rules pertaining to the inspection shall apply to the reconstruction and the presentation for identification as appropriate.

(2) The court or the prosecutor may also request the co-operation of the investigating authority for performing an inspection, reconstruction and presentation for identification.  The investigating authority shall perform the requests of the court by the deadline.

(3) Unless provided for otherwise by the prosecutor, the investigating authority may also order and perform an inspection, reconstruction and presentation for identification.

(4)[352] The defendant, the witness, the victim and other person shall be obliged to submit to the inspection, reconstruction and presentation for identification, and make the object in their possession available for the purpose of inspection, reconstruction and presentation for identification.  In order to fulfil these obligations, coercive measures may be applied in respect of the defendant, and disciplinary penalty may be imposed on the victim and other person.

(5)[353] As a rule, the procedure of the inspection, reconstruction and presentation for identification shall be recorded by an audio or video recorder or other equipment.  The audio or video recordings shall be attached to the documents of the case; and they may not be used for any other purpose than their intended use.

Confrontation

Section 124 (1) If the testimonies given by the defendants and witnesses, or the testimonies of the defendant and the witness are contradictory, if necessary, the conflict may be resolved by way of confrontation.  Those confronted shall present their statement orally and may be permitted to ask questions from one another.

(2)[354] If required for the protection of the witness or the defendant, the confrontation of the witness or the defendant shall be omitted.

(3) Persons under fourteen years of age may only be involved in the confrontation, if it will not cause apprehension.

Concurrent hearing of experts

Section 125 Differences in the opinion of the experts may be clarified by way of a hearing them in the presence of the other experts.

 

Chapter VIII

COERCIVE MEASURES

Title I

CUSTODY

 

Section 126 (1) Taking the defendant into custody means a temporary deprivation of the defendant of his freedom.

(2)[355] The custody of the defendant may be ordered upon a reasonable suspicion that the defendant has committed a criminal offence subject to imprisonment – thus, in particular, if the defendant is caught in the act – provided that a probable cause exists to believe that the preliminary arrest of the defendant is to follow. Custody may be ordered in case the conditions set forth in section 281 (6) are met (trial custody).

(3) The custody may last for a period of maximum 72 hours.  After the lapse of this period, the defendant shall be released, unless the court has ordered his preliminary arrest. The defendant shall be released, if the court has not made a decision concerning his preliminary arrest during the period of the custody.

(4) Unless the conditions have changed, the defendant may not be taken into custody twice for the same criminal offence.

(5) The period of custody shall also include the time spent by the defendant in lawful detention prior to the issuance of the order for taking him into custody.

 

Section 127 (1) Custody may be ordered and terminated by the court, the prosecutor or the investigating authority.

(2) If the defendant has been taken into custody on the order of the investigating authority, it shall advise the prosecutor thereon within twenty-four hours.

(3) A person caught in flagrante delicto may be captured by anyone, however, the capturer shall hand over the delinquent to the investigating authority without delay; or, if this is unfeasible, notify the police.

 

Section 128 (1) The relative of the defendant designated by the defendant shall be notified of the warrant of custody and the place of detention within twenty-four hours; in the absence of such a relative, notification made be made to another person designated by the defendant.

(2) Children of minor age of the defendant remaining without supervision, or any other person being looked after by the defendant shall be delivered to the care of a relative or an appropriate institution.  The settling arrangements for minors shall be made through the Court of Guardians, while in the case of other persons being looked after by the defendant, the notary of the local government.  Actions shall be taken to secure the property and home of the defendant left unattended.

(3) When a soldier is taken into custody [Section 122 (1) of the Criminal Code] his commanding officer shall also be notified thereof.

 

 

Title II

PRELIMINARY ARREST

Conditions for preliminary arrest

Section 129 (1) preliminary arrest means the judicial deprivation of the defendant of his freedom prior to the delivery of the final decision.

(2) The preliminary arrest of the defendant may take place in a proceeding related to a criminal offence punishable by imprisonment, and only under the following conditions:

a)[356] the defendant has escaped, or has attempted to escape, or absconded from the court, the prosecutor or the investigating authority, or another procedure has been launched against the defendant for committing a deliberate criminal offence also punishable by imprisonment,

  1. b) owing to the risk of an escape or hiding, or for other reasons, there is reasonable cause to believe that the presence of the defendant in procedural actions cannot be otherwise ensured,
  2. c) there is reasonable cause to believe that if left at liberty, the defendant would frustrate, obstruct or jeopardise the evidentiary procedure, especially by means of influencing or intimidating the witnesses, or by the destruction, falsification or secretion of physical evidence or documents,
  3. d) there is reasonable cause to believe that if left at liberty, the defendant would accomplish the attempted or planned criminal offence or commit another criminal offence punishable by imprisonment.

Ordering preliminary arrest

Section 130 (1) The decision on ordering preliminary arrest – prior to filing the indictment and at the motion of the prosecutor made in compliance with the procedure set forth in Title VI of Chapter IX – shall fall under the competence of the court.

(2)[357] Instead of preliminary arrest, the court may order prohibition of leaving residence, house arrest or restraining order as well.

(3) If conducting a criminal proceeding is subject to a private motion, preliminary arrest may not be ordered prior to lodging such private motion.

Term of the preliminary arrest

Section 131 (1)[358] Preliminary arrest ordered prior to filing the indictment may continue up to the decision of the court of first instance during the preparations for the trial, but may never be longer than 1 month.  Preliminary arrest may be extended by the investigating judge by 3 months on each occasion, but the overall period may still not exceed 1 year after the order of preliminary arrest.  Thereafter, preliminary arrest may be extended by the Court of Justice acting as a single judge by 2 months on each occasion, in compliance with the procedural rules pertaining to investigating judges.

(2) Prior to filing the indictment, the prosecutor shall make a motion to the court for the extension of the preliminary arrest 5 days before the expiry of the deadline of the preliminary arrest.

(3)[359] The appeal lodged against the decision of the investigating judge shall be adjudicated by the panel of second instance of the Court of Justice, while an appeal against the decision of the Court of Justice acting as a single judge shall be adjudicated by the panel of the High Court of Appeals.

(4)[360] After filing the indictment, preliminary arrest ordered or maintained by the court of first instance may continue up to the announcement of the conclusive decision made by that court. The preliminary arrest ordered or maintained by the court of first instance after the announcement of its conclusive decision, or ordered or maintained by the court of second instance may continue up to the conclusion of the procedure of second instance, furthermore ordered or maintained by the court of second instance after the announcement of its conclusive decision or ordered or maintained by the court of third instance may continue up to the conclusion of the procedure of third instance but in every case no longer than the term of imprisonment imposed by the appealable decision.

(5)[361] Should the conclusive decision of the court of first or second instance be repealed and the court of first or second instance be ordered to conduct a new procedure, preliminary arrest ordered or maintained by the court of second or third instance may continue up to the decision of the court of first or second instance delivered in the course of the repeated procedure.

 

Section 132 (1)[362] If the period of the preliminary arrest ordered or maintained after filing the indictment, its justification shall be reviewed

  1. a) by the court of first instance if such detention exceeds 6 months and the court of first instance has not delivered a conclusive decision yet,
  2. b) by the court of appeal, if the period of the preliminary arrest has exceeded 1 year.

(2)[363] After the lapse of the time period specified in subsection (1) b), the justification of the preliminary arrest ordered or maintained after filing the indictment shall be reviewed by the court of appeal, if the procedure is conducted before the court of third instance, the court of third instance at least once in every 6 months.

(3)[364] The preliminary arrest shall cease

  1. a) if the period thereof reaches 1 year and the procedure is conducted against the defendant due to a criminal offence punishable by not more than 3 years,
  2. b) if the period thereof reaches 2 years and the procedure is conducted against the defendant due to a criminal offence punishable by not more than 5 years,
  3. c) if the period thereof reaches 4 years and the procedure is conducted against the defendant due to a criminal offence punishable by 15 years or life imprisonment,
  4. d) it he period thereof reaches 3 years in cases not specified by subsection (3) a) -c)

unless the preliminary arrest was ordered or maintained after the announcement of the conclusive decision, or unless a procedure of third instance or a repeated procedure is in progress owing to a repeal in the case.

(4)[365] If the defendant violates the rules of house arrest or the prohibition from leaving domicile ordered after the ceasing of the preliminary arrest by reason of Section (3), the preliminary arrest may be ordered again. In this case the duration of preliminary arrest written in section (3) shall be counted from the day of ordering the preliminary arrest.

(5)[366] The motion for the preliminary arrest filed by the investigating authority shall contain in detail the description of the circumstances which met one of the conditions set forth by section 129 (2).

 

Judgement of a motion to terminate preliminary arrest

Section 133 (1) The court shall examine the motion to terminate the preliminary arrest in its merit, and deliver a decision thereon with the explanation of the reasons.  Repeated motions may be rejected by the court without substantial justification, unless the defendant or the counsel for the defendant cites new circumstances.

(2)[367] If 3 months has elapsed either from the order or the extension of the preliminary arrest, the second sentence of subsection (1) may not be applied.

Measure after ordering preliminary arrest

Section 134 If the measures regulated in Section 128 have not been taken at the time of taking the defendant into custody, they shall be taken without delay by the investigating authority (before the indictment is filed) or the court (if the indictment has been filed) after the questioning of the arestee.

Execution of the preliminary arrest

Section 135 (1) The preliminary arrest shall be executed in a penal institution.

(2)[368] If the investigating processes make it reasonable, the prosecutor may order the preliminary arrest to be executed in police detention-room for not more than 30 days. After this period of time, the court shall decide on placing the suspect in the police detention-room – for another 30 days- according to the motion of the prosecutor. No appeal shall be granted against the decision on placing the suspect in the police detention-room.

(3)[369] The defendant held in preliminary arrest may not be restricted in exercising his procedural rights. The defendant shall be granted the opportunity to contact his defence counsel, and, in the case of foreign citizens, the representative of the consulate of his native country.  The defendant held in preliminary arrest may only be subjected to restrictions following from the nature of the criminal proceeding, or required by the rules of the institution executing the detention.  The detailed rules of executing the preliminary arrest are specified in separate laws.

(4)[370] If it is provable that after the preliminary arrest has been effectuated the defendant abuses his right to communicate with his defence counsel and

  1. a) prepares to escape,
  2. b) endeavours to obstruct the procedure, by means of influencing or intimidating the witnesses, or by the destruction, falsification or secretion of physical evidence or documents, or
  3. c) solicits for the perpetration of another criminal offence punishable by imprisonment,

the court – at the motion of the prosecutor prior to filing the indictment – may exclude the defence counsel from the procedure.

Extraordinary procedure, termination of preliminary arrest

Section 136 (1) The court, the prosecutor and the investigating authority shall make all efforts to reduce the term of the preliminary arrest as much as possible.  If the defendant is held in preliminary arrest, an extraordinary procedure shall be conducted.

(2)[371] Preliminary arrest will be ceased, if its duration expires without extension or upholding, the process was concluded sententially, the investigation was terminated, its deadline has been expired and the court did not extend the preliminary arrest according to section (3), furthermore, if the indictment was postponed. Preliminary arrest must be terminated, if the reason thereof ceased to exist.

(3)[372] If the investigation comes to its end, and the indictment is prospectively going to be filed after the expiry of the deadline defined by the second sentence of section 176 (2), prior to the expiry of this deadline the court may to the proposal of the prosecutor extend the preliminary arrest for not more than 2 months. If during this period no indictment has been filed, the court may extend the preliminary arrest with for an additional period of not more than 2 months. The preliminary arrest, in this case, too, lasts until the decision of the court of the first instance is passed in the course of the arrangement of the trial, but if its period reaches the time set forth by section 132.(3) with the distinction written there, it must be ceased.

(4) [373]The prosecutor may cease the preliminary arrest until the indictment has been filed.

 

Title III

Prohibition of leaving residence AND HOUSE ARREST[374]

Prohibition of leaving residence [375]

Section 137 (1) The prohibition of leaving residence restricts the right of the defendant to free movement and free choice of dwelling; the person subjected to a prohibition of leaving residence may not leave the specified area or district nor may he change his place of residence or stay without permission.

(2)[376] Prohibition of leaving residence may be ordered when taking into account the nature of the criminal offence, the personal circumstances and family conditions of the defendant – with special regard to the health condition or old age of the defendant – or his conduct during the proceedings, this way the objectives otherwise desired to be attained through preliminary arrest, can also be realised.

(3)[377] The court shall order the prohibition of leaving residence. The court may prescribe in its order of the prohibition of leaving residence that the defendant must present himself at the police station at fixed intervals, and furthermore it may order other restrictions as well to ensure the aim of the prohibition of leaving residence.  The court may order that the police shall keep track of the movement of the defendant by means of technical devices – on the consent of the defendant – in order to ensure the prescriptions of the prohibition of leaving residence to be upheld. The control over the maintenance of the prescriptions of the prohibition of leaving residence is regulated by separate laws.

(4)[378] Adherence to the restrictions ordered in the scope of the prohibition of leaving residence shall be controlled by the police, while compliance with the orders in a prohibition of leaving residence imposed on professional soldiers and soldiers serving under a contract [Section 122 (1) of the Criminal Code] shall be controlled by his commanding officer, or in his absence, another superior officer.

(5) [379]The prohibition of leaving residence ordered before filing the indictment lasts until the decision of the court of the first instance is passed in the course of the arrangement of the trial. The prohibition of leaving residence ordered or upheld thereafter lasts until pronouncing the final judgment of the court of the first instance. The prohibition of leaving residence ordered or upheld by the court of the first instance after pronouncing its final judgment or ordered by the court of the second instance lasts until the termination of the proceedings of the second instance. The prohibition of leaving residence ordered or upheld by the court of the second instance after pronouncing its final judgment or ordered by the court of the third instance lasts until the termination of the proceedings.

(6)[380] If the court ordered the prohibition of leaving residence prior to the filing of the indictment, and the prosecutor did not press charges during the subsequent 6 months, the court shall review the necessity to maintain the curfew at the motion of the prosecutor to be lodged 5 days prior to the lapse of the deadline.

(7)[381] If during the term of the prohibition of leaving residence, substantial changes in the living conditions of the defendant necessitate his leaving the area or region affected by the prohibition or changing his place of stay or residence, prior to the filing of the indictment the curfew may be partially lifted by the prosecutor or thereafter by the court at the request of the defendant.  The decision concerning the partial lift of the prohibition of leaving residence may allow the defendant to leave the area or region affected by the prohibition once, periodically or regularly for a specific reason and to a specific destination, or to change his place of stay or residence.

(8)[382] The prohibition of leaving residence comes to its end if its deadline expired, the process was concluded sententially, the investigation was terminated, its deadline has been expired and the court did not extend the preliminary arrest according to section (9), furthermore, if the indictment was postponed. Preliminary arrest must be terminated, if the reason thereof ceased to exist. The prosecutor has the right to terminate the prohibition of leaving residence before filing the indictment.

(9)[383] If the investigation comes to its end, and the indictment is prospectively going to be filed after the expiry of the deadline defined by the second sentence of section 176 (2), prior to the expiry of this deadline the court may to the proposal of the prosecutor extend the prohibition of leaving residence until the decision of the court of the first instance is passed in the course of the arrangement of the trial.

House arrest[384]

Section 138[385] (1)[386] The house arrest sets limit to the freedom of movement of the defendant and right of the defendant to choose residence without restriction. In case the house arrest has been ordered the defendant may leave the house designated by the court and the precint thereof for reasons determined by the decision of the court, thus particularly for supplement the regular needs of everyday life or for participation in medical treatment for the time and distance (line of route) specified therein.

(2)[387]The house arrest may be ordered if in consideration of character of the crime, and the duration of the criminal proceedings, or the way the defendant behaved during the proceedings and the aims of the preliminary arrest may be ensured by this way as well.

(3)[388] In case the house arrest has been ordered the provisions of ordering, extension, sustenance and termination of preliminary arrest [Section 130 (1), Section 131, Section 132 (1) and (2), Section 136 (2)-(4)] shall be applicable to the order, duration, sustenance and termination of house arrest.

(4)[389] The court may order that the police shall keep track of the movement of the defendant by means of technical devices – on the consent of the defendant – in order to ensure the prescriptions of the house arrest to be upheld. The control over the maintenance of the prescriptions of the house arrest is regulated by separate laws.

(5)[390] The house arrest shall not be ordered against a soldier [section 122 (1) of the Criminal Code] during the time of his service relations.

 

 

 

Restraining order[391]

 

Section 138/A[392] (1) The restraining order sets limit to the freedom of movement of the defendant and right of the accused to choose residence without restriction. The defendant under the regulation of the restraining order shall according to the rules set forth by the decision of the court

  1. a) leave a certain house, and stay away for a time set forth by the court,
  2. b) stand aside from certain person, from the workplace and home of this person, from the educational institution visited by this person, from the health institute regularly visited by this person for medical treatment, as well as from the building visited regularly for practise religion for the period defined by court,
  3. c) take good care not to get into direct or indirect contact with certain person.

(2) The restraining order may be ordered just in case there is reasonable doubt for a crime punishable by imprisonment has been committed – presuming that the aims required to be ensured by the restraining order are going to be assured thereby -,  and if ordering the preliminary arrest of the defendant is not necessary, but – mostly with regard to the character of the crime, or the way the defendant behaved before and during the proceedings, furthermore to the relationship between the defendant and the victim – it may be reasonably assumed that in case of letting the defendant stay at his residence

  1. a) he would countermine, make more difficult or endanger the evidence by the way of influencing or intimidating the victim-witness,
  2. b) he would finish the attempted or prepared criminal offence, or would commit another crime, punishable by imprisonment, against the victim.

(3) If the criminal procedure shall be included on the bases of private motion, the restraining order may not be obtained before filing the private motion.

(4) The court shall decide on the restraining order. In the order the court may prescribe for the defendant to be present at fixed intervals at the investigating authority acting in the criminal proceedings underlying the restraining order.

(5) The court shall send the decision thereon to the victim. The decision must be sent to the prosecutor even if the motion for the restraining order was filed by the victim, the legal representative [section 138/B (2) d)-f)] thereof or the legal representative of a minor living under the same roof with the defendant.

(6) Until filing the indictment the investigating authority or the prosecutor, after filing the indictment the court shall immediately take steps set forth by Section 128 after the hearing of the defendant.

(7)[393] If the court passes a decision on ordering or modifying the restraining order, the rules regulated by section (1) shall be determined in such way that they would not make impossible for the defendant to practise his rights which is concerned by section (1) b) regarding the victim.

 

Section 138/B[394] (1)[395] The court may order the restraining order from 10 to 60 days.

(2) A motion for a restraining order may be filed by

  1. a) the prosecutor,
  2. b) private accuser,
  3. c) substitute private accuser,
  4. d) the victim,
  5. e) legal representative of the victim of legal incapacity or of limited legal capacity, furthermore
  6. f) the legal representative of a minor living under the same roof with the defendant.

(3) If the residence of the person regulated by section 138/A (1) b) while the restraining order is in force, or significant change in the living conditions is about to occur in such person’s or the life of the defendant which would give reason for modifying the decision, the court on the motion of persons defined by section (2) or the defendant and the defence counsel, after filing the indictment even ex officio, may modify the decision or cease the restraining order. The court shall act the same way if against the defendant such coercive measures has been ordered in the course of the criminal proceedings, owing to which the modification or the termination of the restraining order is necessary.

(4) If the court passes a decision on the modification or the termination of the restraining order, it shall obtain the statement of the initiator of the restraining order, and the prosecutor, the private accuser and the substitute private accuser. The court shall set forth deadline for the statement or for filing the motion; if this deadline has passed without success, the court shall decide according to the documents available. The court shall send the decision to the person determined by section 138/A (1) b) as well.

(5) If a restraining order has been issued against the defendant, the procedure shall be conducted out of turn.

 

Section 139[396] (1) If the defendant violates the rules of the prohibition of leaving residence or house arrest, or fails to attend a procedural action when required by a subpoena without giving sufficient reasons therefore in advance or after the cessation of the obstacle, fails to provide sufficient justification therefore without delay, the defendant may be taken into custody, furthermore, the order for his house arrest may be changed to preliminary arrest, and the order for prohibition of leaving residence to house arrest or preliminary arrest, or, if this is deemed unnecessary, a disciplinary penalty may be imposed.

(2)[397] If the defendant intentionally violates the restraining order, and cannot excuse himself afterwards, preliminary arrest may be ordered, or if this is deemed unnecessary, a fine may be imposed.

 

Title IV

TEMPORARY INVOLUNTARY TREATMENT IN A MENTAL INSTITUTION

 

Section 140 (1) Temporary involuntary treatment in a mental institution means the judicial deprivation of a mentally disabled defendant of his freedom without a final court decision.

(2) Temporary involuntary treatment in a mental institution may be ordered when there is reasonable cause to assume that an order for the involuntary treatment of the defendant in a mental institution is required.

(3) The order for the temporary involuntary treatment in a mental institution shall be governed by the rules pertaining to ordering preliminary arrest [Section 130 (1)].

 

Section 141 (1) In the case of a defendant under preliminary arrest, concurrently with ordering the temporary involuntary treatment in a mental institution, preliminary arrest shall be terminated.

(2)[398] If the psychiatric treatment of the person under preliminary arrest is necessary, but there is no ground to order a temporary involuntary treatment in a mental institution, the preliminary arrest – at the order of the court – shall be executed in the Forensic Diagnostic and Mental Institution.

 

Section 142 (1) The temporary involuntary treatment in a mental institution ordered prior to filing the indictment may continue up to the decision of the court of first instance during the preparations for the trial.

(2) If, during the period of 6 months elapsed from the commencement of the temporary involuntary treatment the prosecutor does not file an indictment, the justification of the temporary involuntary treatment in a mental institution shall be reviewed by the court.  The review shall be conducted at the motion to be lodged 5 days prior to the lapse of the deadline by the prosecutor.

(3)[399] After the lapse of 1 year following the commencement of the temporary involuntary treatment in a mental institution, its justification shall be reviewed by the Court of Justice acting as a single judge, until the indictment is filed in compliance with the procedural rules pertaining to investigating judges.  The review shall be conducted at the motion of the prosecutor lodged five days prior to the lapse of the deadline.

(4)[400] The appeal against the decision of the court under subsection (2) shall be adjudicated by the panel of second instance of the Court of Justice, while an appeal against the decision of the Court of Justice under subsection (3) shall be adjudicated by the panel of the High Court of Appeals.

 

Section 143 (1)[401] The temporary involuntary treatment in a mental institution ordered or upheld by the court of first instance before filing the indictment may continue up to the announcement of the conclusive decision made by that court The temporary involuntary treatment in a mental institution ordered or maintained by the court of first instance after the announcement of its conclusive decision, or ordered or maintained by the court of second instance may continue up to the conclusion of the procedure of second instance, furthermore ordered or maintained by the court of second instance after the announcement of its conclusive decision or ordered or maintained by the court of third instance may continue up to the conclusion of the procedure of third instance. In case of repeal and order of conducting a new procedure the temporary involuntary treatment in a mental institution may continue up to announcement of the conclusive decision of the court ordered to conduct new procedure.

(2) The review of a temporary involuntary treatment in a mental institution ordered or maintained after filing the indictment shall be governed by the provisions of Section 132 (1) – (2).

 

Section 144 (1)[402] Temporary involuntary treatment in a mental institution shall be provided in the Forensic Diagnostic and Mental Institution.

(2) To the execution of the order for a temporary involuntary treatment in a mental institution the provisions of Section 135 (3) – (4) shall be applied as appropriate.  The person receiving the temporary involuntary treatment may communicate with his legal representative verbally without control, or, if there is reasonable cause to suspect that this would frustrate the proceedings, under control.

 

Section 145 (1)[403] The temporary involuntary treatment in a mental institution shall terminate if its term has expired, if the investigation has been terminated, if its maximum period has expired, or if the procedure has come to a final conclusion. It shall be terminated if the cause for ordering the treatment has ceased to exist.

(2)[404] If the investigation comes to its end, and the indictment is prospectively going to be filed after the expiry of the deadline defined by the second sentence of section 176 (2), prior to the expiry of this deadline the court may to the proposal of the prosecutor extend the duration of the temporary forced medical treatment maximum until the decision of the court of the first instance is passed in the course of the arrangement of the trial.

(3)[405] The prosecutor may terminate the temporary involuntary treatment in a mental institution until filing the indictment.

(4)[406] Against the order of the temporary involuntary medical treatment the spouse and the legal representative of the defendant are authorized to file an appeal, and persons written above may file for the termination of the temporary involuntary treatment in a mental institution

 

Title V

CONFISCATION OF THE TRAVEL DOCUMENT [407]

 

Section 146[408] (1) At the time of the arrest the travelling documents of the defendant shall be confiscated. If the arrest of the defendant was ceased in a way that preliminary arrest, temporary forced medical treatment, prohibition of leaving residence or house arrest has been ordered against him, the travelling documents shall be given back to him.

(2)[409] The court, the prosecutor, the investigating authority, before which the procedure is in progress, shall inform the passport-authority immediately about the order of the preliminary arrest, temporary involuntary treatment in a mental institute, the prohibition of leaving residence and the house arrest in order to keep the travelling documents back and to ensure the prohibition of travelling abroad defined by separate laws.

(3)[410] The court, the prosecutor, the investigating authority, before which the procedure is in progress, shall inform the passport-authority immediately about the termination of the coercive measure written in section (2) in order to return the travelling documents and lifting the ban of travelling abroad regulated by separate  laws.

(4)[411] The provisions of section (1)-(3) shall be applicable for foreign defendant as well, with that the notification regulated by section (2) – (3) shall be sent to the emigration authorities.

Title VI

BAIL

 

Section 147[412] (1) The bail is an amount determined by the court, and which ensures the presence of the accused at the procedural actions.

(2) In the case specified by section 129 (2) b) the court may cease the preliminary arrest of the defendant if in consideration of the criminal offence and the personal circumstances the presence of the accused at the procedural actions can be ensured by the bail.

(3) The motion to accept the bail offered may be submitted by the defendant or the counsel for the defendant to the court competent to make a decision on preliminary arrest.  The court shall hold a meeting on the acceptance of the bail offered and hear the prosecutor, the defendant, the counsel for the defendant and the person who offered the bail.  If the counsel for the defendant does not attend the meeting despite the notification, the meeting may be held in his absence.

(4)[413] The court may determine the amount of bail with regard to the personal conditions and the financial situation of the defendant. The court may order in its decision prohibition of leaving residence or house arrest also. The court may rule about the determination of the bail in the decision on the preliminary arrest.

(5) The order for the elimination or termination of the preliminary arrest of the defendant may be appealed only by the prosecutor and the substitute private accuser.

(6) The bail determined by the court validly shall be paid in cash at the court, or the payment thereof shall be justified in a manner regulated by separate laws. After this event the detained defendant shall be set free immediately.

(7) In the event that the motion for the acceptance of bail is rejected, the defendant or the defence counsel may only lodge a new motion for the acceptance of bail with reference to new circumstances.  If the defendant or the counsel for the defendant fails to cite new circumstances in the repeated motion, the court may reject it without substantial justification.

 

Section 148[414] (1) The court may order the preliminary arrest of a defendant who was released on bail, if

  1. a) the defendant has failed to attend a procedural action when required by a subpoena without giving sufficient reasons therefore in advance or after the cessation of the obstacle, fails to provide sufficient justification therefore without delay, or
  2. b) after the acceptance of bail, another cause for ordering the preliminary arrest of the defendant has arisen.

(2) The amount of bail shall be refunded to the obligor, if[415]

  1. a) the court – for a reason other than that provided in subsection (1) a) – ordered his preliminary arrest,
  2. b) the prosecutor terminated the investigation, if its maximum period has expired, or the prosecutor postponed to press charges, or
  3. c) the court concluded the procedure with a final decision or a decision about termination.

(3) If a penalty for imprisonment is imposed, bail may be refunded when the execution of the penalty has commenced.

(4) The right of the obligor for the refund of the bail shall be forfeited if the preliminary arrest of the defendant is ordered due to the reason specified in subsection (1) a).

 

Title VII

SEARCH, A BODY SEARCH AND SEIZURE

Search

Section 149 (1)[416] Search means the search of a house, flat, other premises or a precinct thereof, the vehicles parked there, as well as the examination of a computer system or a computer media containing data recorded by such system; the search is conducted in order to enhance the efficiency of the proceedings.

(2) A search may be ordered when there is reasonable cause to believe that it will result in:

  1. a) apprehending a person having committed a criminal offence,
  2. b) uncover the traces of a criminal offence,

c)[417] finding means of evidence, or property subject to confiscation or forfeiture.

(3)[418] A search may be ordered by the court, the prosecutor or – unless the prosecutor provides for otherwise – the investigating authority; the court and the prosecutor may request the assistance of the investigating authority for conducting the search.  In the cases specified in subparagraph (2) b) and c), inasmuch as possible, the search warrant shall indicate the means of evidence and the property subject to confiscation or forfeiture, desired to be found during the search.

(4)[419] As a rule, the search shall be conducted in the presence of the person affected, who shall be advised of the warrant prior to the commencement of the search; further – if the purpose of the search is to find a designated or known means of evidence, a property subject to confiscation or a person – the person affected shall be demanded to surrender the property being the subject of the search, to make available the data stored on the computer system or data medium, or to surrender the designated person.  If the person affected obeys and surrenders the property being the subject of the search, makes the data stored on the computer system or data medium available, or surrenders the designated person, the search may not be continued unless there is reason to suspect that other means of evidence or other property subject to confiscation or forfeiture could also be found in the course of the search.

(5)[420] If the person affected or his representative or appointed relative is not present during the search, a person – who is reasonably believed to be able to properly protect the interests of the person affected by the search – shall be appointed to protect the interest of the person affected by the search.

(6)[421] The search of the office of a notary public,  a law office or a health institution – if it concerns professional secrets related to the work of notary or defence counsel, or rather the finding of documents including health information – shall be ordered by the court until filing the indictment. The house arrest shall be performed only in the presence of the prosecutor.

(7)[422] The prosecutor may direct a search pursuant to subsection (6) above without a court warrant, if the delayed performance of the search jeopardises the realisation of the objectives set forth in subsection (2).

(8) In the case regulated in subsection (7) the court warrant shall be obtained subsequently.  If the court rejects the motion, the results of the search may not be admitted as evidence.

Body search

Section 150 (1)[423] Body search means the examination of the clothing and body of the defendant and a person who is reasonably believed to keep in his possession means of evidence, or property subject to confiscation or forfeiture, in order to find such means of evidence, or property subject to confiscation or forfeiture.  In the course of the body search, the vehicle, package and other objects being at the disposal of the person subjected to the body search may also be examined.

(2) The body search shall be ordered by the prosecutor or the investigating authority.  If the body search is ordered by the prosecutor, the search shall be conducted with the assistance of the investigating authority.

(3)[424] If the objective of the body search is to find a designated object, the person to be searched shall first be demanded to surrender the subject of the search, and if such demand is obeyed, the body search shall be omitted.

(4) The body of the person searched may only be examined by a person of the same gender; moreover, only persons of the same gender may be present during the search.  This provision shall not apply to medical doctors participating in the search.

(5) The body search may be attended by a person staying at the site of the search and designated by the person searched, unless the presence of such person jeopardised the interests of the investigation.

(6)[425]

Seizure

Section 151 (1)[426] The seizure shall ensure that the things are at the disposal – taking custody thereon or ensuring its preservation in other way –  of the court, the prosecutor and the investigating authority for the purpose of taking evidence, sequestration, or the confiscation of property.

(2)[427] The court, the prosecutor, and the investigating authority shall order the seizure of the thing – including things produced by the ingredients and tools of the investigating authority, things which were separated of or from a subject in the way that it has no value and is of no use for itself, and things which are considered unclaimed – and computer system or data carrier containing data secured through such system, which

  1. a) are evidentiary means,
  2. b) can be sequestrated or confiscated as property according to the law.

(3)[428] The court shall order the seizure of documents – containing secrets regarding the work of the lawyer or the notary public, and data of the medical health centre – from the office of a lawyer or notary public, furthermore from a medical health centre.

(4)[429] Seizure of mail and consignment of newscast not yet delivered to the addressee as well as of documents of the editorial office of printed matters shall be ordered prior to filing the indictment by the prosecutor, or thereafter by the court.  Until the decision is made, the consignment may only be subject to retention.

(5) If seizure is ordered by the court or the prosecutor, they may request the assistance of the investigating authority for the execution of the order.

(6)[430] If the prosecutor or the investigating authority is not entitled to order the seizure, but immediate action is required, the property may be taken into custody.  In this case, the order for seizure shall be obtained subsequently, as early as possible from the party entitled to issue it.  The property shall be released from custody and returned to the owner if seizure is not ordered by the party entitled to issue such order.

 

Section 152 (1)[431] In order to effectuate the seizure, the owner of the property, computer system or data medium containing data recorded by such system or the data manager shall be demanded to surrender the subject of the seizure or, when appropriate, make the data recorded by a computer system available.  Failure to obey the above demand voluntarily may be subject to disciplinary penalty, provided however, that no disciplinary penalty may be imposed on the defendant, a person entitled to refuse to testimony as a witness and persons who may not be heard as a witness.  The refusal to surrender the property shall not prevent obtaining the property or data recorded by a computer system by way of a search or body search.  The person affected shall be warned thereof.

(2) Letters and other written communication between the defendant and the counsel for the defendant, and the notes of the counsel for the defendant pertaining to the case may not be seized.

(3) Letters and other written communication between the defendant and a person who may refuse to testify as a witness under Section 82 (1) may not be seized, when they are kept by the latter person.

(4) Documents the contents of which may be subject to the refusal of a testimony may not be seized, either, when they are kept by the person who may reuse to testify as a witness.  This restriction shall also apply to the papers and properties kept at the official premises of a person who may refuse to testify as a witness pursuant to Section 82 (1) c).

(5)[432] The restrictions set forth in subsections (3) and (4) shall not apply, if

  1. a) the person entitled to refuse to testify as a witness is suspected on reasonable grounds to be an accomplice, an accessory, an abettor, or a receiver in the case,
  2. b) the property to be seized is the instrument of the criminal offence,
  3. c) the person entitled to refuse to testify as a witness voluntarily surrenders the property after being advised of the provisions of subsections (3) and (4).

 

Section 153 (1) It shall be ensured that the contents of documents are not disclosed to unauthorised persons.

(2)[433] If the prosecutor is not present at the detection of a document in respect of which its holder believes to have the right to refuse to testify as a witness pursuant to Section 82 (1) b) and the owner of the document or the defence counsel, representative or appointed representative thereof denies his consent to examine the contents of the document, the data medium containing the document or the document itself shall be handed over in a sealed envelope to the investigating authority, which will then forward the document in the sealed envelope to the prosecutor without examination.  If the above solution is not feasible, the investigating authority shall arrange for the safekeeping of the document by applying Section 154 (3) as appropriate.  After the examination of the document, the prosecutor shall make a decision on the seizure thereof, or – in the case of documents falling under the scope of Section 151 (3) – on submitting the motion for the seizure thereof to the court. Should the prosecutor or the court not order the seizure, the document may not be admitted as a means of evidence either in that case or in other criminal proceedings.

(3) At the request of the owner of the document, a certified copy shall be issued on the document seized, unless this jeopardises the interests of the procedure.

 

Section 154 (1)[434] Any property seized shall be deposited; if it is unsuitable for depositing or other important reasons justify it, its safe-keeping shall be arranged in another manner. In the latter case, a document or photograph reflecting the unique features of the property related to the criminal offence shall be attached to the files of the case.  Property left in the care of the concerned person or given to the care of another oganisation cannot be given to the possession or administration of someone else without the consent of the court, prosecutor or investigating authority which ordered seizure. The new possessor or administrator shall be ordered to preserve the property, if the court, the prosecutor or investigating authority gives its consent.

(2) The property seized shall be listed in a report or other document indicating their quantity, value, condition and other features making them suitable for individual identification.

(3) The property seized shall be kept in a way ensuring that the property is reserved unchanged and easily identifiable, and that prevent the disappearance of any traces of the criminal offence or the exchange of the property seized.

 

Section 155 (1)[435] Seizure shall be terminated by the court, the prosecutor or the investigating authority, if it does not serve the interests of the procedure any longer; while seizure shall be terminated if the investigation has been terminated, or if its maximum period – including the case regulated in the second sentence of Section 176 (2) – has expired without extension.  In lieu of the termination of seizure, actions stipulated in another legal regulation shall apply, if the possession of the property seized violates the law.  Prior to filing the indictment, seizure ordered by the court may also be terminated by the prosecutor.

(2) Upon terminating seizure, the property shall be returned to the person who can authentically verify having been the owner of the property seized at the time of the perpetration of the criminal offence.

(3) If no person exists to whom the property shall be returned under subsection (2) and the files of the procedure contain no data thereon, either, the property shall be returned to the person whose announced claim for the property seems justified.

(4) In the absence of a person to whom the property shall be returned under subsection (3), or the files of the procedure contain no data on such claim, the property shall be returned to the person from whom it was seized.

(5) Any property seized may only be returned to the defendant, if no other person exists to whom it may be returned under subsections (2) – (4).

(6)[436] Based on a court decision, the property seized from the defendant shall become state property, if the identity of the person to whom it is due beyond doubt cannot be established.  late claimants may claim the return of the property or the amount realised on the sale thereof.  The application of the claim shall be decided upon by the court having the competence and jurisdiction under the Code of Civil Procedure.

(7)[437] Upon the termination of seizure, if the property cannot be returned in kind, the amount realised on its preliminary sale, reduced by handling and storage expenses and increased by the prevailing statutory interest computed until the day of refund shall be refunded.  In the case of dutiable goods, the amount realised on the sale shall be paid following the settlement specified in the customs regulations.  Any excess claims may be enforced by the beneficiary according to the rules of civil law.  In the event of unfounded seizure, the amount realised on its preliminary sale may not be reduced by handling and storage expenses.  The above shall be stated in the decision of the court, prosecutor or investigating authority making the decision on the termination of seizure.

(8)[438] If the property seized has no value and is not claimed by anyone, it shall be destroyed after the termination of the seizure.

(9)[439] If the sequestration was not performed in order to ensure confiscation or confiscation of property, and the expert has already examined the sequestrated materials, another expert has not been ordered upon the request of the authorized therefore, and the court, the prosecutor or the investigating authority do not consider reasonable another expert examination, the sequestration shall be terminated.

 

Preliminary sale and confiscation of seized property  [440]

Section 156 (1) The court shall order the sale of the property seized, if

  1. a) it is liable to fast deterioration,
  2. b) it is unsuitable for long-term storage.

(2) The court may also order the sale of the property seized, if

a)[441] management, storage and safekeeping of the property – taking into consideration in particular, the value or the foreseeable long term of the storage thereof – involves unreasonable and high expenses,

  1. b) the value of the property significantly diminished owing to the foreseeable long term of the storage thereof.

(3) If subsections (1)–(2) apply, the property seized may only be sold, if no lawful claim has been received for the return thereof.

(4) The amount realised on the sale of the property seized shall replace the property seized.

(5)[442] If the possession of the seized property threatens public order or violates the law, the court – until the indictment is filed, at the motion of the prosecutor – shall order its confiscation, simultaneously with taking samples there from, if deemed necessary.

Retention of seized property

Section 157 (1)[443] The property to be returned to the defendant may be retained to ensure coverage for a fine as main or ancillary penalty, forfeiture of property, costs of criminal proceedings or civil claims imposed on him; such retention shall be regulated in the conclusive decision.

(2) Retention ensuring the enforcement of a civil claim shall be terminated if the private party failed to request its execution within 60 days following the expiry of the agreed date of performance, or after being instructed to use other legal means to enforce the civil claim, fails to prove within 60 days that he has filed a request for a precautionary measure in a civil suit.

Common rules

Section 158 (1) Measures taken in order to conduct a search, body search and seizure shall be effected with due respect to the person affected, if possible, between the hours of 6:00 A.M. and 24:00 P.M. of the day.  Due care shall be exercised in order to prevent the disclosure of private circumstances not connected with the criminal proceedings and unnecessary damage.

(2) The report on the measure shall indicate the place and circumstances where and under which the physical evidence or other property or object was found.

(3) Anyone interfering with the measure taken in order to perform search, body search or seizure may be forced to tolerate such measures and – with the exception of the defendant – may be subject to a disciplinary penalty.

(4) The investigating authority shall execute the orders of the court concerning a search, body search and seizure by the deadline.

 

Title VIII[444]

ORDER TO RESERVE COMPUTER DATA

 

Section 158/A[445] (1) Compulsion to reserve data means the temporary restriction of the right of disposal of a person possessing, processing or managing data recorded by a computer system (hereinafter: computer data) over specific computer data, in order to investigate and prove a criminal offence.

(2) The court, the prosecutor or the investigating authority shall order the reservation of computer data constituting a means of evidence or required to trace any means of evidence or the establishment of the identity or location of a suspect.

(3) From the time of being notified of the order, the obliged party shall reserve the data recorded by the computer system designated in the order, and ensure its safe storage, if necessary, separately from other data files.  The obliged party shall prevent the modification, deletion, destruction of the computer data, as well as the transmission and unauthorised copying thereof and unauthorised access thereto.

(4) The party ordering the reservation of data may affix its advanced electronic signature on the data to be reserved.  If the reservation of the data at its original location considerably hindered the activity of the obliged party to process, manage, store or transmit data, the obliged party may, with the permission of the issuer of the order, ensure reservation by copying the data into another data medium or computer system.  After the copy has been made, the issuer of the order may wholly or partially relieve the restrictions concerning the data medium and computer system holding the original data.

(5) While the measure is in effect, the data to be reserved may solely be accessed by the court, prosecutor or investigating authority having issued the order, and – with their respective permission – the person possessing or managing the data.  The person possessing or managing the data to be reserved may only be provided information of such data with the express permission of the issuer of the order during the effect of the measure.

(6) The obliged party shall forthwith notify the issuer of the order if the data to be reserved has been modified, deleted, copied, transmitted or viewed without authorisation, or an indication of an attempt of the above has been observed.

(7) After issuing the order for reservation, the issuer shall start to review the affected data without delay, and depending on its findings, and either order the seizure of the data by copying them to the computer system or other data medium, or terminate the order for their reservation.

(8) The obligation to reserve data shall be in effect until the seizure of the data, but no longer than for 3 months.  The obligation to reserve the data shall terminate if the criminal proceeding has been concluded.  The obliged party shall be advised of the conclusion of the criminal proceeding.

 

Title IX  [446]

SEQUESTRATION AND PRECAUTIONARY MEASURE[447]

Sequestration [448]

Section 159[449] (1) Sequestration means the suspension of the right of disposal over sequestered assets and property rights. Sequestration shall be ordered by the court.

(2) If the proceeding concerns a criminal offence where confiscation of property may be ordered, or if a civil claim is enforced and there is reasonable ground to fear that its satisfaction will be frustrated, sequestration may be ordered on the defendant’s entire property, designated part thereof or certain assets in order to ensure coverage for the above.  Sequestration may be ordered in respect of the property, designated part thereof or certain assets which may be subjected to confiscation of property but which are not in the possession of the defendant.

(3) If forfeiture of real estate needs to be ordered, sequestration must be ordered therefore.

(4) Sequestration shall be entered into authentic records immediately.If there is no authentic record determined by separate laws the business association concerned by sequestration shall be notified thereof.

(5) In order to ensure the coverage for the civil claim enforced by the private party sequestration may be ordered only at the motion of the private party therefore. During the investigation, sequestration may be ordered at the victim’s motion as well. If the court ordered confiscation of property on real estate in its non-effective final judgment, it may order sequestration of the real estate until the conclusive conclusion of the procedure.

(6) The sequestration shall be lifted, if

  1. a) the cause for ordering it has ceased to exist, if the investigation has been terminated or its maximum period has expired, unless the claimant of the sequestered asset or the right of disposal over property rights has initiated civil proceedings to uphold his claim within 60 days,
  2. b) sequestration was ordered to secure coverage for a specific sum of money, and this amount has been deposited,
  3. c) the proceeding has been concluded without applying confiscation of property, or the civil claim has been dismissed,
  4. d) upon winning a civil claim, the private party failed to request its execution within 30 days following the expiry of the agreed date of performance,
  5. e) after the civil claim has been referred to other legal ways, the prosecutor or the private party fails to prove the enforcement of their claim within 60 days.

(7) The deadline specified in subsection (6) a), d) and e) shall be calculated from the communication of the decision on lifting the sequestration, terminating the investigation, awarding the civil claim or referring the civil claim to be enforced by other legal means.

(8) The sequestration may be terminated by the prosecutor until filing the indictment.

Precautionary measure

Section 160[450] (1) Precautionary measure is taken to affect sequestration, with the aim to temporarily prevent the defendant or other interested party from exercising their right of disposal over their movable or real estate, securities representing property rights, funds managed by a financial institution under a contract or due share or ownership interest in a business organisation.

(2) The prosecutor or the investigating authority may apply precautionary measure, if probable cause exists to believe that the conditions for sequestration prevail and the defendant attempts or there is reasonable cause to believe that the defendant has attempted to conceal the property specified in subsection (1), to transfer, alienate or encumber the rights of disposal there over.

(3)[451] As a precautionary measure, the investigating authority or the prosecutor shall seize the property specified in subsection (1) – except for real estate – , or requests the authorities listed in Section 61 to take the actions falling under their scope of competence.  The authorities shall take immediate action and notify the investigating authority or the prosecutor thereof without delay.

(4) The investigating authority or the prosecutor may also contact agencies and business organisations other than those listed in Section 61 in order to freeze the property of the defendant and to register the precautionary measure.  The agencies contacted shall forthwith register the request to execute the precautionary measure, arrange the freezing of the property and notify the requesting investigating authority or the prosecutor thereof.

(5) Precautionary measure may primarily be implemented against a person whose right of disposal would be suspended by the sequestration.  However, it may also be implemented against other persons who maintain contact with, or there is reasonable cause to believe that would contact the defendant in order to conceal the property or to transfer or alienate the rights of disposal there over.

(6) After the registration of the precautionary measure, the subject of the measure shall tolerate the temporary suspension of his right of disposal.

(7) Following a precautionary measure, an order for sequestration shall be motioned for without delay with the notification of the person affected – unless this jeopardises the effectuation thereof.  In the absence of a court order for sequestration, the precautionary measure shall be annulled without delay.

 

Title X [452]

SECURING THE ORDER OF PROCEEDINGS

Disciplinary penalty

Section 161 (1) In the cases specified in this Act, in the interest of maintaining order or due to the violation of procedural obligations, a disciplinary penalty may be imposed in the range of one thousand HUF to two hundred thousand HUF, or, in especially grave or recurring cases, up to five hundred thousand HUF.

(2) The amount of the disciplinary penalty shall be established taking into consideration the gravity and consequences of the underlying act.

(3) The decision on the imposition of a disciplinary penalty shall fall in the competence of the court and the prosecutor.

(4) The appeal against the imposition of the disciplinary penalty shall have a dilatory effect.

(5)[453] Upon defaulting the payment of the disciplinary penalty imposed pursuant to Section 69 (1) b) or c), (1a), (2) and (5), Section 93, Section 106 (3), Section 113 (1) or (2), Section 123 (4), Section 152 (1), Section 158 (3), Section 185 (3), Section 245 (4) and Section 343 (1), it may be replaced to confinement by the court.  When replacing disciplinary penalty with confinement, the amounts ranging between one thousand to five thousand HUF shall be converted into one day of confinement each.  Confinement effected in lieu of the payment of the disciplinary penalty may be neither shorter than one day, nor longer than one hundred days.  The obligor shall be warned thereof in the decision imposing the disciplinary penalty.

(6)[454] The decision of the replacement of the disciplinary penalty imposed by the prosecutor shall be made by the investigating judge competent at the seat of the prosecutor’s office based on the documents.

(7)[455] The decision on the replacement of the disciplinary penalty with confinement under subsections (5) and (6) may not be appealed.  The execution of the confinement shall be governed by the legal regulations pertaining to administrative offences, provided that the confinement may only be postponed or interrupted if the obligor requires hospital treatment and only for the duration thereof.  The confinement shall be spent in a penal institution.

Apprehension

Section 162 (1)[456] Apprehension is an action restricting personal freedom in order to compel the attendance of the person before the court, the prosecutor or the investigating authority or in a procedural action.

(2) The warrant for apprehension of persons specified by law shall be made by the court, the prosecutor or the investigating authority.

(3)[457] The apprehension shall be executed by the police.  The apprehension may also be executed by other investigating authority acting in its own jurisdiction in the case investigated.  The police officer or the investigating authority shall accompany the person affected to the place designated in the order for apprehension; in order for this, if necessary, they may apply coercive or other measures in compliance with the law governing their operation.

(4) As a rule, the apprehension shall be executed between the hours of 6:00 A.M. and 24:00 P.M. of the day.

(5) Instead of the apprehension, the court, the prosecutor or the investigating authority may also order the police officer to oversee that the person affected starts on his way, if there is reasonable cause to believe that the objective of the arrest can thus be attained.

(6) For the apprehension of a soldier [Section 122 (1) of the Criminal Code], his commanding officer shall be contacted.

(7)[458] The costs of the apprehension shall be borne by the person designated by the order for apprehension. In case of uneffective apprehension, the court, prosecutor or investigating authority, which ordered the apprehension, may exempt the person obliged to bear the costs of apprehension for a reason worthy of special recognition at his own motion.

Application of bodily force

Section 163 (1) The court, the prosecutor or the investigating authority ordering a procedural action may decide to apply bodily force if there is reasonable cause to believe that this is required in order to ensure a procedural action or to effect an evidentiary action.  The application of bodily force may also be ordered by the court, the prosecutor or the investigating authority performing the procedural action or the evidentiary action.

(2) Bodily force may be applied against the defendant, the victim, the witness and other persons obstructing the procedural action.

(3) For the application of bodily force, the court and the prosecutor shall primarily use the police.

(4) In exceptional cases, the prison guard attending the procedural action of the court may also be used to apply bodily force; this however, shall not extend to bodily force applied in the interest of an evidentiary action.

 

PART TWO

Chapter IX

THE INVESTIGATION

Title I

GENERAL PROVISIONS

Basic provision

Section 164 (1) Unless otherwise provided for in this Act, criminal proceedings shall commence with an investigation.

(2) The aim of the investigation is to conduct an inquiry into the criminal offence, identify the offender, a well as to locate and secure the means of evidence.  The facts of the case shall be probed to such an extent that enables the accuser to decide on presenting a case for the prosecution.

The relationship of the prosecutor and the investigating authority

Section 165[459] (1) The investigation shall be conducted according to the orders of the prosecutor.  The prosecutor shall instruct the investigating authority.  The prosecutor shall have the right to examine the records of the investigating authorities specified in separate laws and to use the data therein.  In order to perform certain investigatory actions, the prosecutor may request the help of the investigating authority, even if the investigation is conducted by the prosecutor himself.

(2) The investigating authority shall perform the instructions of the prosecutor regarding the investigation of the case by the deadline and inform the prosecutor verbally or in writing – as instructed – on ordering the investigation and the status of the case.  If the investigating authority finds that a procedural action is necessary but the decision thereon falls in the competence of the court or the prosecutor, it shall inform the prosecutor thereof immediately.

(3) The prosecutor may instruct the investigating authority to prepare for his decisions.

(4) The provisions of subsections (1) to (3) shall also be applied if the investigating authority conducts the investigation independently pursuant to Section 35 (2).

(5) The prosecutor gives the order; the investigating authority gives the information – except the case of section (6) – in written.

(6) In case if it permits no delay the prosecutor may give the order, the investigating authority may give information in words as well, but the prosecutor must give the order, the investigating authority must give information later immediately in written.

(7) The head of the investigating authority may file a motion against the order of the prosecutor to the Superior Prosecutor by the way of its superior body. The superior body shall forward the motion with defining its factual and professional opinion to the Superior Prosecutor. The motion has no delaying effect.

(8) The Superior Prosecutor examines the documents of the case upon the motion and shall inform the submitter about the result, legal point of view within 15 days reckoned from the arrival of the motion in written.

Section 165/A[460]

 

The minutes

Section 166 (1) Unless provided otherwise in this Act, the prosecutor and the investigating authority shall take minutes on the investigatory actions, including the measures implemented by the prosecutor and the investigating authority.  The minutes shall be drawn up by the keeper of minutes or a member of the investigating authority.

(2) The minutes shall contain

  1. a) the name of the authority proceeding in the case,
  2. b) the description of the criminal offence underlying the proceeding and the name of the suspect,
  3. c) the place and time of the investigatory action,

d)[461] the name of the prosecutor, the member of the investigating authority, the person participating in the proceeding and the representative thereof, the witness, the lawyer acting on behalf of the witness, the official witness and the keeper of minutes present,

  1. e) the name of the defendant and witness questioned and the expert heard, as well as other personal data specified in this Act.

(3)[462] The minutes shall contain the brief description of the course of the investigatory action so that it can also serve as the basis of verifying compliance with the procedural rules.  The testimony of the suspect and the witness as well as motions and observations made during the investigatory action shall be detailed to the necessary extent in the minutes.  The person questioned may motion for a word-by-word transcription of his testimony.  If the prosecutor or the investigating authority considers the motion unjustified, they may reject it, and shall simultaneously advise the person questioned of the provisions set forth in Section 85 (5) and (6); both the rejection of the motion and the advice shall be included in the minutes.

(4) If the expert presents the expert opinion verbally, the inclusion thereof in the minutes shall be governed by the provisions of subsection (3).

(5) The minutes shall be signed by the prosecutor or the member of the investigating authority performing the investigatory action and the keeper of minutes.  The suspect, the witness and the interpreter shall sign each page of the minutes.  If the suspect, the witness or the interpreter refuses to sign the minutes, both the fact of the refusal and the stated or known reason therefore shall be included in the minutes.

(6) The request of the suspect, the defence counsel, the victim, other interested party, the witness or the lawyer acting on behalf thereof attending the investigatory action request the inclusion of an event or statement related to the procedure in the minutes, this may only be rejected if the prosecutor or the member of the investigating authority is not cognisant of such occurrence.

(7)[463] The minutes shall be corrected or supplemented, as necessary, by the prosecutor or the member of the investigating authority, who shall sign such corrections and supplements and notify those interested thereof.  Those who attended the investigatory action may motion for the correction or supplementation of the minutes after learning the contents thereof.  The correction shall be noted in the minutes with the indication of the date, or the rejection of the motion shall be entered in the records.

 

Section 167 (1) The prosecutor and the investigating authority may order the recording of the investigatory action by shorthand, a video or audio recorder or other equipment, at the motion of the suspect, the defence counsel or the victim filed simultaneously with an advance payment of the costs.  Such recording shall not substitute the minutes, however, in the case of the concurrent voice and video recording made by the prosecutor or the investigating authority the minutes shall only contain the names of those present, and the place, time and other conditions of the recording. [464]

(2) The note of the stenographer, the video or audio record or the recording made of the investigatory action by other means shall be kept according to the provisions of a separate legal regulation.

(3) To the stenographer, the provisions pertaining to experts shall be applied.

The report

Section 168 (1)[465] Unless the prosecutor provides otherwise, the member of the investigating authority may also prepare a report on his investigatory actions in lieu of the minutes.  The prosecutor may order the repetition of certain investigatory actions and drawing up minutes thereon. No report shall be prepared about the interrogation of the suspect and the witness, furthermore about confrontation.

(2)[466] The report shall contain the data specified in Section 166 (2) a)–c) and e), the identification of the procedural actions implemented and the brief description thereof so that it can also serve as the basis of verifying compliance with the procedural rules.

(3) The report shall be signed by the member of the investigating authority implementing the action.

(4)[467] Observations taken in the course of the completing the denunciation may be recorded in a report. The report shall contain the name of the authority acting in the case, the place, date and summary of the procedural action.

The decision

Section 169 (1)[468] The prosecutor or the investigating authority shall make a decision on the following: exclusion (Section 32, Section 39), the dispensation of the counsel for the defendant from the appointment and the establishment of the fee of the appointed defence counsel [Section 48 (6) and (9)], revoking the appointment of the defence counsel if the reason therefore has ceased to exist (section 49 (2) ), the judgement of the application for justification (Section 66), compulsion to bear the costs resulting from omission or absence (Section 69), merging, separation and transmittal of the case (section 72), determination of the cost of the criminal procedure (section 74 (2) ), Personal exemption from bearing the cost of the case and the order of bearing the caused costs (section 74 (3)-(4) ), the dismissal of the claim of the witness and the expert for exemption [Section 94, Section 113 (3)], the assignment of an expert (Section 100, Section 111), the exclusion of an expert (Section 103), relief of the expert from the assignment (Section 104), the establishment of the expert fee [Section 105 (6)], the order, exclusion, release, determination of the remuneration of the interpreter (section 114), coercive measures (Chapter VIII) – with the exception of application of bodily force (Section 163) –, correction of the decision (section 169 (5)), the rejection of a denunciation (Section 174), the suspension of the proceeding (Section 188), the resumption of the procedure after the suspension of the investigation (section 188), the termination of the investigation (Section 190, Section 192); The resumption of the procedure after the termination of the investigation (section 191), further, the prosecutor shall also adopt a decision on the involvement of an expert (Section 112), the extension of the deadline of the investigation (Section 176), the partial omission of the investigation (Section 187) and the evaluation of a complaint [Section 195 (4)], evaluation of the appeal against the urgent investigation actions[section 195 (7)] .  The prosecutor or the investigating authority may adopt other measures in the form of a decision as well.

(2) The decision shall contain the name and the personal data suitable for the identification of person to whom the disposition applies.  The decision shall indicate

  1. a) the name of the prosecutor or the investigating authority,
  2. b) a criminal offence underlying the proceeding,
  3. c) the disposition stated in the decision and the underlying legal regulation,

d)[469] whether it is subject to legal remedy, as well as the deadline and the investigating authority, prosecutor’s office or court at which it must be filed.

(3) The decision shall be briefly justified by stating the facts leading to the disposition therein.

(4) The decision shall be recorded in minutes or put into writing in another manner, and communicated to the party to whom it concerns as well as to the party whose procedural rights are affected thereby.  The defence counsel shall also be informed of decisions communicated to the suspect.  The decision shall be handed over to those present and also communicated verbally; in other cases it shall be served on the parties concerned.

(5)[470] In the event of a confusion of names or numbers, a calculation error or other clerical errors, the prosecutor or the investigating authority may order the correction thereof both in response to a motion or ex officio.  The correction shall be noted in the decision.

 

Title II

INSTITUTING CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS BY AN INVESTIGATION

The ground for starting an investigation

Section 170 (1) The investigation starts either based on data coming to the cognisance of the prosecutor or the investigating authority within his official competence or the member of the investigating authority in his official capacity, or on a complaint.

(2)[471] The investigation is ordered by the prosecutor or the investigating authority, who/which shall prepare a memorandum thereon.  The memorandum shall indicate the underlying criminal offence and the starting date of the investigation.  If the investigation is initiated due to a denunciation, as a rule, the order of the investigation shall be noted on the document recording the complaint.

(3)[472] The decision on ordering an investigation shall be adopted within 3 days following receipt of the denunciation, unless the denunciation is rejected.  The investigating authority shall notify the prosecutor of the investigation ordered or denunciation rejected within twenty-four hours.  If the denunciation was not lodged by the victim, but the person of the victim is known, he shall also be informed of the order for the investigation.  The persons receiving notification on the order for starting or terminating an investigation in addition to those specified in this Act are stipulated in separate laws.

(4)[473] The investigation may commence without an order, if the prosecutor or the investigating authority implements an investigatory action in order to secure the means of evidence, identify the suspect, prevent the suspect from absconding, and conclude the criminal offence or perpetration of a further criminal offence or for other high-priority reasons.  The fact and date of starting the investigation shall be recorded in a memorandum subsequently without delay.

(5)[474] The investigatory action stipulated in subsection (4) may be conducted by any investigating authority; however, it shall notify the investigating authority having competence and jurisdiction without delay.

(6)[475] No investigation may be launched due to the forgery of public deeds (Section 274 of the Criminal Code), if the forged or falsified travel document or the authentic travel document issued to the name of another person is used by a foreign citizen to enter the territory of the country, provided that an immigration control procedure may be instituted.  This provision shall not apply, if an investigation must be started against the same foreign citizen for the perpetration of another criminal offence as well.

The denunciation

Section 171 (1) Anyone may lodge a denunciation concerning a criminal offence.  It is obligatory to lodge a denunciation, if failure to do so constitutes a criminal offence.

(2) Members of the authority and official persons, further, if prescribed by a separate legal regulation, public bodies shall be obliged to lodge a denunciation – also identifying the offender, if his person is known – concerning a criminal offence coming to their cognisance within their scope of competence.  The means of evidence shall be attached to the denunciation, or, if this is not practicable, their safekeeping shall be arranged for.

 

Section 172 (1) Generally, the denunciation shall be made with the prosecutor or the investigating authority verbally or in writing.  Verbal denunciations shall be recorded in minutes.  The denunciation shall be forthwith entered into the records.

(2) The denunciation may be received by other authorities and the court as well, but they shall forward it to the investigating authority.  If the denunciation required prompt action, its receipt may not be rejected.

(3) If the denunciation was not filed with the prosecutor or investigating authority having competence and jurisdiction in the case, it shall still be taken over and recorded in minutes, and be forwarded to the party entitled to act.

(4) To denunciations communicated by way of a telephone or other technical equipment the provisions stipulated in subsection (1) above shall apply as appropriate.

 

The completion of the denunciation[476]

 

Section 172/A[477] (1) If according to the report no decision could be made satisfyingly on initiating the investigation or rejecting the denunciation, the denunciation shall be completed.

(2)[478] The authority completing the denunciation may gather certain information regulated by section 178 (1), in the course of completing the denunciation, furthermore, it may hear the denouncer and record its observations taken in the course of completing the denunciation. The deadline for completing the denunciation shall not exceed 15 days. This deadline may be lengthened for another 15 days if there is a justified reason therefore by the chief officer of the authority completing the denunciation.

(3) If after the denunciation has been completed the investigation was initiated, the deadline of the investigation shall be counted from the day the completion of the denunciation was ordered.

The private motion

Section 173 (1) In the case of a criminal offence which may only be prosecuted based on a private motion, no criminal proceedings can be instituted unless the entitled party lodges a complaint.  Any statement of the party putting forward the private motion requiring the offender to be held liable under criminal law shall be regarded as a private motion.

(2) A statement shall be obtained from the party entitled to file a private motion, if it is realised after the start of the investigation that the criminal offence may only be prosecuted based on a private motion.

(3) The private motion shall be put forward within 30 days after the party entitled to make a private motion learnt the identity of the offender.  In the case specified in subsection (2) this deadline shall be calculated from the day when the party entitled to make a private motion gained cognisance of the request.  The relative of a deceased victim may file the private motion during the period until the lapse of the deadline.

(4) An application for the justification for missing the deadline putting forward a private motion may only be submitted, if the criminal offence is subject to public prosecution.

Rejection of the denunciation

Section 174 (1) The prosecutor shall reject the denunciation coming to his cognisance within 3 days in a decision, if the following can be established from the denunciation itself:

  1. a) the action does not constitute a criminal offence,
  2. b) the suspicion of a criminal offence is absent,
  3. c) a ground for the preclusion of punishability exists (Section 22 of the Criminal Code),

d)[479] no proceeding may be instituted due to death, statutory limitation or pardon,

  1. e) there is no private motion, request or denunciation,
  2. f) the action has already been adjudicated by a final decision.

(2) In the cases specified in subsection (1) a)–b) and d)–f) and when punishability is precluded because the offender is a child [Section 22 a) of the Criminal Code], the denunciation may also be rejected by the investigating authority.

(3) The denunciation may not be rejected, if

  1. a) an order for involuntary treatment in a mental institution appears necessary,

b)[480] regardless of punishability, confiscation or forfeiture of property may be applied, unless the evidence to institute a procedure for confiscation or forfeiture of property is available.

(4) The rejection of the denunciation shall be notified to the denouncer and the party having filed a private motion.  The investigating authority shall send its decision on the rejection of the complaint to the prosecutor without delay.

(5)[481]

 

Section 175 (1) If there are reasonable grounds to suspect that a criminal offence has been committed, the prosecutor or – with the permission of the prosecutor – the investigating authority may reject the denunciation, if the person who may be reasonably suspected of having committed the criminal offence co-operates in the investigation of or proving the case or another criminal offence to such an extent that the interests of national security or law enforcement takes priority over the interest to enforce the claim of the state under criminal law.

(2)[482] If there are reasonable grounds to suspect that a criminal offence has been committed, the prosecutor shall reject the denunciation in a decision, if the person who may be reasonably suspected of having committed the criminal offence is an covert investigator [Section 178 (2)], who committed the action in line of duty in the interest of law enforcement, and the latter interest takes precedence over the interest to enforce the claim of the state under criminal law.

(3)[483] Upon rejecting the complaint pursuant to subsections (1) or (2), compensation for the damage imputable to the offender under civil law shall be paid by the state.  If compensation is required to be awarded in a civil suit, the legal ground of the claim for compensation shall be assumed.

(4)[484] In a civil suit the state shall be represented by the minister of justice.  Prior to the adjudication of the claim, the court proceeding in the civil suit shall obtain the statement of the prosecutor’s office which made the decision on the rejection of the denunciation concerning the action committed to the injury of the plaintiff and the damage caused by such action.  The statement of the prosecutor may not extend to facts which suggest the person who committed the crime or the reason for terminating the investigation.

(5)[485] If the denunciation is rejected pursuant to subsection (1) or (2), the decision shall comprise a purview and the date.  The purview contains the description of the criminal offence, the fact that the denunciation was rejected, and information on the methods to enforce a claim for damage sustained in connection with the criminal offence against a state.

(6)[486] The denunciation may not be rejected pursuant to subsection (1) or (2), if the person specified in subsection (1) or the covert investigator can be reasonably suspected of having committed a criminal offence involving deliberate murder.

(7)[487] The criminal proceeding instituted against the person specified in subsection (1) or the covert investigator shall be separated from the case in which the evidence uncovered by the person specified in subsection (1) or the covert investigator is intended to be used.

 

Section 175/A[488] (1) In case there are reasonable grounds to suspect that a criminal offence has been committed the prosecutor shall reject the denunciation by a decision, if the person who may be reasonable suspected of having committed the criminal offence is a member of a body managing internal crime prevention and investigation defined by the Act on police, and who committed the crime in the course of examining credibility in the interest of crime prevention and investigation.

(2) The denunciation may not be rejected if the person specified in subsection (1) can be reasonably suspected of having committed a criminal offence defined by section 7/B (2) b) of Act on the police.

(3) In case the denunciation is rejected section 175 (3)-(5) shall be applied as appropriate.

 

Title III

THE RULES OF INVESTIGATION

Deadline of the investigation

Section 176[489] (1)[490] The investigation shall commence within the shortest possible period and concluded within 2 months reckoned from its order of commencement or start.  If it is justified by the complexity or an unavoidable obstacle, the deadline of the investigation may be extended by 6 months by the prosecutor, and after the lapse of that deadline, by the chief prosecutor up to the lapse of 1 year from the commencement of the criminal proceedings.

(2)[491] Over 1 year the head of the superior prosecutors’ office, over 2 years the Prosecutor General is entitled to extend the deadline of the investigation. If the investigation is conducted against certain person, the extension of the investigation may last for not more than 2 years reckoned from the hearing of the suspect regulated by section 179 (1), except, if the Prosecutor General has extended the deadline of the investigation on the basis of section 193 (3) until the day determined by the permission.

(3)[492] If the prosecutor conducts the investigation, the investigation may be extended by the head of the prosecutors’ office up to the lapse of 1 year reckoned from the day of the investigation has been ordered, thereafter it may be extended by the head of the superior prosecutors’ office  and the Supreme Prosecutor for the time regulated by section (2).

(4)[493]

 

Implementing an investigatory action without a decision

 

Section 177[494] In urgent cases, the prosecutor and the investigating authority may forthwith implement the coercive measures which they are entitled to otherwise order (Section 126, Section 149, Section 150, Section 151, 158/A Section) and may order evidentiary actions (Section 119, Section 121, Section 122) (high priority investigatory action).  The minutes concerning the procedural action shall indicate the fact of urgency and the underlying conditions.

Other data collecting activities of the investigating authority

Section 178[495] (1)[496] After the commencement of the criminal proceeding, the investigating authority may collect data in order to establish the existence and location of means of evidence; in the course of this activity, it may use the law enforcement databases of the police specified in a separate legal regulation,[497] it may, according to the rules of official requests (Section 71) request documents, data and information from any third party, further, it may request an investigation from the head of the denouncing or violated government or local government body, public body, business organisation, foundation, public foundation or civil organisation or the agency entitled to investigate, may inspect the scene of the criminal offence, may employ an advisor, and check the data obtained.  In the course of collecting data, the investigating authority may select a person or object by presenting a photograph or picture recorded on another data medium and request information regarding the presented person or object.

(2) In the course of collecting data, the investigating authority may – with the permission of the prosecutor – use a member of the investigating authority who conceals his capacity (covert investigator), and may also perform data collection – according to the law governing its operation – not subject to judicial permit.

(3) The member of the investigating authority having collected the data shall prepare a report on this activity.  To the contents of the report, the provisions stipulated in Section 168 (2) and (3) shall apply.  The report on data collection under subsection (2) shall be signed by the head of the investigating authority.

(4) If the prosecutor intends to use the result of the data collection activity of the investigating authority, he shall attach the report thereon to the records of the investigation.  After the report on the data collection activity of the investigating authority has been attached to the records of the investigation, it may be used as evidence according to the rules pertaining to documents (Section 116).

 

Section 178/A [498] (1)[499] After ordering the investigation, if deemed necessary owing to the nature of the case, the prosecutor or the investigating authority (with the consent of the prosecutor) may request data – according to the rules of official requests – on the suspect (the person against whom the complaint was filed, and the potentially suspected offender) from organisations managing medical and related data, as well as from organisations managing data classified as business secret in order to uncover the facts of the case. The investigating authority may request data from tax authority, organisations providing communication services, , as well as from organisations managing data classified as bank secret, securities secret, fund secret, the road transport register and land register without obtaining the consent of the prosecutor. The supply of data may not be refused.

(2)[500] If reasonable ground exists to suspect that a specific person has committed a criminal offence, the data in the criminal records and the central records of minor offences on this person shall be obtained and – if the conditions specified in a separate laws exist – also the data from the records of the co-ordination centre for the prevention of organised crime. If reasonable ground exists to suspect that a specific person has committed a criminal offence and this person is a Hungarian citizen, the data in the records of judgments passed against Hungarian citizens by the courts of the Member States of the European Union shall also be obtained.

(3) The investigating authority – with the consent of the prosecutor – may take over personal data specified in a separate legal regulation, produced in the course of the activities of the prosecutor’s office to enforce criminal law and managed in the records of the prosecutor’s office, as well as data from the records of the penal service.

(4) The data received pursuant to subsections (1) to (3) may only be used, if the prosecutor presses charges against the person on whom data was collected.  If the prosecutor does not press charges, the data received shall be deleted.

Section 178/B[501] (1) If the investigating authority establishes according to the data gathered in a manner specified in section 178/A (2) that the records of judgments passed against Hungarian citizens by the courts of the Member States of the European Union contains data regarding the Hungarian accused which concerns a foreign judgment and its validity is not recognized by a Hungarian court – in a procedure specified by the Act on International Legal Aid in Criminal Matters[502] – and it can be reasonably presumed that it would influence the classification – according to the Criminal Code -, sentencing and taking measures of the crime underlying the accusation, if the judgment was taken into account in the  course of the ongoing procedure, the investigation authority shall inform the prosecutor without delay.

(2) If the prosecutor – upon the information given by the investigating authority pursuant to subsection (1) or according to the data obtained in a manner specified by section 178/A (2) –establishes that the records of judgments passed against Hungarian citizens by the courts of the Member States of the European Union contains data regarding the Hungarian accused which concerns a foreign judgment and its validity is not recognized by a Hungarian court – in a procedure specified by the Act on International Legal Aid in Criminal Matters – and it can be reasonably presumed that it would influence the classification – according to the Criminal Code -, sentencing and taking measures of the crime underlying the accusation, if the judgment was taken into account in the  course of the ongoing procedure, the prosecutor shall make motion to the minister of justice in order to recognize the validity of such judgment – in a procedure specified by the Act on International Legal Aid in Criminal Matters – without delay.

(3) If the suspect is not a Hungarian citizen, and it is permitted by a legal action of the European Union or international treaty, the prosecutor or the investigating authority – with the consent of the prosecutor – shall request the criminal registry in order to obtain data – managed by the criminal registry of the state which the suspect is the citizen of – regarding the former sentencing of the accused

(4) The provisions set forth by subsection (1) and (2) shall be applied as appropriate, if the investigating authority or the prosecutor establishes in a manner specified by subsection (3) that the criminal records of the courts of the state which the accused is a citizen of contains data regarding the not Hungarian accused which concerns a foreign judgment and its validity is not recognized by a Hungarian court – in a procedure specified by the Act on International Legal Aid in Criminal Matters – and it can be reasonably presumed that it would influence the classification – according to the Criminal Code -, sentencing and taking measures of the crime underlying the accusation

 

Questioning of the suspect

Section 179 (1)[503] If based on available data reasonable ground exists to suspect that a specific person has committed a criminal offence, the prosecutor or the investigating authority (unless the prosecutor provides for otherwise) shall interrogate the suspect in compliance with Sections 117 and 118.  The detained suspect shall be interrogated within twenty-four hours.  The deadline shall be computed from the time when the suspect was brought before the investigating authority.

(2) At the beginning of the interrogation, the suspect shall be informed of the gist of the suspicion as well as of the applicable legal regulations.

(3) The suspect shall be advised of the right to choose a defence counsel or to request the appointment thereof.  If the participation of the defence counsel in the procedure is obligatory, the suspect shall be warned that upon failing to retain a defence counsel within 3 days, the defence counsel will be appointed by the prosecutor or the investigating authority.  If the suspect states his intention of not retaining a defence counsel, the prosecutor or the investigating authority shall forthwith appoint one.

(4)[504] The interrogation of the suspect shall be conducted by the investigating authority in such time that the defendant shall have enough time and possibility to get prepared for defence [section 43 (2) c)].

(5)[505] The termination of the procedure may take place on the grounds of the reason for ceasing the punishability regulated by section 283 of the Criminal Code according to the documents of the investigation; the suspect shall be informed thereof by the investigating authority.

 

Section 180 (1) The suspect may not be asked a question containing the answer, the statement of a yet unproven fact, or a promise violating the law.

(2) Without the consent of the suspect, his testimony may not be examined with the help of a polygraph.

Questioning of the witness

Section 181[506] (1) The witness shall be questioned by the prosecutor or the investigating authority (unless the prosecutor provides otherwise) in compliance with Sections 79 to 88.  The witness may not be asked a question prohibited by Section 180 (1), or a question suggesting the reply.

(2) If it can be ascertained that the witness incriminates himself or accuses his relative of commiting a crime – except in case of Section 82 (4) – the witness msut be advised again in compliance with Section 82 (1) b). The advice, and the witness’s answer therefore must be enetered into the minutes.

(3) The denouncer may be questioned as a witness.  If the denunciation contains the statement of the denouncer, the questioning of the denouncer as witness may be omitted.

Participation of an advisor

Section 182 (1)[507] The prosecutor and the investigating authority may employ an advisor at investigatory actions, if special knowledge is required for uncovering, obtaining, collecting or recording means of evidence, or the prosecutor or the investigating authority requests information concerning a professional matter.

(2) It is obligatory to employ an advisor, if the testimony of the defendant is examined with the help of a polygraph during the investigation.

(3) If in the course of his procedure, the advisor needs to perform acts affecting the inviolability of the body of a person, the prosecutor or the investigating authority shall make a separate decision thereon.

(4) the provisions pertaining the exclusion of the prosecutor and a member of the investigating authority shall apply to the advisor as appropriate.

(5)[508] The contribution of the advisor shall be recorded in minutes which shall be attached to the records of the investigation.

The official witness

Section 183[509] (1) The prosecutor and the investigating authority may employ official witness at the representation of the minutes of the hearing of an illiterate person – with the exception of unavoidable obstacle – recorded at the inspection, attempt of proof, presentation for identification, seizure, house search and searching. The concerned person shall be informed thereof.

(2) The prosecutor and the investigating authority may employ official witness at the procedural actions regulated by section (1) in case the concerned person is not able to read and write, or the person is not fourteen years old yet ex officio, otherwise on the motion of the suspect, the defence counsel thereof, and the person affected by inspection, seizure, house search and searching. Official witness might be employed ex officio if the person affected by the procedural actions is not able to safeguard his interest because of any other reason.

(3) The official witness shall justify the course and result of the investigating action where he was in present.

(4) Nobody may be compelled to participate as an official witness.

(5) An official witness shall be a disinterested person, who is able to experience and justify the completion of the investigating action. The official witness shall not be the prosecutor, the member or the employee of the investigating authority or the relatives thereof.

(6) The official witness shall be informed about his rights and obligations before the investigating actions. The official witness may make remarks regarding the investigating authority, is entitled to get remuneration according to the provisions about the remuneration of the witness, and is entitled to have personal protection according tot he provisions of this Act. The official witness is bound by the obligation of official secrecy regarding the facts, data; circumstances came to his knowledge in the course of the investigating actions. The court, prosecutor, and the investigating authority, before which the proceedings is in progress, may release the official witness from the obligation of official secrecy regarding facts, data and circumstances affecting the subject of the case.

(7) The investigating action shall be conducted in such way that the official witness shall be able to follow closely.

(8) In the minutes of the investigating actions the following shall be indicated: the name, address of the official witness and the fact that the official witness is a disinterested party regarding the case. In case the official witness made a remark in the course of the investigating action, this shall be contained in the minutes as well. Presence in investigatory actions

 

Section 184 (1) In addition to the prosecutor, the member of the investigating authority and the keeper of minutes, only those may be present in an investigatory action whose presence is permitted by this Act.

(2)[510] If the suspect is questioned by the prosecutor or the investigating authority, the defence counsel may be present at the questioning.  The defence counsel may attend the questioning of a witness if this was motioned for by himself or the suspect he defends, as well as the confrontation held with the participation of such a witness.  The defence counsel attending the questioning may ask questions from the suspect and the witness.

(3) The detained suspect may consult his defence counsel prior to his questioning.

(4)[511] The investigatory action may be attended by the person on practice as a full-time law student of the faculty of political and legal sciences as well as an undergraduate at the Police Academy, if his presence permitted by the prosecutor or the investigating authority, and consented to in writing by the suspect, witness or victim present.

(5)[512] The questioning of a foreign citizen as a suspect or witness may be attended by the official of the consulate of his country.

(6)[513] Pursuant to an international treaty promulgated by law, in the event of a procedure instituted

  1. a) against a foreign citizen suspect or
  2. b) due to criminal offence committed to the injury of a foreign citizen victim

the presence of a member of the authority of the foreign state in the investigatory action shall be allowed.  Notification may be omitted if any delay would pose a danger.  In such a case, the authority of the foreign state shall be notified of the concluded investigatory action subsequently, without delay.

(7)[514] In the case of investigatory actions where the defence counsel may be present, he may be accompanied or substituted by an apprentice lawyer.

(8)[515] If it is necessary for executing their tasks defined by law other members of the authorities may be present at the inspection.

(9)[516]

 

Section 185 (1)[517] The suspect, the defence counsel and the victim may attend the hearing of the expert, the inspection, reconstruction and presentation for identification, may make motions and observations, and may ask questions from the expert.  The notification of the above persons of the investigatory action may be omitted in exceptional cases, if justified by the urgent nature of the investigatory action.  Notification shall be omitted, if it resulted in the disclosure of the confidential data of the witness to the suspect, the defence counsel and the victim.

(2) The suspect may be summoned to attend the inspection and reconstruction, in which case these investigatory actions may not be conducted in his absence.

(3) The prosecutor and the investigating authority may remove a person from the site of the investigatory action whose presence obstructs the procedure, and may compel to be present at the site of the investigatory action to facilitate the investigation.  Those interfering with the procedural order or fail to be present at the site may be subjected to a disciplinary penalty.

 

Section 186 (1) Those having the right to be present in the investigatory action may forthwith inspect the minutes taken thereon.

(2) The suspect, the defence counsel and the victim may inspect the expert opinion during the investigation as well, but they may only inspect other documents if this does not injure the interests of the investigation.

(3) The suspect and the defence counsel shall be entitled to receive a copy of the documents they may inspect.

(4)[518] The personal data of the victim and the witness shall not be recorded on the copies of the documents containing the confession of the victim or the witness, or otherwise containing the personal data thereof and was provided in the course of the investigation or obtained, presented or attached in the course of the investigation. No copies shall be given about the draft of the decision of the prosecutor and the investigating authority. No copies may be given about the documents produced according to section 165 and section 165/A between the prosecutor and the investigating authority, except those containing the legal point of view of the prosecutor and the investigating authority regarding the case – including the document containing the prosecutor’s order regarding the completion of the investigating actions in particular, presuming that such investigating action has been completed successfully-, if it will not come in collision with the interest of the investigation.

 

Partial omission of the investigation

 

Section 187 (1) After the questioning of the suspect, the prosecutor may, in a decision, dispense with further investigation into a criminal offence having no significance for the purpose of liability, due to the perpetration of another, graver criminal offence.

(2) The decision on the partial omission of the investigation shall be notified to the victim, the denouncer and the party who put forward a private motion.  If the decision concerns a larger number of people, it may also be communicated with the method specified in Section 67 (3).

Suspension of the investigation

Section 188 (1) The prosecutor shall suspend the investigation in a decision, if

  1. a) the suspect is absconding or is abroad, and the procedure cannot be continued in his absence,
  2. b) the suspect cannot participate in the procedure due to a permanent and grave illness, or a mental disease acquired after the perpetration of the criminal offence,

c)[519] the identity of the offender cannot be established during the investigation,

  1. d) a decision needs to be obtained on preliminary issues for conducting the procedure,
  2. e) the action of the foreign authority in response to the request of legal aid is required and no further investigatory action needs to be conducted in Hungary,

f)[520] the decision on instituting criminal proceedings needs to be obtained because the criminal offence was committed by a foreign citizen abroad, or

g)[521] in respect of a case falling under its jurisdiction, the international criminal court requests the Hungarian authority to transfer the criminal proceeding,

h)[522] the suspect using drugs submits himself voluntary to drug rehabilitation treatment, or other treatment handling drug abuse or preventive-informative service, and it may result in non-punishability, presuming that no further investigation shall be conducted.

(2)[523] The procedure shall be continued if the cause for its suspension has ceased to exist or in the case specified in subsection (1) g), if the act promulgating the charter of the international criminal court or the act on the execution of the obligations arising from such charter provides so.

(3) The prosecutor may set a maximum one year deadline

  1. a) for the return of a person staying abroad,
  2. b) for the submission of the claim of the interested party, in order to decide on the personal status thereof,
  3. c) [524]

(4) If the deadline set by the prosecutor has elapsed without result, the procedure shall be resumed.

(5) The decision on the suspension of the investigation shall be notified to the suspect if his location is known, the defence counsel, the denouncer and the victim.

(6)[525] After the suspension of the investigation – with the exception of the case specified in subsection (1) a) – investigatory action directly affecting the person of the suspect (perpetrator) may not be conducted.

(7) The period of suspension shall not be calculated in the deadline of the investigation.

 

Section 189 (1)[526] The investigating authority may suspend the investigation in a decision in the cases stipulated in Section 188 (1) a), c), e) and h). The investigating authority shall forward its decision concerning the suspension of the investigation to the prosecutor without delay.

(2)[527] In the case specified in Section 188 (1) c) the prosecutor and the investigating authority shall register the case, and upon obtaining further data on the identity of the offender, shall resume the investigation.

 

Termination of the investigation

Section 190 (1) The prosecutor shall terminate the investigation in a decision, if,

  1. a) the action does not constitute a criminal offence,
  2. b) if, based on the data of the investigation, the perpetration of a criminal offence cannot be established and continued procedure is not expected to yield any result,
  3. c) if the criminal offence was not committed by the suspect, or based on the data of the investigation it cannot be established whether the criminal offence was committed by the suspect,
  4. d) a ground for the preclusion of punishability exists, unless it appears necessary to order involuntary treatment in a mental institution,
  5. e) due to the death of the suspect, statutory limitation or pardon,
  6. f) due to other grounds for the preclusion of punishability stipulated by law,
  7. g) there is no private motion, request or denunciation and they cannot be subsequently submitted,

h)[528] the action has already been adjudicated by a final decision,

i)[529]

j)[530] and applies reprehension, if the action of the suspect is no longer endangering, or endangering just in a so small level the society that the lightest punishment to be imposed  or other measures to be taken according to the law is not necessary.

(2)[531] In the cases specified in subsection (1) a),b), e), g) and h) and if punishability is precluded because the offender is a child [Section 22 a) of the Criminal Code], the investigation may also be terminated by the investigating authority.  The investigating authority shall forward its decision concerning the termination of the investigation to the prosecutor without delay.

(3)[532] If from the hearing of certain person as a suspect 2 years has already passed [section 176 (2)], the prosecutor shall decide on the basis of the documents available that shall the investigation be terminated, or shall the indictment to be filed or postponed or the case to be transferred to mediation process after concluding the procedural actions defined by section 193 (1).

(4)[533] In case the investigation has been terminated the cost of the case shall be borne by the state, the suspect shall be compelled to bear the cost which occurred due to his negligence.

(5)[534] The decision on terminating the investigation shall be disclosed simultaneously to the suspect, the defence counsel, the victim, the complainer and to the person who has filed a private motion.

 

Section 191 (1) Unless an exception is made in this Act, the termination of the investigation shall not prevent the subsequent resumption of the proceeding in the same case.

(2)[535] The resumption of the proceeding shall be ordered by a decision of the prosecutor, while if the investigation was terminated by the prosecutor, of the superior prosecutor.  If the suspect was reprimanded (Section 71 of the Criminal Code), the superior prosecutor shall repeal the decision on the termination of the investigation.

(3)[536] If no objection was raised to the termination of the investigation, or the superior prosecutor did not order the resumption of the investigation, this may only be ordered by the court against the person who was the subject of the previously terminated investigation.

(4) If the court has rejected the motion for the resumption of the investigation, a repeated motion requesting the resumption of the investigation on the same ground may not be filed.

(5)[537] If the denunciation was rejected pursuant to Section 175 (1) or the investigation terminated pursuant to Section 192 (1), a Section 82 (5), the investigation or the resumption thereof may be ordered by the competent prosecutor.

 

Termination of the investigation concerning a co-operating suspect, a covert agent and a person examining credibility[538]

 

Section 192 (1) If there are reasonable grounds to suspect that a criminal offence has been committed, the prosecutor or the investigating authority (with the permission of the prosecutor) may terminate the investigation, if the person who may be reasonably suspected of having committed the criminal offence co-operates in the proving the case or another criminal offence to such an extent that the interests of national security or law enforcement takes priority over the interest to enforce the claim of the state under criminal law.

(2)[539] If there are reasonable grounds to suspect that a criminal offence has been committed, the prosecutor shall terminate the investigation in a decision, if the person who may be reasonably suspected of having committed the criminal offence is a covert investigator [Section 178 (2)], who committed the action in line of duty in the interest of law enforcement, and the latter interest takes precedence over the interest to enforce the claim of the state under criminal law.

(3)[540] The investigation may not be terminated pursuant to subsection (1) or (2), if the person specified in subsection (1) or the covert investigator can be reasonably suspected of having committed a criminal offence involving deliberate murder.

(4)[541] In the event that the investigation is terminated pursuant to subsection (1) or (2), the provisions of Section 175 (3) to (5) shall be applied as appropriate.  However, the termination of the investigation shall not prevent the subsequent resumption of the proceeding in the same case. (Section 191).

(5)- (7)[542]

192/A[543] (1) In case there are reasonable grounds to suspect that a criminal offence has been committed the prosecutor shall terminate the investigation by a decision, if the person who may be reasonable suspected of having committed the criminal offence is a member of a body managing internal crime prevention and investigation defined by the Act on police, and who committed the crime in the course of examining credibility in the interest of crime prevention and investigation.

(2) The investigation may not be terminated if the person specified in subsection (1) can be reasonably suspected of having committed a criminal offence defined by section 7/B (2) b) of Act on the police.

(3) In case the investigation is terminated section 175 (3)-(5) shall be applied as appropriate.

Inspection of the documents of the investigation

Section 193 (1)[544] After the conclusion of the investigation, the prosecutor or (unless the prosecutor provides for otherwise) the investigating authority shall hand over to the suspect and the defence counsel the laced documents of the investigation in a room designated for this purpose.  The suspect and the defence counsel shall be enabled to inspect all documents – with the exception of those treated confidentially – that may serve as the basis for pressing charges.

(2)[545] The deadline for the inspection of the documents shall be notified to the suspect and the defence counsel, the detained suspect – at his own request – shall be brought to the designated room by the closing date.  The suspect and the defence counsel may motion for the supplementation of the investigation, make other motions and observations and request copies of the documents.  The suspect shall be advised of this right.

(3)[546] The motion of the suspect or the defence counsel shall be decided by the prosecutor or the investigating authority. In case further investigating steps shall be taken according to the motion and if it can not be completed within the deadline determined in the second sentence of section 176 (2), the Supreme Prosecutor may on the motion of the prosecutor extend the deadline of the investigation by 90 days in order to take further investigating actions. The documents provided in the course of the concluded investigating actions shall be available for the suspect and the defence counsel until the last day of the extended investigation – with the conditions stipulated in section (1).

(4)[547] The suspect and the defence counsel is entitled to learn the documents provided in the course of the investigating actions determined by section (1) and (3) even after the deadline of the inspection of the documents.

(5)[548] If the investigating authority conducted the representation of the documents of the investigation as regulated by section (1) and (3), the documents shall be sent within 15 days reckoned from the representation of the documents.

(6)[549] The victim shall be informed after the representation of the documents of the investigation as regulated by section (1) and (3) that he has the right to inspect the documents of the investigation and to exercise other rights he is entitled to during the investigation.

(7)[550] The provisions of section (1) shall be applicable in case of terminating the investigation as well.

Section 194 (1) The minutes taken regarding the hand-over of the documents of the investigation in compliance with Section 193 (1) shall contain

  1. a) the description of the documents handed over to the suspect and the defence counsel, and the time of the start and finish of the inspection,
  2. b) the motions and observations made by the suspect and the defence counsel,
  3. c) if applicable, the fact that the suspect or the defence counsel has not exercised his right granted under Section 193 (1).

(2)[551] The suspect using drugs submits himself voluntary to drug rehabilitation treatment, or other treatment handling drug abuse or preventive-informative service, and it is still lasting by the time of the steps of investigation taken according to section 193 (1), this fact shall be indicated in the record, and the document justifying this fact shall be enclosed to the documents of investigation.

 

 

Title IV

Legal remedies in the course of the investigation

Section 195 (1)[552] Anyone affected directly by the dispositions in the decision of the prosecutor or the investigating authority on the rejection of the denunciation, partial omission of the investigation, its suspension and termination, the order of coercive measures (Chapter VIII.), limitation of further pecuniary rights or interests and the establishment of obligations relating to property may file a complaint within 8 days following communication of the decision.

(2)[553] The denouncer may not file a complaint against the rejection of the denunciation, if he is not the victim of the crime.

(3) Unless an exception is provided for in this Act, the complaint shall have no dilatory effect.  In exceptionally justified cases the party having made the decision or judging the complaint may postpone the execution of the decision until the complaint is judged.

(4) If the party having adopted the decision does not sustain the complaint within 3 days, it shall be submitted without delay to the party who is entitled to judge it.  The complaint against the decision of the prosecutor shall be judged by the superior prosecutor, while the complaint against the decision of the investigating authority shall be judged by the prosecutor within 15 days of receipt, or, in the case of a decision on termination, within 30 days in a decision.

(5) The party having filed the complaint – in the case of repealing or modifying a decision, those to whom the decision had been communicated – shall be advised of whether the complaint was admitted or rejected.  With the exception of the cases stipulated in subsection (6), the decision admitting or rejecting the complaint may not be subject to further legal remedies.

(6) Against the decision concerning the rejection of the complaint against decisions made under Section 149 (3), Section 150 (2), Section 151 (4) and Section 153 (2), and the decision of the prosecutor adopted under Section 151 (2) a motion for review may be filed with the prosecutor’s office having made the latter decisions within 8 days of delivery; the prosecutor’s office shall forward the motion for review, together with the documents and its own motion to the court within 3 days.

(6a)[554] The adjudication of the complaint against the order for custody shall be omitted, if the prosecutor motions for an order of preliminary arrest of the defendant at the court.

(7) The legal remedy against an urgent investigatory action shall be governed by the provisions of subsections (1) to (4).

(8)[555] The complaint filed by person excluded by law or not authorized, or filed late shall be dismissed without reasoning.

 

Section 196[556] (1)[557] Anybody, whose rights or interest are directly violated by the measures taken or missed by the prosecutor or the investigating authority may file a complaint within 8 days reckoned from learning about it.

(2) If this Act set forth a deadline for the prosecutor or the investigating authority to complete its actions, a complaint may be filed against the omission of such action only if the deadline has passed unsuccessfully.

(3) No complaint may be filed against the evidentiary procedures regulated by Title VII of Chapter VII, the investigation [section 170 (2)], the order to complete the denunciation (section 172/A), as well as against procedural actions conducted by the investigating authority in the course of gathering information (section 178, section 178/A), the hearing of the witness [section 79 (1), section 180], the participation of a consultant (section 182).

(4) A complaint filed against the neglected measures of the prosecutor or the investigating authority, and excluded by law or filed late may not be declined without reasoning on such grounds.

(5) If the complaint, filed on the basis of section (1), is grounded by whom took measures or omitted to take measures or by whom the complaint is being judged, the necessary and justified actions shall be taken in order to put an end to the situation subjected to the complaint, and the person filed the complaint shall be informed thereof without passing a decision.

(6) The complaint determined by section (1) shall be regulated by section 195.

 

Section 197 (1)[558] If the prosecutor terminated the investigation pursuant to Section 190 (1) e), because punishability has become precluded owing to a pardon initiated ex officio, the suspect may request the resumption of the investigation within 8 days following the communication of the decision concerning the termination of the investigation; in such cases the investigation shall be resumed.

(2)[559] The criminal proceeding shall be resumed if the suspect, in his complaint against the decision on the termination of the investigation claims that reprimand has been prejudicial, there was no other reason for terminating the criminal proceeding.  The suspect shall be advised thereof in the decision. [560]

 

Section 198 (1) If the denunciation was lodged by the victim, he may file a complaint against the decision rejecting the denunciation and request an order for the investigation within 8 days following the communication of the decision.

(2) If the prosecutor terminated the investigation, the victim may file a complaint in order to resume the proceeding within 8 days following the communication of the decision.

 

Section 199 (1) Based on the complaint, the prosecutor or the superior prosecutor shall

  1. a) repeal the decision on the rejection of the denunciation or on the termination of the investigation, and decides to order or resume the investigation or to press charges, or
  2. b) rejects the complaint if it is found unfounded.

(2)[561] After the rejection of the complaint, the victim may act as a substitute private accuser, if

  1. a) the denunciation was rejected pursuant to Section 174 (1) a) or c), or
  2. b) the investigation was terminated pursuant to Section 190 (1) a)d) or f).

(3)[562] The victim may not act as a substitute private accuser, if punishability is precluded because the offender is a child or mentally disabled, or upon the death of the offender.

 

Title V[563]

COVERT DATA-GATHERING SUBJECTED TO JUDICIAL PERMIT[564]

General rules[565]

Section 200[566] (1) In order to establish the identity of the offender, locate or arrest him/her or to find means of evidence which all are subjected to judicial permit, from the time the investigation is ordered until the documents thereof are presented, the prosecutor and the investigating authority may, without informing the person concerned:

  1. a) keep under surveillance and record the events in a private home with a technical device,

b)[567] open and check and record with a technical device the contents of pieces of mail, closed postal matters of a person who can be identified, as well as learn and record with a technical device the communications made by electronic means of communication,

c)[568] learn, record and use the data transmitted and stored by way of a computer or computer system (hereinafter: covert data-gathering).

(2) After the order for the investigation has been issued, the prosecutor and the investigating authority shall gather covert intelligence which is subject to a judicial permit in compliance with this Act.

(3) The provisions set forth in this Title shall not apply to covert intelligence gathering performed prior to the order for an investigation, which is subject to a judicial permit or the permit of the minister of justice; such activity shall be conducted by authorised organisations in compliance the rules governing them and separate legal regulations.

(4) If covert intelligence gathering has commenced under a separate legal regulation issued pursuant to a judicial permit or the permit of the minister of justice prior to the order for an investigation, but then an investigation is ordered, thereafter covert intelligence gathering may only be continued in compliance with the provisions of this Act as covert data-gathering.

(5) For the purposes of subsection (1) a) “private home” means a home, other premises or objects used for dwelling, rooms belonging to the home but not intended to be used for dwelling, the enclosed area attached thereto, as well as any other premises or areas not open for the (general) public.

 

Section 201[569] (1)[570] Covert data-gathering may be applied if

  1. a) the criminal offence was committed intentionally and punishable with imprisonment of 5 years or more,
  2. b) the criminal offence was committed in a businesslike manner or as a part of a criminal association and punishable with imprisonment of up to 3 years,
  3. c) the following criminal offences were committed: violation of freedom of conscience and religion and abuse of authority,

d)[571] the crime committed is punishable with imprisonment of up to 3 years regarding the following crimes: Trafficking in Human Beings, Misuse of Illegal Pornographic Material, Pandering, People Smuggling, Harbouring a Criminal, Bribery, Bribery regarding international relations, Damaging the environment, Damaging nature, Violation of the rules of waste management,

  1. e) the criminal offence of misuse of classified data was committed,
  2. f) an attempt of or preparations – if preparation is penalized by the law – for a criminal offence defined in subsection a)-e).

(2) If the investigation is conducted by the prosecutor, covert data-gathering may take place besides crimes enumerated by section (1) in the following cases:

  1. a) if the criminal offence of violence against official persons has been committed against a person enjoying immunity due to fulfil public office or due to international law, furthermore threatening an internationally protected person with violence,

b)[572]           if the criminal offence of violence against official persons has been committed against the judge, the prosecutor, the secretary of the court, the deputy-prosecutor, draftsman of the court nad prosecutor’s office, the delegate of the prosecutor’s office, the independent and the Court of Justice- bailiff and the deputy-bailiff, the notary public and the deputy-notary public, sworn member of the police; as well as, if a crime against the purity of public life, which is punishable by at least 3 years of imprisonment, was committed regarding the above-mentioned and sworn member of National Tax and Customs Office, furthermore the non-sworn financial investigator.

  1. c) if the criminal offence of failure to report bribery or trafficking in influence has been committed against persons defined by article b),
  2. d) if crimes against the administration of justice defined by section f) have been committed, except the crime of misleading of authority,
  3. e) if crimes against foreign officials have been committed and crimes against the propriety of international affairs have been committed,
  4. f) if crimes enumerated in article a)-e) falling under military criminal procedure have been committed.

Section 202[573] (1) The subject of covert data-gathering may primarily be the suspect or the person who may be suspected of having committed the criminal offence based on the available data of the investigation.

(2) Other persons may be subjected to covert data gathering, if data indicate that they have culpable communications with the person specified in subsection (1) or there is reasonable ground to suspect the same.  The fact that an outsider is unavoidably affected shall not be an obstacle to covert data gathering.

(3) Covert data gathering may only be conducted in the private home and office of a lawyer acting as the defence counsel in a case, and in connection with the telephone line, other means of communication and correspondence (including electronically transmitted mail) of the lawyer, if there is reasonable ground to suspect that the lawyer has committed a criminal offence related to the case in progress against the defendant.

(4) Covert data gathering may be conducted in the visitors’ room for lawyers within a police detention room or the in a penal institution, if there is reasonable ground to suspect that the lawyer has committed a criminal offence related to the case in progress against the defendant.

(5) The provisions set forth in subsections (3) and (4) shall also apply to persons who may not be heard as a witness pursuant to Section 81 (1) a) and those who may refuse to testify under Section 82 (1).

(6) Even in the cases specified in Section 201 and subsections (1) to (5), covert data gathering may only be conducted if obtaining evidence by other means reasonably appear to be unlikely to succeed if tried or would involve unreasonable difficulties, and there is probable cause to believe that evidence can be obtained by covert data gathering.

Judicial permit[574]

Section 203[575] (1) Covert data gathering shall be permitted by the court at the motion of the prosecutor in compliance with the procedure set forth in Title VI of this Chapter.

(2) The motion shall contain the following:

  1. a) the name of the prosecutorial body or investigating authority conducting the investigation, the date of the order for the investigation, the case number,
  2. b) the location planned to be subjected to covert data gathering, including, in the case of eavesdropping, the phone number,
  3. c) the name or data suitable for the identification of the person planned to be subjected to covert data gathering, as well as the description of the means and method of covert data gathering to be applied,
  4. d) the duration for which covert data gathering is planned to be maintained, specified in calendar days and hours,
  5. e) detailed description substantiating the conditions for the application as specified in Sections 201 and 202, thus especially the description of the underlying criminal offence and the data establishing suspicion that the criminal offence has been committed, the circumstances justifying that covert data gathering is indispensable, the objective thereof and facts establishing probable cause to believe that the evidence may be obtained by the means or method to be applied in the course of covert data gathering,
  6. f) if applicable, the reason for and the date of an exigent order [subsection (6)].

(3) The supporting documents shall be attached to the motion.  Upon the submission of a motion for prolongation, the documents produced since the previous permit shall also be presented.

(4) The court shall adopt a decision within seventy-two hours following the submission of the motion.  When the court fully or partially accepts the motion, it shall determine the subject person, the means and methods of covert intelligence gathering and the time period for which the above means and methods may be applied in respect of such subject person.

(5) Covert data gathering may be permitted for a maximum period of 90 days; upon a repeated motion, this period may be extended for a further 90 days on one occasion.  If the court accepts the motion and by the time of the permit the starting day of covert data gathering as indicated in the motion has already passed, the actual starting day shall be the date of the permit.

(6) If the permission procedure caused a delay that would jeopardise the success of covert data gathering, the prosecutor may, for maximum period of seventy-two hours, order covert data gathering (exigent order).  In this case, simultaneously with the order, the motion for the permit shall also be submitted.  If the court has rejected the motion, a new exigent order may not be issued based upon the same facts.

Performance of covert data gathering[576]

Section 204[577] (1)[578] Covert data gathering is performed by the organisation specified in separate laws.  If the subject of covert data gathering ordered in the course of an investigation conducted by the prosecutor’s office is a criminal offence committed by a sworn officer of national security services, the prosecutor may also request the affected national security service to perform covert data gathering.

(2) The organisations forwarding, processing and managing communications services, pieces of mail and computer data shall be obliged to provide for the conditions of performing covert data gathering and co-operate with the authorities authorised to perform covert data gathering.  The obligations of organisations providing communications services and forwarding mail and the detailed rules of co-operation are set forth in a separate legal regulation.

(3) Covert data gathering shall be forthwith terminated by the prosecutor or the head of the investigating authority, if

  1. a) in the case of an exigent order, the court has rejected the motion,
  2. b) the objective specified in the permit has been achieved,
  3. c) the time period specified in the permit has lapsed,
  4. d) the investigation has been terminated,
  5. e) its maintenance is unlikely to yield any result.

(4) Within 8 days following the end of covert data gathering, the prosecutor or investigating authority having performed covert data gathering shall destroy the data which had been recorded but are of no interest for the objective of thereof, as well as the recorded data of persons not concerned in the case, except those from which use can be made according to the Section 206 (4)-(5).  If subsection (3) a) applies, the data recorded so far shall be immediately destroyed.

(5) A report (Section 168) shall be compiled on the performance of covert data gathering, detailing the process thereof, thus especially, the means and methods applied, the time period and location of the application, the natural persons, legal entities and organisations –with the exception of the undercover agent (178.§) without a legal entity that had been affected by the covert data gathering, and the data obtained in the course of covert data gathering – and not destroyed pursuant to subsection (4) – as well as the method, source, place and time of obtaining the data.  The report shall allow establishing whether the provisions in the court permit have been complied with.  The report shall also state whether the covert data gathering have achieved its objective, or the reason for failure.  The report shall be signed by the head of the prosecutorial body or investigating authority having performed the covert data gathering.

Disclosure of the results of covert data gathering[579]

Section 205[580] (1)[581] Protection of the data produced and recorded during covert data gathering shall be the responsibility of the prosecutor or the investigating authority having performed the covert data gathering, in compliance with the provisions of the Act on Protection of Classified Data

(2) While covert data gathering in progress and thereafter until the report thereon is filed by the prosecutor with the documents, the fact of performing covert data gathering, as well as the data produced and recorded in the course thereof may be disclosed only to the judge having issued the permit, the prosecutor and the investigating authority, further, by superior (senior officer) of the prosecutor and the investigating authority.  Court documents related to the permission of covert data gathering may also be disclosed to the administrative superior of the judge having issued the permit, as specified in Section 207 (1).

(3) At the request of the judge having issued the permit, the prosecutor shall present the data obtained by covert data gathering until the time of such request.  Should the judge establish that the permit has been misused, he shall, while in the event of other breach of law, he may terminate the covert data gathering.  Such decision may not be appealed.

(4) The results of covert intelligence gathering performed prior to the investigation under a separate legal regulation [Section 200 (3)] – until they are used in the criminal proceedings – may be disclosed to the persons specified in separate Acts.

(5) After the conclusion of the covert data gathering, the prosecutor shall inform the person affected by the judicial permit of the fact that covert data gathering had been performed, unless criminal proceedings has been instituted against such person and unless such notification jeopardises the success of thereof.

Using the results of covert data gathering[582]

Section 206[583] (1) If the prosecutor intends to use the result of covert data gathering as evidence in the criminal proceedings, the motion for the permit of the covert data gathering, the court decision and the report on the performance of covert data gathering shall be attached to the files of the investigation.  If the documents are attached after disclosing the files of the investigation (Section 193), the suspect and the defence counsel shall be notified thereof and be allowed to examine the attached documents.

(2) After being attached to the files of the investigation, the report concerning the performance of covert data gathering may be used as evidence in accordance with the rules pertaining to documents (Section 116).

(3) The result of the covert data-gathering may be used for the proof such crime which was the basis for and against such person who was the subject of the permission of covert data-gathering issued by the court.

(4) The person against whom the court issued the permission for covert data gathering, the result of the covert data gathering may be used for proof of such crime which was not indicated by the permission, presuming that the conditions of covert data-gathering determined by this Act (section 201) are met regarding this latter crime as well.

(5) Fort he proof of the crime due to which the covert data gathering was permitted by the court, the result of the covert data gathering may be used against all of the perpetrators.

(6)The result of the covert data gathering may not be used as evidence, if the covert data gathering was cancelled on the basis of section 204. (3) a) or e), and section 205 (3), or the defence counsel acting in the case, or a person who cannot be heard as a witness, or can refuse to give a confession due to section 82. (1) is affected – without the permission of the court- by the covert data gathering.

 

The use of the result of covert information gathering[584]

 

Section 206/A[585] (1) The result of the covert information gathering permitted by the court in order to conduct criminal investigation and the result of covert information gathering permitted by the court or the minister of justice not in order to conduct criminal investigation may be admitted as evidence in the course of the criminal procedure if

  1. the conditions to permit the covert data gathering determined by this Act (section 201) are met regarding the crime to be proved,
  2. after obtaining the information to be used in the criminal procedure, the authority requested the covert information gathering ordered the initiation of the investigation forthwith or met its responsibility of filing a complaint forthwith.
    • The authority requested the covert information gathering make motion to the prosecutor of competence – simultaneously with the order of the initiation of the investigation or filing a denunciation – to establish the suitability of the results of the covert information gathering to admit them as evidence in the criminal procedure if
  1. a) the obtained and recorded data of the covert information gathering performed in order to conduct criminal investigation concerns a person or crime not indicated in the permission,
  2. b) the obtained and recorded data of the covert information gathering performed not in order to conduct criminal investigation concerns a person not indicated in the permission

(3) The prosecutor shall turn to the investigating judge within 72 hours in order to establish the suitability of admission determined by subsection (2). The result of the covert information gathering is suitable to be admitted as evidence in the criminal procedure if the conditions set forth by subsection (1) are met and it can be reasonably presumed that the evidence cannot be taken in any other manner or it would cause disproportionate trouble. The investigating judge shall pass a justified ruling on the establishment of suitability. Such ruling shall not concern the classification of the data gathered and recorded in the course of covert information gathering. If it is established that the result is suitable to be admitted as evidence in the criminal procedure the data in question shall be destroyed only if the prosecutor did not make a motion for the admission as evidence in compliance with the provision set forth by subsection (4).

(4) The admission of the result of the covert information gathering as evidence in the criminal procedure, if the conditions set forth by subsection (1) are met, may be requested by the prosecutor after the initiation of the investigation. The investigating judge shall decide upon such request.

(5)[586] The fact of the covert information gathering tied to the permission of the court shall be justified by the president of the Court of Justice. The justification shall indicate the court, the number and subject of the case affected by the permission, the name of the person affected, the limits of the motion for and permission of covert information gathering.

 

Title VI

PROCEDURE OF THE INVESTIGATING JUDGE

Responsibilities of the investigating judge

Section 207 (1)[587] Prior to the filing of the indictment, the responsibilities of the court of first instance are performed by the judge designated by the president of the Court of Justice (investigating judge).

(2) The investigating judge shall decide on the following:

a)[588] before filing the indictment the motions for coercive measures falling under the competence of court or for observation of mental state, the exclusion of the defence counsel, and hospitalization of the defendant under preliminary arrest into a judicial observing and mental health institution for psychiatric treatment.

b)[589] the permission of the intelligence gathering [section 203 (4) and (6)], the termination thereof [section 205 (3)], furthermore the establishment of suitability for admission of the results of the intelligence gathering as evidence in the criminal procedure [section 206/A (3)] [Section 206/A (4)] and the possibility of the admission of the results of the intelligence gathering as evidence in the criminal procedure.

c)[590] the order of continuance of the investigation upon the motion of the prosecutor after the termination of the investigation [Section 191 (3)],

  1. d) at the motion of the prosecutor, on declaring the witness specially protected (Section 97),

e)[591] on the motion for the review of the decision rejecting the complaint against the decisions made under Section 149 (3), Section 150 (2), Section 151 (4) or Section 153 (2) and of the prosecutor’s order given according to Section 151 (2), as well as on replacing disciplinary penalty with confinement according to Section 161 (6).

(2a)[592] The request for the motion for the order of continuance of the investigation taken by the investigating judge after the termination of the investigation shall be filed to the prosecutor.

(3)[593] At the motion of the prosecutor, prior to filing the indictment, the investigating judge shall hear the specially protected witness and the witness whose life is in imminent danger.  The witness and the lawyer acting on behalf of the witness may file a motion for the hearing of the witness with the prosecutor.  The investigating judge shall repeatedly hear the specially protected witness, if this is ordered by the court during the preparations or in the course of the hearing [Section 268 (3), Section 305 (3)].

(4) At the motion of the prosecutor, prior to the filing of the indictment, the investigating judge shall hear the witness under the age of fourteen, if there is reasonable ground to believe that questioning at the hearing would adversely affect his personal development.  The legal representative, the ward and the lawyer acting on behalf of the witness may file a motion for the hearing of the witness with the prosecutor.

(5)[594] The prosecutor, the suspect and the defence counsel may file a motion for an evidentiary procedure, if there is reasonable ground to believe that the means of evidence thus obtained would not be available in the course of the court procedure, or would significantly change by that time, or would lose its quality as a means of evidence.  The prosecutor, the suspect, the defence counsel, the lawyer acting on behalf of the witness, and the ward and the legal representative of the minor witness may also make a motion for hearing the witness, or, in special cases, the suspect via live link.

(6)[595] Prior to the filing of the indictment, the procedures for the extension of preliminary arrest over 1 year, and the review of temporary involuntary treatment in a mental institution shall be performed by the single judge of the Court of Justice in compliance with the provisions set forth in this Title.

Jurisdiction

Section 208 (1)[596] The investigating judge shall proceed in the procedures conducted by prosecutor’s offices located within the geographical jurisdiction of the Court of Justice, regardless of whether the adjudication of the criminal offence underlying the procedure falls within the competence of the Local Court or the Court of Justice.

(2)[597] The president of the Court of Justice may designate an investigating judge at several Local Courts within the geographical jurisdiction of the Court of Justice, in such a case, the jurisdiction of the individual investigating judges is determined by the president of the Court of Justice.  In the event of performing evidentiary acts, the investigating judge may also act outside his geographical jurisdiction.

General rules of procedure

Section 209 (1)[598] The actions of the investigating judge shall be governed by the general rules pertaining to court procedures, unless provided otherwise in this Title, with that the investigating judge shall take into consideration the special investigative tactics applicable only in the course of the investigation of the investigating authority and the prosecutor, in particular, that the suspect and his counsel may examine the data, facts and evidence of the investigation according to the rules governing the investigation.

(2) Consolidation and severance of the cases shall not be applied.

(3) The costs of the criminal proceedings incurred in the course thereof and advanced by the state according to Section 74 (1) a) shall be established by investigating judge but advanced by the prosecutor.

(4) In the event that the investigating judge deems that the investigation should be suspended or terminated, he shall notify the prosecutor thereof.

The session

Section 210 (1) The investigating judge shall hold a session, if the motion pertains to the following subjects:

a)[599] a coercive measure entailing the restriction or deprival of personal freedom (Section 129, Section 137, Section 138, Section 138/A, Section 140),

b)[600] extension of preliminary arrest or house-arrest and new circumstances were referred to in the motion as the grounds for the extension since the former decision,

c)[601] extension of preliminary arrest for over 6 months after the order thereof,

d)[602] acceptance of bail (Section 147),

e)[603] order for the diagnosis of mental state (Section 107),

f)[604] performance of an evidentiary act [Section 207 (3) to (5)].

(2)[605] The court hearing may be omissible if the subject of the motion is to order the observation of mental state and the suspect cannot make an appearance thereat on the ground of his state of health, or is unable to exercise his rights, furthermore the subject of the motion is to fix the guaranty and the preliminary arrest was based on other grounds than set forth in section 129 (2) b).

(3) The investigating judge shall make a decision based on the documents

  1. a) in issues not listed under subsection (1),
  2. b) if the session is omitted pursuant to subsection (2),
  3. c) if the motion was filed by a person unauthorised to do so.

(4) If necessary, the investigating judge shall hold a session even in the cases listed under subsection (3).

 

Section 211 (1)[606] The investigating judge shall determine the date of the session.  If the motion was filed by the prosecutor, he shall ensure the attendance of the suspect before the investigating judge and advise the defence counsel of the date and venue of the session.  If the motion was filed by a party other than the prosecutor, the investigating judge shall arrange that the required documents are obtained and advise the party having submitted the motion, the prosecutor, the suspect and the defence counsel of the date and venue of the session.

(2) Should the party having submitted the motion fail to attend the session, the motion shall be deemed to be withdrawn.  If the motion pertains to ordering temporary involuntary treatment in a mental institution, and due to his health condition the suspect is unable to attend the session or exercise his rights, the session may not be held in the absence of the defence counsel.

(3) At the session the party having submitted the motion shall present the evidence substantiating the motion in writing or orally.  Those present shall be granted the opportunity to examine – within the limits set forth in Section 186 – the evidence of the party having submitted the motion.  If the notified party does not attend the session, but had submitted his observations in writing, this document shall be presented by the investigating judge.

(4)[607] The investigating judge shall examine whether the statutory requirements related to the motion have been met, whether there are any obstacles to the criminal proceedings and whether the motion is substantial beyond reasonable doubt.  In the cases specified in Section 210 (1) a) -d) this examination shall also extend to the personal circumstances of the suspect.

(5)[608] The investigating judge may also hold the session via live link.  The presence of the defence counsel at the session is obligatory, moreover, in the course of the session; the defence counsel shall be at the same place as the suspect.  Sessions held via live link shall be governed by the provisions stipulated in Sections 244/A-244/D.

Performance of an evidentiary act at the session

Section 212 (1) The party having submitted the motion to perform an evidentiary act shall provide for the conditions required therefore.  If the session cannot be held in the official premises of the investigating judge, the motion shall indicate the venue of the session.

(2) At the start of the session, the investigating judge shall decide on the motion regarding the performance of the evidentiary act, giving the reasons for the decision.

 

Section 213 (1) At the examination of a witness whose life is in imminent danger, or who is believed, on reasonable grounds, to be unable to attend the hearing (Section 87), the suspect and the defence counsel, as well as the lawyer acting on behalf of the witness may also be present, unless this is prevented by the state of the witness.  In such a case, the suspect and the defence counsel shall be advised of the session subsequently, provided that they shall be able to examine the minutes taken during the session at the prosecutor.

(2)[609] In addition to the investigating judge, the keeper of the minutes and – if necessary – the interpreter, the examination of a specially protected witness may only be attended by the prosecutor and the lawyer acting on behalf of the witness.  In the course of the examination of a specially protected witness, the investigating judge shall ensure, and if required, verify, either with the help of the investigating authority or otherwise, the creditworthiness of the witness, the reliability of his knowledge and the circumstances that may influence credibility of the testimony.  The data thus obtained shall be indicated in the minutes taken at the examination.  Of these minutes, an abstract shall be made which contains only the name of the investigating judge and the prosecutor (of those attending), the fact that the witness has been declared specially protected and the testimony of the specially protected witness.  The investigating judge shall ensure that the abstract of the minutes taken on the testimony shall in no way imply the identity and the location of the specially protected witness.  The abstract of the minutes shall be forwarded to the prosecutor.  It shall be the prosecutor’s responsibility to ensure that the abstract of the minutes is kept separately and handled confidentially until the filing of the indictment.  The abstract of the minutes may only be disclosed to the prosecutor and the investigating authority prior to the filing of the indictment.

(3) In addition to those listed in subsection (2), the examination of a witness under the age of fourteen may also be attended by the legal representative and the ward of the witness.  The suspect and the defence counsel shall be advised of the examination of the witness subsequently, provided that they shall be able to examine the minutes taken during the examination at the prosecutor.

(4) Upon a motion, the investigating judge may order the recording of the examination of the witness by an audio or video recorder or other equipment. Such recording shall not substitute the minutes.  On the copy of the recording, the individual features of the witness suitable for identification (e.g.: face, voice) may be distorted by technical means.  If the recording was made during the examination of a specially protected witness or a witness whose data are handled confidentially, the rules pertaining to confidential treatment shall also apply to such recordings.

The decision

Section 214 (1) Unless provided otherwise in this Act, the investigating judge shall deliver a decision with the explanation of the reasons within 3 days following the submission of the motion, in which he consents – either wholly or partially – to the motion or rejects the motion.  The explanation shall include the substance of the motion, the brief description and classification of the criminal offence underlying the procedure and state whether the statutory requirements related to the motion exist or are absent.  If the investigating judge rejects the motion, the motion may not be repeated on identical grounds.

(2) The decision shall be notified to the prosecutor, the party having submitted to the motion and – with the exception of the cases set forth in Section 207 (2) b) and (3) – the party to whom the provisions therein apply.  The defence counsel shall also be informed of the decision notified to the suspect.

(3) The decision shall be communicated at the session by way of an announcement.  If the investigating judge has adopted the decision based on documents, the decision shall be served immediately after it is made in writing.  In the cases specified in Section 207 (2) b) and (3), service shall be governed by the provisions of Section 70 (1) d).

Legal remedy

Section 215 (1) The decision of the investigating judge may be appealed by the party who was notified of such decision.  Any appeal against a decision communicated by way of an announcement shall be lodged immediately after the announcement.  Those entitled to appeal but have not been present at the announcement of the decision may lodge an appeal within 3 days following the session.  Decisions communicated by way of a service may be appealed by those entitled within 3 days following the service thereof.

(2)[610] The investigating judge shall forward the appeal against the decision to the Court of Justice which competent to consider the appeals without delay after the receipt thereof or after the lapse of the deadline for appeals.

(3)[611] The appeal shall be considered by the panel of second instance of the Court of Justice at panel session.

(4) The following decisions may not be appealed:

  1. a) decisions adopted pursuant to Section 207 (2) a) regarding a motion under Section 149 (6) and (8), Section 151 (3) and (6) and Section 153 (2) for a coercive measure falling within the competence of the court prior to the filing of the indictment,
  2. b) decisions pertaining to Section 207 (2) b) and e) and (3) – (4),
  3. c) decisions adopted under Section 212 (2).

(5)[612] Regardless of an appeal, the order for a coercive measure entailing the restriction or deprival of personal freedom may be executed.  The appeal of the prosecutor against the termination of a coercive measure entailing the restriction or deprival of personal freedom – assuming that the termination was not motioned by the prosecutor – based on documents shall have a dilatory effect.

(6) The investigating judge may omit the adoption of a decision concerning the consideration of an appeal against decisions listed under subsection (4) and an appeal against final decisions.

 

Chapter X

INDICTMENT

Measures after the presentation of the documents

Section 216[613] (1) Having performed the procedural action specified in Section 193 (1), or, of the action was performed by the investigating authority, within 30 days after receiving the documents, the prosecutor shall examine the files of the case and based on this, may

  1. a) perform, or order the performance of further investigatory action,
  2. b) may suspend the investigation,
  3. c) may terminate the investigation,

d)[614] may send the case to mediatory process, or decide on the postponement of an indictment,

e)[615] may file an indictment, or make a decision on the partial omission of the indictment.

(2)[616] If the prosecutor decides to send the case to mediatory process or postpone the indictment and orders to obtain the opinion of the probation officer, the time of the preparation of such opinion is not included in the deadline regulated in subsection (1).

(3)[617] In exceptional cases, the deadline specified in subsection (1) may be extended by the head of the prosecutor’s office by 30 days.  In cases having an extensive scope, at the recommendation of the head of the prosecutor’s office, the superior prosecutor may exceptionally permit a longer – but maximum 90-day – deadline as well.  In the case regulated in subsection (1) a), the deadline shall be calculated from the performance of the investigatory action.

(4)[618] If the prosecutor files an indictment after performing the investigatory action according to subsection (1) a) above, he shall ensure that prior to this, the suspect and the defence counsel may examine, in compliance with the provisions stipulated in Section 193, the documents made on the investigatory action.  In other cases the possibility for the examination of the documents shall be granted at the motion of the suspect or the defence counsel.

(5)[619] The prosecutor shall make a decision on  the partial omission of indictment (section 220), the transfer to or refusal of the mediatory process [section 221/A (4)], the suspension of indictment (section 222), the acquisition of opinion of the probation officer [section 224 (1)], and the decision on  claims for remedy against the decisions of the prosecutor made according to this chapter during the period of indictment [section 228 (3)].

The indictment

Section 217 (1) The prosecutor shall press charges by filing the indictment with the court.

(2) If necessary, the prosecutor may examine the suspect prior to filing the indictment.

(3) The indictment shall contain the following:

  1. a) the personal data of the accused listed in Section 117 (1),
  2. b) the description of the act being the subject of the indictment,
  3. c) the classification of the subject of the indictment according to the Criminal Code,
  4. d) the existence of the condition required to launch the procedure under separate legal regulations (private motion, denunciation, request, suspension of the right to immunity or privilege, consent to launching criminal proceedings),

e)[620] the legal regulations pertaining to the competence and jurisdiction of the court, as well as reference to the rules concerning the competence and jurisdiction of the prosecutor filing the indictment,

f)[621] a proposal for imposing a punishment or applying a measure,

  1. g) the civil claims announced and other motions,

h)[622] a proposal concerning the persons to be summoned to the hearing and the persons to be notified thereof, furthermore the proposal for reading out loud the testimony of witnesses whose testimony is necessary for proof but their presence is not reasonable or it would cause disproportionate trouble or it is impossible for them to attend,

  1. i) description of the means of evidence as well as the facts they prove,
  2. j) a proposal for the order of taking evidence at the hearing.

 

Section 218 (1)[623] If at the time of filing the indictment a coercive measure entailing the restriction or deprival of personal freedom has been applied against the suspect, and the prosecutor deems the maintenance of such measure justified, the prosecutor shall file a motion to prolong the coercive measure.  If the prosecutor files a motion for the maintenance of preliminary arrest and the arrestee has been subjected to restrictions in the course of the investigation, the motion shall also indicate the restrictions, which, in the opinion of the prosecutor, are justified to be maintained.

(2) If the accused committed a wilful criminal offence to the injury of his child, the prosecutor may recommend the court to terminate the parental right of custody of the accused.

(3) In the indictment, the prosecutor may submit a civil claim against the accused.

(4)[624] If the indictment is filed due to the abuse of narcotic substances (Sections 282-282/C of the Criminal Code) and the court suspended the criminal proceedings having been earlier instituted against the suspect under Section 266 (6), the indictment shall also motion for the resumption of the procedure [Section 266 (7)] and the consolidation of the cases.

 

Section 219 (1)[625] The indictment shall be filed in a number of copies sufficient to make one copy available to the court, all of the accused and defence counsels each.  To the copy of the indictment filed with the court, all documents supporting the indictment and presented by the prosecutor to the suspect and/or the defence counsel at the conclusion of the proceedings as well as all physical evidence –with the exception of finger and palm prints found at the crime scene or on a subject bearing traces of a crime.

(2) If the name and the data of the witness are ordered to be handled confidentially, the name and data of the witness to be summoned to the hearing shall be indicated in a separate confidential document instead of the indictment.

(3)[626] If the accused fails to command the Hungarian language, the part of the indictment pertaining to such accused shall be translated into the native, regional or minority language of the accused, or at request, into another language defined by the accused as a language spoken and formerly used in the proceedings, and thus filed with the court.

(4)[627] If the prosecutor intends to use the testimony of a specially protected witness as evidence in the court procedure, the abstract of the minutes taken at the examination of such specially protected witness to the documents supporting the indictment.  If this document has been attached after the disclosure of the files of the investigation (Section 193), both the suspect and the defence counsel shall be notified thereof and be granted the possibility to examine the subsequently attached document.

(5)[628] After being attached to the files of the investigation, the abstract of the minutes taken at the examination of the specially protected witness may be used as evidence in compliance with the rules pertaining to documents (Section 116).

(6)[629] The victim shall be notified of the indictment.

Partial omission of the indictment

Section 220 (1)[630] The prosecutor may, in a decision, omit to indict a criminal offence having no significance for the purpose of liability, due to the perpetration of another criminal offence of greater gravity and being the subject of the indictment.  This fact shall be stated in the indictment, and the partial omission of the indictment shall be notified to the victim.

(2)[631] The expenses of the criminal case shall be borne by the state in cases of criminal offences on account thereof, the prosecutor omitted the indictment.

 

Section 221[632] In the decision the prosecutor may inform the victim of his right to enforce his civil claim by way of other legal means, and that a substitute private prosecution may be lodged in respect of the act which has been partially omitted from the indictment.

 

The mediation process[633]

 

Section 221/A[634] (1)[635] The mediation process is conducted during the criminal proceedings initiated on the basis of crimes against the person (Title I and III of Chapter XII of the Criminal Code), traffic crimes (Chapter XIII of the Criminal Code), crimes against property (Chapter XVIII of the Criminal Code) which are punishable by not more than 5 years of imprisonment, on the motion of the suspect or the victim, or with the voluntary consent thereof. If the defendant committed other crimes concurrently, the mediation process is only applicable when the indicated crime can be specified within the perpetration.

(2)[636] The aim of the mediation process is to facilitate the reparation of the consequences of the crime and the prospective law abiding behaviour of the suspect. During the mediation process an agreement – establishing the active regret of the suspect – is aspired to be concluded between the suspect and the victim. The case may be transferred to mediation process only on one occasion. The fact that the suspect has already paid partly or totally for the damages he caused cannot be an obstacle to initiate the mediation process.

(3) The prosecutor may suspend the proceedings for 6 months and transfer the case to mediation process ex officio or on the motion of the suspect, the defence counsel or the victim if

  1. a) according to section 36 of the Criminal Code the termination of the procedure or the unrestricted reduction of the punishment may take place,

b)[637]           the suspect has confessed to his crime until filing the indictment, and tackle and is able to repair the damage caused by the crime in the manner and extent as defined by the victim,

  1. c) both the victim and the suspect has contributed to take part in the mediation process, furthermore,
  2. d) the judicial proceedings may be omitted in consideration of the character of the criminal offence, the manner of the perpetration and the character of the suspect, or it may reasonably be presumed that court is going to appreciate the active regret in the course of imposing the punishment.

(4)[638] The decision made regarding the mediation process shall be disclosed to the victim, the denunciator and the person who filed the private motion. The county (Budapest Metropolitan) office of justice having jurisdiction and competence to conduct mediation process shall be informed about that the case was transferred to mediation process and – after a successful conclusion of the mediation process – about the termination of the criminal procedure. No appeal shall be granted against the decision on suspending the process and ordering the mediation process.

(5) The statement of the suspect and the victim made in the course of the mediation process, and underlying the proceedings may not be used as evidence. The result of the mediation process may not be considered to the detriment of the suspect.

(6)[639] The detailed regulation of the mediation process is established by separate laws.

(7) If the mediation process is successful, section 36. (1) of the Criminal Code shall be applicable, the prosecutor shall terminate the proceedings; if section 36 (2) of the Criminal Code may be applicable, the prosecutor shall file the indictment. If the suspect has already began to fulfil the agreement created as a result of the mediation process, but his punishability has not been ceased, the prosecutor may postpone the indictment for 1 to 2 years because of a crime punishable by not more than 3 years of imprisonment.

Postponement of the indictment

Section 222 (1) In the case of criminal offence punishable by a maximum of 3 years’ imprisonment, taking into consideration the gravity of the criminal offence and the extraordinary mitigating circumstances, the prosecutor may decide to postpone the filing of an indictment for a period of 1 to 2 years, if this is likely to have a positive impact on the future conduct of the suspect.

(2)[640] If the procedure may be terminated owing to a reason terminating punishability under Section 283 of the Criminal Code, the prosecutor shall postpone the filing of the indictment for a period of 1 year, if the drug user suspect agrees to undergo a treatment for drug addiction, other therapeutic process treating drug users or to participate in preventive education.

(3) The prosecutor may postpone the filing of the indictment related to non-payment of alimony for 1 year, if this may result in meeting the defaulted obligation.

 

Section 222/A[641] In cases having special acknowledgement the indictment can be postponed, even if the crime is punishable by not more than 5 years. In such cases the period of postponement is equivalent to the penalty determined by law.

 

Section 223 (1) The indictment may not be postponed under Section 222 (1), if the suspect:

  1. a) is a notorious criminal,

b)[642] committed the wilful criminal offence during the probation period of a suspended sentence of imprisonment or after the final sentence of imprisonment to be executed or partially suspended imposed due to the wilfully committed criminal offence, prior to the end of the execution of the imprisonment.

(2) If the Criminal Code makes the termination of punishability subject to the conduct after the commencement of the procedure, the indictment may only be postponed in the cases set forth in this Act.

Hearing prior to the postponement of the indictment [643]

Section 224[644] (1)[645] If the prosecutor deems it necessary to make the postponement of the indictment subject to setting rules of conduct or prescribing obligations, he shall obtain prior to the postponement of the indictment the opinion of the probation officer then hear the suspect.  The hearing shall elucidate, taking into account the statements in the opinion of the probation officer as well, whether the suspect agrees to, and can obeys the prospective rules of conduct and obligations.  If necessary, the probation officer may also be heard.

(2)[646] It is obligatory to set rules of conduct if the indictment was postponed because of the crime is punishable by not more than 5 years.

(3) In the cases set forth in Section 225 (2) a) and b) the prosecutor shall also hear the victim; the hearing of the victim may be dispensed with if he had declared his consent earlier.  The absence of the consent of the victim shall not be an obstacle to postpone the indictment by the prosecutor without prescribing an obligation for compensation or amends payable to the victim, provided that the conditions thereof otherwise exist.

(4)[647] In order to examine the conditions of mediatory process – if it is necessary after acquisition of the opinion of the probation officer concerning the defendant – the prosecutor shall hear the accused and the victim. If it is necessary the probation officer may be heard as well.

Establishment of rules of conduct upon the postponement of the indictment [648]

Section 225[649] (1)[650] In the decision concerning the postponement of the indictment, the prosecutor shall order the supervision of the suspect by a probation officer, and may also set rules of conduct or other obligations to be adhered to by the suspect. Adherence to the rules of conduct and obligations shall be supervised and assisted by the probation officer in compliance with the legal regulations pertaining to the performance of supervision by probation officers.  In order to fulfil these tasks, the probation officer may request the assistance of other organs and organisations.

(2) The prosecutor may oblige the suspect

  1. a) to fully or partially compensate the victim for the damage caused by the criminal offence,
  2. b) ensure the compensation of the victim of another way,
  3. c) make a financial contribution to a specific purpose or perform community service (make amends for the general public),
  4. d) undergo a psychiatric treatment or treatment for alcohol addiction.

(3)[651] The prosecutor may combine the rules of conduct and obligations specified in subsection (2), and may set other rules of conduct and obligations as well.

(4)[652] In the case of Section 222 (2), prescribing the obligation of participating in a treatment for drug addiction, other therapeutic process treating drug users or preventive education shall be compulsory.

(5) The decision on the postponement of the indictment shall be notified to the victim, the denouncer and the party having filed a private motion as well.  The victim may appeal the decision concerning the postponement of the indictment.

Procedure after the postponement of the indictment

Section 226 (1)[653] The prosecutor shall terminate the procedure within 30 days after the lapse of the postponement period of the indictment by writing a note of the fact of the termination upon the decision on the postponement of the indictment and not passing a new decision thereof, if the result expected there from has been achieved during this period.

(2)[654] The procedure shall also be terminated prior to the postponement period of the indictment, if the drug addict suspect verifies that he has participated in a treatment for drug addiction, other therapeutic process treating drug users or preventive education for a period of at least 6 successive months, or, if the person suspected of the misdemeanour of non-payment of alimony, has performed his obligation, furthermore, if the suspect has fulfilled his obligations undertaken in the course of mediation process.

(3)[655]

 

Bearing the costs of the criminal procedure[656]

 

Section 226/A.[657] If the prosecutor terminates the procedure, the expenses of the criminal case shall be borne by the state. The defendant shall be obliged to bear the expenses which occurred as a result of his negligence.

 

Section 227 (1) The prosecutor shall file an indictment, if

  1. a) the suspect complaints the decision and the conditions to terminate the investigation are absent,
  2. b) an indictment was filed against the suspect due to a wilful criminal offence committed during the postponement period of the indictment,
  3. c) the suspect gravely violates the rules of conduct or fails to meet his obligations,

d)[658] the suspect has not executed the agreement resulted from the mediatory process until the period of the suspension of indictment passed,

e)[659] it is established during the postponement period of the indictment that either of the grounds set forth in Section 223 excluding the postponement of the indictment existed.

(2)[660] In the case specified in Section 222 (3) indictment may only be filed if the obligation stipulated therein is not fulfilled.

(3) If the indictment was filed for a reason specified in subsection (1) c), the prosecutor shall hear the suspect before filing the indictment.

(4)[661] If the indictment was postponed under Section 222 (2), the indictment shall be filed, if

a)[662] the suspect fails to verify with a document that within 1 year following the postponement of the indictment he has participated in a treatment for drug addiction, other therapeutic process treating drug users or preventive education for a period of at least 6 successive months, or

  1. b) during the postponement period of the indictment, another criminal proceedings has commenced against the suspect due to abuse of narcotic substances and the suspension or termination of the investigation do not apply.

Legal remedy

Section 228 (1)[663] Anyone directly affected by the dispositions of the decision of the prosecutor, that was passed in a procedure set forth by this Chapter, may complaint it within 8 days following its communication.

(2) If the prosecutor does not grant the complaint within 3 days, the complaint shall be forthwith submitted to the superior prosecutor.

(3) The superior prosecutor shall make a decision on the complaint within 15 days of receipt.  If the complaint is deemed well-founded, the superior prosecutor may modify or repeal the decision, and order the same prosecutor to adopt a new decision; in an adverse case, the superior prosecutor shall reject the complaint.  The complaint shall also be rejected if it is late or was lodged by a non-entitled party.

(4) The party having lodged the complaint – and in the event of repealing or modifying a decision, those to whom the decision had been communicated – shall be informed of the decision on the complaint.  The decision on the complaint cannot be subjected to further complaint again.

(5) The filing of the indictment shall not e subject to an appeal.

(6) To the decisions of the prosecutor the provisions set forth in Section 169 (2)-(5) are applicable as appropriate.

Section 228/A[664] (1)[665] The person directly affected by the measures taken or neglected by the prosecutor in the course of his procedure regulated by this Chapter, may file a complaint within 8 days reckoned from learning thereof.

(2) If this Act set forth deadline for the prosecutor to take measures, a complaint against the neglected measures may be filed in case the deadline has passed without success.

(3) A complaint filed against the neglected measures of the prosecutor and excluded by law or filed late may not be declined without reasoning for this reason.

(4) If the complaint, filed on the basis of section (1), is grounded by the prosecutor or the Superior Prosecutor, the necessary and justified actions shall be taken in order to put an end to the situation subjected to the complaint, and the person filed the complaint shall be informed thereof without passing a decision thereon.

(5) The complaint determined by section (1) shall be regulated by section 228.

Actions of the substitute private accuser

Section 229 (1)[666] If the superior prosecutor has rejected the complaint of the victim concerning the rejection of the denunciation or the termination of the investigation, and substitute private prosecution may be lodged pursuant to Section 199 (2) – unless lodging substitute private prosecution is excluded by Section 199 (3) –, and further, if the prosecutor has partially omitted the indictment, within 60 days of the communication of the decision concerning the rejection of the complaint, the victim may stand as a substitute private accuser.

(2) After the rejection of the complaint, the victim shall be allowed to examine in the official premises of the prosecutor’s office the documents pertaining to the criminal offence committed against him.

(3)[667] The victim shall be informed about the conditions of being a subsidiary accuser, and about the possibility of turning to a legal aid service for permission of being represented by legal aid counsel and personal exemption from expenses due to his remuneration and financial status.

(4)[668] If the victim has filed for permission of being represented by legal aid counsel and personal exemption from expenses, the deadline written in section (1) shall be counted from the statement of the final decision on the motion. The victim shall be informed thereof.

 

 

Section 230 (1)[669] If the victim intends to act as a substitute private accuser, he shall submit, by way of his lawyer, a motion for prosecution to the prosecutor’s office of first instance having proceeded in the case before.  The substitute private accuser may file the motion for prosecution personally just if he/she expresses his/her opinion in the motion that he may file a request for personal exemption from expenses and being represented by legal aid counsel to legal aid service. The prosecutor’s office shall forward the motion for prosecution, together with the documents to the court having competence and jurisdiction in the case.

(2) [670]The motion for prosecution shall contain the data set forth in Section 217 (3) a) c), g) and h), as well as the substitute private accuser’s reasons to motion for conducting the court procedure despite the dismissal of the denunciation, the termination of the investigation or the partial omission of the indictment.  In the motion for prosecution, the substitute private accuser may also designate the court having jurisdiction at the residence of the defendant as a court of jurisdiction [Section 17 (3)].  In this case, at the request of the substitute private accuser, the prosecutor’s office shall forward the documents and the motion for prosecution to the court of jurisdiction.

 

Section 231[671] (1) The court shall admit the motion for prosecution if there is no reason for its dismissal.

(2) The court shall dismiss the motion for prosecution, if

  1. a) the substitute private accuser submitted the motion for prosecution after the lapse of the deadline set forth in Section 229 (1),
  2. b) if the substitute private accuser is not represented by a lawyer, unless he is a natural person having taken an examination in law [Section 56 (4)],
  3. c) the motion for prosecution was filed by non-entitled party,
  4. d) the motion for prosecution apparently is not lawful [Section 2 (2)] or has no factual or legal grounds [Section 230 (2)].

(3) Prior to the lapse of the deadline set forth in Section 229 (1), the substitute private accuser may repeatedly submit the motion for prosecution, if it had been formerly dismissed due to reasons specified in subsection (2) b) or c) and the reason for dismissal do not exist any longer.

(4) The indictment shall not be dismissed on the ground of not containing the personal data of the accused set forth in Section 117 (1) and those can not be verified from the documents if the identity of the accused may be established in the lack of these beyond reasonable doubt.

 

Section 232[672] (1) If the court is not competent or has no jurisdiction in the case, it shall transfer the case to the court of competence or jurisdiction.

(2) If the court did not dismiss the motion for prosecution,

  1. a) it shall ensure the availability of the means of evidence at the hearing,
  2. b) it may order the application of a coercive measure.

 

Section 233[673] (1) When this Act mentions indictment, an indictment accepted by the court shall be referred thereto as well.

 (2) Following the admission of the motion for prosecution, the accused shall be entitled to examine the files of the investigation.

(3) Documents handled separately from the files of the case and confidentially may not be disclosed to the substitute private accuser.

(4) The dismissal of the motion for prosecution shall not prevent an order for the resumption of the investigation (Section 191).

 

PART THREE

Chapter XI

GENERAL RULES OF COURT PROCEDURE

Forms of court procedure

Section 234 (1) The court shall hold a trial when obtaining evidence to establish the criminal liability of the accused.

(2) In the cases specified in this Act, the court shall hold a public session, session or a panel session.

(3) Unless provided otherwise in this Act, public sessions shall be governed by the provisions pertaining to trials.

(4) Sessions shall be attended by the members of the court, the keeper of the minutes, the accuser and – unless provided otherwise in this Act – the accused and the defence counsel.  In addition to the parties listed above, on the session the persons having been summoned by the court to attend or notified of the session may be present.

(5) The session of the panel shall be attended by the members of the court and the keeper of the minutes.

The single judge

Section 235 The provisions of this Act pertaining to the court, the panel of the court or the chairperson of the panel shall also apply to the single judge.

The substitute private accuser

Section 236 Unless provided otherwise in this Act, in the course of a court procedure, the substitute private accuser shall exercise the rights of the prosecutor, including the right to motion for a coercive measure entailing the restriction or deprival of personal freedom of the accused.  The substitute private accuser may not motion for the termination of the right of the accused to parental custody.

The publicity of the trial

Section 237 (1) The trial of the court shall be public.  In order to ensure the proper conduct, dignity and security of the trial, or due to lack of space, the presiding judge may determine the number of the audience.

(2) Persons under fourteen years of age may not be among the audience of the trial, and the presiding judge may exclude from the audience youth under eighteen years of age.

(3) The court may, ex officio, or at the motion of the prosecutor, the accused, the defence counsel, the victim or the witness, exclude the public from the entirety or a part of the trial in a decision explaining the reasons therefore (in-camera trial):

  1. a) for ethical reasons,
  2. b) to protect the minor participating in the procedure,

c)[674] to protect the persons participating in the procedure (Chapter V) or the witness,

d)[675] to protect classified data.

(3a)[676] If the court excludes the public from the public session, it holds a closed session.

(4) The exclusion of the public may be motioned for in any stage of the procedure.

 

Section 238 (1)[677] The decision concerning the exclusion of the public shall be announced by the court at a public trial.  The decision on the exclusion of the public may not be appealed, only contested in an appeal against the conclusive decision.

(2)[678] Regardless of the exclusion of the public, the court may permit the presence of official persons performing tasks related to the administration of justice at the trial.  In the event of a procedure instituted against a foreign citizen accused, or due to a criminal offence committed to the injury of a foreign citizen victim, the presence of the representative of the consulate of their native country, or, pursuant to an international treaty promulgated by law, a member of the authority of the foreign state shall be allowed.

(3)[679] In the event that the public has been excluded, a victim having no representative or an accused having no defence counsel may motion for allowing a designated person – with the exception of a person to be examined at the trial – present at the location of trial to attend the trial.  If the court excluded the public for the reason specified in Section 237 (3) d), no such motion may be submitted.  The decision pertaining to the motion may not be appealed.

(4)[680] In the case of ordering an ex-camera trial, the court shall advise those present that they are prohibited to provide information of the trial, and if necessary also warn of the consequences of misuse of classified data. The advice shall be included in the minutes.

 

Section 239 (1) The trial shall be made open to public when the reason for an ex-camera trial has ceased to exist.

(2)[681] The court shall pronounce the operative part of the decision passed at the trial and the reasoning with the restriction written in section (3) in public even when the public was expelled from the trial.

(3)[682] The court shall not pronounce information of the reasoning in public, if making them public resulted in wronging the interest for which the closed hearing was ordered.

 

Persons participating at the trial

Section 240 (1) The members of the panel shall be present at the trial from the beginning until the end.

(2) If the member of the panel is unavoidably prevented from attending the trial, the conclusive decision may be announced by a panel with different composition.

(3) Unless provided otherwise by this Act, no trial may be held in the absence of the keeper of the minutes, the accused, and the prosecutor and – if the presence of the defence counsel is statutory at the trial – the defence counsel.

 

Section 241 (1) The presence of the prosecutor is obligatory at the trial

a)[683]

b)[684],

c)[685]

d)[686]

e)[687]

  1. f) [688]

(2)[689] At the Local Court prosecution may also be represented by a deputy prosecutor.

(3)[690] At the Local Court prosecution may also be represented by the draftsman of the prosecutor’s office unless

  1. a) the criminal offence is punishable by 5 or more than 5 years’ of imprisonment,
  2. b) the accused is detained,
  3. c) the accused – regardless of his legal responsibility – mentally disabled.

 

Section 242 (1) The presence of the defence counsel is obligatory at the trial

a)[691] before the Court of Justice acting as the court of first instance, unless provided otherwise by this Act,

b)[692] in cases regulated by Section 46,

  1. c) [693] if the properly subpoenaed accused has reported that he does not wish to be present at the trial,
  2. d) if there is a substitute private accuser.

(2) If the prosecutor attends the trial, and the accused has not retained a defence counsel, if necessary, the presiding judge may arrange for the appointment of a defence counsel.  If requested by the accused, an appointed defence counsel shall be designated.

 

Section 243 Unless provided otherwise by this Act, those attending the trial shall be entitled to lodge motions.

Conducting and preserving the dignity of a trial

Section 244 (1) The trial shall be conducted by the presiding judge who shall establish the order of the actions to be performed in accordance with this Act.  The presiding judge shall ensure obedience to the law and advice those participating in the procedure of their respective rights and also ensure that they may exercise such rights.

(2) The presiding judge shall ensure that the dignity of the trial is preserved. With this in view, he shall have removed from the court room those who insult the dignity of the trial by their improper condition or appearance.

(3)[694] Those who are examined before the court and those addressing the court shall speak standing.  The presiding judge may make an exemption to this rule.

Holding a trial via live link  [695]

Section 244/A[696] (1) At the motion of the prosecutor, the accused, the defence counsel, the witness, the lawyer acting on behalf of the witness, the ward or legal representative of a minor witness, or ex officio, the presiding judge may order the examination of the witness, or, in exceptional cases, the examination of the accused via live link.  In the event of an examination via live link, direct links between the venue of the trial and the place of stay of the person to be heard shall be provided by a device simultaneously transmitting oral and visual communication.

(2) The presiding judge may order the use of live link for the questioning

  1. a) of a witness under fourteen years of age,
  2. b) of a witness against whom a criminal offence falling in the scope of criminal offences against life and limb or health (Title I of Chapter XII of the Criminal Code), or criminal offences against marriage, family, youth or public morals (Chapter XIV of the Criminal Code), or other violent criminal offence was committed,
  3. c) of a witness whose presence at the trial would impose unreasonable difficulties owing to his health condition or other circumstance,
  4. d) of a witness or accused participating in a witness protection program specified in a separate legal regulation and whose protection otherwise justifies this, and
  5. e) of a detained accused or witness whose presence at the trial would endanger public safety.

(3) Examination via live link may be ordered by the presiding judge in a decision explaining the reasons therefore.  The decision concerning the questioning via live link may not be separately appealed, but only when the conclusive decision is contested.

(4) The decision shall be communicated to the prosecutor, the accused, the defence counsel, the witness to be heard, the lawyer acting on behalf thereof, in the event of a minor witness, the legal representative or ward thereof, and in the event of the examination of a detained person, the relevant institution of detention at least 5 days prior to the day of the trial.  The decision shall be sent to the court providing the separate room for the examination of the accused or the witness, or, when appropriate, the relevant institution of detention.

 

Section 244/B[697] (1) The witness or accused to be examined via live link shall be placed in a separate room (testimonial room) at the court providing for their examination or at the relevant institution of detention.  Only the following persons may be present in the testimonial room: the lawyer acting on behalf of the witness, in the case of a minor witness the legal representative or ward thereof, and if required, the expert, the interpreter and the staff operating the live link.  In the case of the examination of the accused via live link, the defence counsel may be present both in the venue of the trial and the testimonial room.

(2) A judge from the court of jurisdiction at the location of the testimonial room shall also be present in the testimonial room.  In the course of opening the trial, after recording those present in the venue of the trial, at the request of the chairperson of the panel the judge establishes the identity of those present in the testimonial room and verifies that no unauthorised person has entered the testimonial room and the witness or the accused is not restricted in exercising their respective procedural rights.

(3) At the commencement of the questioning, the presiding judge advises the witness or accused to be questioned via live link that they will be examined in this manner.

(4) The responsibilities of the judge of the court having jurisdiction at the location of the questioning set forth in this Section may also be performed by the court secretary, in this case the minutes specified in Section 244/D (1) shall also be taken by the court secretary.

 

Section 244/C[698] (1) In the case of questioning via live link it shall be ensured that the participants of the criminal proceedings may exercise – with the exception stipulated in subsection (4) below – their rights to ask questions, make objections or motions and other procedural rights in compliance with the provisions of this Act.

(2) In the course of the questioning the accused shall be allowed to contact his defence counsel.  If the defence counsel is present in the venue of the trial, a telephone connection shall be provided for between the testimonial room and the venue of the trial to ensure this right.

(3) Those present at the trial shall be allowed to see the witness or accused in the testimonial room as well as all other persons examined or staying there simultaneously with the witness or the accused.  While in the testimonial room, the witness and the accused shall be provided with the means to follow the course of the trial.

(4) Witnesses under fourteen years of age may be questioned via live link exclusively by the presiding judge.  The members of the panel, the prosecutor, the accused, the defence counsel and the victim may propose questions to be asked.  With the exception of a confrontation, while in the testimonial room, a witness under fourteen years of age may only hear and see the chairperson of the panel via the transmission device.

(5) Upon the questioning via live link, the individual features of the witness suitable for identification (e.g.: face, voice) may be distorted by technical means during the transmission.

 

Section 244/D[699] (1) The judge present in the testimonial room shall take separate minutes of the circumstances of the questioning via live link, indicating the persons present in the testimonial room.  The minutes shall be attached to the minutes taken at the trial.

(2) Simultaneously with the questioning via live link, video and audio records shall be taken of the events taking place at the trial and the place of stay of the person examined.  The video and audio records shall be attached to the documents.

(3) At the motion of the participants of the criminal proceedings, the presiding judge may order that the video and audio records be played at or outside the trial.  Upon playing the video and audio records, it shall be ensured that they cannot be watched and heard, changed, destroyed or copied by unauthorised persons.

Maintaining the order of the trial

Section 245 (1) With the exception of the members of the law enforcement body and the police force on duty, no one may enter the court room carrying a weapon or other tool suitable for the breach of peace.  Persons summoned to the trial may not take their weapon in the court room.

(2) Those disturbing the order of the trial are first called to order by the presiding judge, and then upon repeated or grave disorderly conduct, may be ordered to leave or be removed.  The presiding judge shall sanction persons disturbing the regular course of the trial the same way.

(3) The presiding judge may order the person disturbing the order or regular course of the trial not to return to the court room that day of the trial.

(4)[700] The court may impose a disciplinary penalty on those disturbing the order or regular course of trial.

(5) If the audience repeatedly disturbs the order or regular course of the trial, the presiding judge may exclude it from the trial.

 

Section 246 (1) Upon disorderly conduct, the prosecutor shall be called to order.  If the trial cannot be continued owing to the disorderly conduct of the prosecutor, it shall be suspended by the presiding judge who then requests the head of the prosecutor’s office to designate another prosecutor.  If the designation of another prosecutor is not practicable immediately, the trial shall be adjourned.

(2) Upon disorderly conduct, disciplinary penalty may be imposed on the defence counsel, who, however, may not be either ordered to leave or removed from the trial.  If the trial cannot be continued owing to the disorderly conduct of the defence counsel, it shall be suspended by the presiding judge.  In such a case, the accused may retain another defence counsel, or – if the presence of the defence counsel at the trial is obligatory – another defence counsel shall be appointed.  If this is not practicable immediately, the trial shall be adjourned at the cost of the defence counsel having shown disorderly conduct.

(3) Upon the disorderly conduct of the representative of the substitute private accuser, the provisions of subsection (2) shall apply as appropriate.

 

Section 247 (1) The court shall continue the trial in the absence of an accused having been ordered to leave or removed, however, not later than prior to the conclusion of the evidentiary procedure it shall be summoned to the court once again to be informed of the evidentiary actions taken in his absence.

(2) In the case specified in subsection (1), if the accused fails to discontinue the disorderly conduct and thereby prevents holding the trial in his presence, the trial may be continued in his absence as well, in the presence of the defence counsel.

 

Section 248 Decisions made concerning the conduct and maintenance of order of the trial may not be appealed separately, unless they impose a disciplinary penalty, or order the payment of costs or taking a person into custody.

Committing a criminal or disciplinary offence at the trial

Section 249 The presiding judge shall inform the competent authority or the party having disciplinary powers of the disturbance of order at the trial entailing criminal or disciplinary proceedings; in the former case, the court may order that such person be taken into custody.  Such custody may last seventy-two hours.

Minutes

Section 250 (1)[701] The keeper of the minutes shall take minutes on the procedure of the court, as a rule, simultaneously therewith.  If the accused is disabled regarding hearing, and an interpreter of sign language cannot be employed, minutes shall always be taken simultaneously with the procedure.

(2) The minutes shall indicate

  1. a) the name of the court and the case number,
  2. b) the criminal offence being the subject of the indictment and the name of the accused,

c)[702] the place of court procedure, the scheduled and actual time of starting the trial, and the reason for the discrepancy therein, if any, and the time of the sealing of minutes,

  1. d) the form of the court procedure,
  2. e) whether the procedure was public,
  3. f) the name of the judge, the members of the court, the keeper of the minutes, as well as the prosecutor, accused, defence counsel, witness, expert, interpreter present and other persons participating in the procedure,
  4. g) other personal data specified in this Act,

h)[703] whether the minutes were taken simultaneously with the trial, and if not, the date when the minutes were put in writing.

(3) The minutes shall clearly describe the course of actions and all significant formalities of the trial so that compliance with the rules of procedure could also be verified.

(4)[704] The minutes shall be signed by the presiding judge and the keeper of the minutes.  If the presiding judge is prevented from signing the minutes, they shall be signed – indicating his capacity as a substitute – a member of the panel.  If the events occurring during the procedural action are recorded as specified in Section 252 (2), the employee of the court taking the minutes shall verify with his signature that he has drawn up the minutes in compliance with the notes of the stenographer, or the record taken by audio or video recording equipment or other device.

(5)[705] No notes may be made between the lines written in the minutes.  Texts becoming redundant due to modification or correction shall be deleted by crossing them so that such deleted text could remain legible.  Any modifications or corrections made shall be signed by the presiding judge and the keeper of the minutes.

(6)[706] If the minutes contain several pages, they shall be laced together and the case number be indicated on each page.

(7)[707] If the supplementation, modification or correction made before the minutes are duly signed fails to fulfil the formal requirements stipulated in subsection (5), the document may not be signed as minutes but regarded as notes on the trial thereafter.

 

Section 251 (1) Testimonies, the expert opinion, the result of the inspection, as well as the motions of the prosecutor, the accused, the defence counsel, the private accuser, substitute private accuser and the private party shall be described in the minutes in detail.

(2) The part of the testimony or expert opinion identical to that already included in the minutes of an earlier stage of the court procedure needs not be repeatedly recorded in the minutes; instead, reference shall be made to the minutes taken earlier.

(3) If the wording of an expression or statement is of significance, it shall be included in the minutes word-by-word.  Upon a motion or ex officio, the court may order that a specific circumstance or statement be recorded in the minutes.  If this is motioned by the prosecutor, the accused, the defence counsel, the private accuser, the substitute private accuser, the private party or the lawyer acting on behalf of the witness present, such recording may only be dispensed with, if the court has no knowledge of the existence of the circumstance, or of the fact that such expression, declaration or statement has been made.

(4) The decisions adopted in the course of the procedure – with the exception of the conclusive decision – may also be included in the minutes.

(5)[708] Trials scheduled for several days with the same measure and interrupted trials shall be recorded in the same (single) minutes, while separate minutes shall be taken in the case of adjourned trials.  The minutes shall indicate that the trial continuous or repeated.

 

Section 252 (1) If the minutes are not taken simultaneously with the procedural action, or the procedure was recorded in accordance with subsection (3) below, the minutes shall be prepared within 8 days following the procedural action at the latest.  The notes of the trial made simultaneously with the procedural action shall be attached to the documents.

(2) The court may order that the entirety or a part of the procedure be recorded by shorthand, a video or audio recorder or other equipment.  The court shall issue such order at the motion of the prosecutor, the accused, the defence counsel or the victim, provided that such motion is submitted in due time and the accused, the defence counsel or the victim simultaneously made an advance payment towards the costs.[709]

(3) The notes of the stenographer and other recording methods referred to in subsection (2) shall not substitute the minutes.  The notes of the stenographer, the video or audio record or the recording made by other means shall be kept according to the provisions of a separate legal regulation.

(4) To the stenographer the provisions pertaining to the expert shall be applied.

(5)[710] If the verdict of acquittal of the court becomes final on the first instance or second instance, abridged minutes may be taken.  The abridged minutes shall contain only the data specified in Section 250 (2) and the description of the court procedure according to Section 250 (3).

 

Section 253 (1) If the minutes have not been prepared within 8 days, the presiding judge shall notify the prosecutor, the accused and the defence counsel of the date when the minutes will be ready.

(2)[711] Unless provided otherwise by this Act, at request, the documents produced in the course of the criminal proceedings – including the documents obtained by the prosecutor and investigating authority having proceeded in the case as well as the documents submitted or attached by the participants of the criminal proceedings – shall be made available by for reading at the official premises of the court to the prosecutor, the accused, the defence counsel and the victim.

(3) The fulfilment of the request made under subsection (2) may not jeopardise the continuity and the work of the court, and may not result in unlacing or damaging the laced documents.  On the day of the trial and on the preceding working day, the request may only be fulfilled with the express permission of the presiding judge.

(4) At the request of a detained accused the presiding judge may permit the examination of the documents at the penal institution.  Nevertheless, the provisions set forth in subparagraph (3) shall still apply.

(5)[712]

 

Section 254 (1)[713] Within 15 days of the preparation of the minutes, the prosecutor, the accused, the defence counsel and the other parties having been present during the procedural action may motion for the supplementation or correction of the minutes.  If necessary, the court shall make the decision thereon after trial the persons who were present during the procedural action; upon rejecting the motion, reference thereto shall be made in the minutes.  The presiding judge and the keeper of the minutes shall sign the supplementation and correction.

(2) In the event of an apparent confusion of names or numbers, or other clerical errors, the court may order the correction of the minutes both in response to a motion or ex officio.

 

Section 255[714] (1) Minutes shall be taken on the session of the panel, if the decision was not adopted unanimously.  The preparation of the minutes shall be ordered by the presiding judge.  The fact that minutes were taken on the deliberation of the court or a dissenting opinion was made in writing shall be indicated in the minutes of the trial at the time of announcing the decision at the latest.

(2)[715] The minutes of the deliberation of the court and the documents attached thereto according to Section 256 (5) shall be filed among the documents in a closed envelope which may only be disclosed to the court proceeding in respect of the appeal, the court and the prosecutor proceeding in the extraordinary legal remedy procedure, the disciplinary court proceeding in the disciplinary procedure, or, if criminal proceedings are instituted, the court and the prosecutor proceeding in the criminal case.

(3) No copy may be issued of the minutes of the session and the draft decision of the court panel, or the dissenting opinion of the minority thereon.

Deliberation and voting

Section 256 (1) The panel of the court adopts its decision after deliberation by way of voting.  If the voting is not unanimous, the vote of the majority shall prevail.

(2) If there are also associate judges on the court panel, prior to the voting, the presiding judge shall provide information concerning the type of decision that may be adopted, the legal regulations required for the decision, the types and extent of punishment and the measures.

(3)[716] Upon the delivery of a verdict, the panel with consideration to the facts established decides whether the accused is guilty, if so, in what criminal offence, then on the punishment or measure to be imposed as well as other provisions.

(4) Younger judges shall cast their vote prior to the senior ones, and the chairperson shall vote last.  If the votes concerning the punishment or the measure to be imposed are not unanimous, the majority of votes shall be computed by combining the votes for the strictest legal consequence with those considered the nearest thereto.

(5) Those holding a minority opinion shall be entitled to attach their written dissenting opinion to the minutes taken on the session of the panel.

(6)[717] Both the deliberation and the voting shall be secret.  In addition to the chairperson and members of the panel proceeding in the case, only the keeper of the minutes may be present both at the deliberation and the voting.

(7)[718] Issues not affecting the merit of the case which arise in the course of the trial may be deliberated in low voice at the trial as well.

Decisions

Section 257 (1)[719] In the cases stipulated in this Act, the court shall deliver a verdict, while in other cases it shall adopt a decision.  In the conclusive decision the court shall make a statement on the charges; in the legal adjudication of the case the court shall not be affected by motions.

(2)[720]

(3) Unless provided otherwise by this Act, the decision shall consist of an introductory part, the disposition, the justification and the date.

(4)[721] The original copy of the decision and the disposition thereof put in writing prior to the announcement thereof shall be signed by all panel members.  If the presiding judge or a member of the panel is prevented from signing the decision, it shall be signed – indicating their capacity as a substitute – a member or the chairperson of the panel having proceeded in the case.  This provision shall not apply to signing the disposition part of the decision under Section 321 (1).

(5) The decision shall be announced by the presiding judge.

 

Section 258 (1) The introductory part of the verdict and conclusive decision shall indicate

  1. a) the statement made according to Section 257 (2),

b)[722] the name of the court, the number of court case and the place of the court procedure,

  1. c) the date of the trial (if several trials have been held, the dates of all trials), the place and date of adopting the decision,
  2. d) the form of the court procedure, and
  3. e) whether the procedure was public.

(2) The disposition of the verdict and the conclusive decision shall contain

  1. a) data regarding the preliminary arrest of the accused,
  2. b) the name and personal data of the accused,

c)[723] a declaration of whether the accused was found guilty or having been acquitted of the charges, or that the court terminates the procedure,

d)[724] the designation of the criminal offence according to the Criminal Code shall be made by representing the applied section –including the section defining the basic form of the criminal offence if heavier qualified form of the crime has been established-, indication whether it is a felony or a misdemeanour, if the crime is on several grounds on continuous, the indication thereof, if the crime can be committed either intentionally or neglectful, in case of the neglectful form the indication thereof, furthermore the indication of the form of the perpetration ,

  1. e) the punishment or measure imposed and other legal consequences,
  2. f) other provisions and
  3. g) a provision on bearing the costs of the criminal proceedings.

(3) The justification of the verdict and the conclusive decision shall contain, in a running text

a)[725] reference to the charge, its legal classification according to the indictment, if required, the substance of the facts in the indictment,

  1. b) facts established concerning the personal circumstances and data regarding the earlier punishments of the accused,
  2. c) the facts established by the court,
  3. d) the enumeration and evaluation of the evidence,

e)[726] the legal classification of the act according to the facts established by the court; upon the imposition or omission of a punishment or measure the justification thereof, indicating the applied legal regulations, and

  1. f) reasons for the other provisions of the decision and the dismissal of the motions, indicating the applied legal regulations.

(4)[727] The contents of decisions regarding custody, preliminary arrest, temporary involuntary treatment in a mental institution, prohibition of leaving residence and house arrest shall be governed by the provisions of subsections (1) b) to d) and (2) a) and b).

 

Section 259 (1)[728] If the conclusive decision communicated by way of an announcement has not been appealed by either the prosecutor, or the accused, or the defence counsel, the justification of the decision may consist merely of the enumeration of the facts and the applied legal regulations.  In the justification of a verdict of acquittal, the enumeration of facts may also be omitted. (Abridged justification.)

(2)[729] If the conclusive decision pertains to more than one persons accused, the justification related to the accused against whom the conclusive decision has become final in the first instance, may also be made in writing in the form specified in subsection (1).

 

Section 260 (1)[730] Interlocutory decisions – i.e. decisions merely establishing the course of actions, preparing or executing the procedural actions after the commencement of the trial, without affecting the merit of the case – and judicial measures not needing the form of decisions do not need to be justified.  The reasons for dismissing the motion for evidence shall be described in detail in the conclusive decision.

(2)[731] Unless provided otherwise in this Act, interlocutory decisions and judicial measures not needing the form of a decision may not be appealed.

(3) Decisions included in the minutes have no introductory part and date.

(4)[732] Unless provided otherwise by this Act, decisions not recorded in the minutes shall be put in writing not later than within 30 days, or, if it requires longer justification, within 60 days of the adoption or announcement thereof.  The day when the entire decision is put in writing shall be recorded on the original copy of the decision.

 

Section 261[733] (1) In the event of an apparent confusion of names or numbers, a computing error or other clerical errors, the court may order the correction of the decision both in response to a motion or ex officio.  The decision on the correction may be appealed by the prosecutor and the party to whom either the decision or the correction pertains to; and, if it pertains to the accused by the defence counsel as well.

(2) The correction shall be recorded both on the decision and the estreats.  If the erroneous estreat has already been served prior to the correction of the decision, the corrective decision shall be served on those to whom the court has sent the erroneous estreat.

 

Section 262 (1)[734] The decisions shall be communicated to those whom it concerns; the decision communicated to the accused shall also be communicated to the defence counsel and the conclusive decision to the victim as well.  With the exception of decisions related to the conduct and maintenance of order of the trial, decisions shall also be notified to the prosecutor, while decisions pertaining to the transfer of the case, designation of a court and the suspension of the procedure shall be notified to the victim as well.

(2) The decision shall be communicated verbally to those present; in other cases it shall be served on the parties concerned.

(3) During the announcement of the decision, the disposition shall be read out, the substance of the justification shall be made known and explained if required.

(4)[735] The estreat of the conclusive decision containing the justification as well shall be served on the prosecutor, the accused, the defence counsel and the victim even if they have been notified, either by way of an announcement or service, of the disposition of the decision; in other cases, the estreat of the decision containing the justification as well shall be served – if the decision was appealed by a party other than those listed above – to the appealing party.

(5)[736] The parties on whom the decision or the notification of the contents of the decision shall be sent to – in addition to those listed in this section – are specified in a separate legal regulation.

(6)[737] If the accused does not understand the Hungarian  language, after the announcement, the part of the verdict and conclusive decision pertaining to such accused shall be translated into the native, regional or minority language of the accused, or at his request, into another language defined by the accused as a language spoken and formerly used in the proceedings, then served on the accused.

 

Objection against the outlasting of the procedure[738]

 

Section 262/A[739] (1) The accused, the defence counsel and the private party may ont he ground of the omission of the court regulated by section (2) file an objection to the court acting int he case in written, requesting the establishemnt of the fact of the omission, and  – with appointing an adequate deadline – an order to compell the negligent court in case definied by section (2) a) to perform the omitted procedural action or to pass a decision, in case of section (2) b) to choose the adquate measure.

(2) An objection may be filed if

  1. the law set forth deadline for the court to take measures or pass a decision, but the deadline has passed without success,
  2. the court fixed a deadline for the prosecutor, the person participating int he procedure, the requested authority or person, the witness or the exoert to complete the procedural action but the deadline has passed without success and the court has not taken any measures available by law against who is in negligence.

(3) No objection may be granted against the order of the evidentiary process,or against a decision whch can be appealed separately.

(4) The objection may be withdrawn by the person who filed it until the court has not passed a final decision thereon. The objection which has been withdrawn can not be filed again.

 

Section 262/B[740] (1) The court acting in the case shall lay the objection – except the case specified by section (2) – within 8 days directly before the court authorized to judge the objection. The submission shall contain because of what reason – in its opinion – was the procedural action or the decision not possible to be taken.

(2) If the court acting in the case found the objection reasonable, it shall take or order the measures needed to be taken in order to put an end to the situation subjected to the objection within 30 days reckoned from the arrival of the objection to the court. The person filed the objection shall be informed about the settlement of the objection.

(3)[741] The objection against the omission of the court of the first instance shall be settled by the committee of three professional judges of the Court of Justice, the objection against the omission of the Court of Justice shall be settled by the High Court of Appeal, the objection against the omission of the High Court of Appeal shall be settled by the Supreme Court, the objection against the omission of the Supreme Court shall be settled by another committee of the Supreme Court within 15 days reckoned from the submission of the documents at a council-meeting.

(4)If the court settling the objection grants the content of the objection, with appointing an adequate deadline orders the negligent court in cases definied by section 262/A (2) b) to perform actions necessary to continue the procedure regarding the case, in case of section 262/A (2) b) to choose the adquate measure. In the order the court settling the objection – with the exception specified in section 262/A (2) a)- may not compell the acting court to perform definite procedural actions.

In case the objection is not reasonabe, it shall be declined in a reasoned decision. No furhter appeal may be filed against the decision.

(5) The provisions regarding the judgment of the appeal shall be adequately applicable ti the settlement of the objection.

 

Chapter XII

PREPARATION OF A TRIAL

Communication of the indictment

Section 263 (1)[742] Within 30 days of receipt of the files, the presiding judge establishes whether the provisions set forth in Section 264 – 271 and section 543-547 should be applied.

(2) After the lapse of the deadline stipulated in subsection (1) above, the presiding judge shall forthwith send the indictment to the accused and the defence counsel; requesting both the accused and the defence counsel to state their means of evidence within 15 days.

(3)[743] Concurrently with serving the indictment, the presiding judge shall advise the accused and the defence counsel, if the prosecutor intends to use the testimony of a specially protected witness as means of evidence, as well as their right to examine the abstract of the minutes containing the testimony of the specially protected witness and to file a motion for asking questions from the specially protected witness in writing and to terminate the specially protected status of the witness.  The questions to the specially protected witness may not directly aim to reveal the identity and the place of stay of the specially protected witness.

(4)[744] If mediatory process may be conducted, and prosecutor has not suspended the procedure according to section 221/A (4), the presiding judge shall inform the accused, the defence counsel and the victim about the possibility of a motion for mediatory process and the results of mediatory process at the same time the delivery of the indictment.

 

Transfer

Section 264 If the court has no competence or jurisdiction to adjudicate the case, it shall transfer the case to the court of competence or jurisdiction.

Consolidation and severance of cases

Section 265 (1)[745] The court shall decide on the consolidation or severance of cases either ex officio or upon a motion (Section 72).  The decision concerning consolidation of cases in process at various courts shall be made by the court having competence and jurisdiction for joint examination; should there be more than one such courts, the principle of preceding authority [Section 17 (2)] shall govern.  The court shall send the case in process to the court entitled to make a decision concerning the consolidation for consideration.

(2)[746] Upon the commencement of another procedure against a person on probation, due to a criminal offence committed during the probation period or upon the commencement of a procedure against such person during the probation period due to a criminal offence committed prior to the probation period, the cases shall be consolidated and processed by the court having competence and jurisdiction for adjudicated the later case.  If the accused was placed on probation by court martial, the cases shall be consolidated by the court having conducted the court martial procedure, unless it was put into effect due to reasons enumerated in Section 470 (3).

(3)[747] The fact that the accused had formerly been placed on probation in a case based on private prosecution shall not be an obstacle to consolidation, however, in the new criminal proceedings, the prosecutor, substitute private accuser or another private accuser shall represent the prosecution.  If the accused had been put on probation in a case based on public accusation, and the new criminal proceedings are initiated based on private prosecution, the cases may be consolidated provided that the prosecutor has taken over the representation of the prosecution from the private accuser.  In such a case, the court shall forward the documents of the case to the prosecutor to consider taking over the representation of the prosecution.  This restriction shall not apply if in the new case prosecution is represented by a substitute private accuser.

(4) [748] If the court does not establish the guilt of the accused in the new procedure, the consolidated cases shall be severed once again.

(5)[749] Section 175 (7) shall also govern in the case of the court procedures.

(6)[750] The provisions of paragraphs (1) – (4) shall be applied as appropriate if, pursuant to Section 266 (6), the court suspended the criminal proceedings launched formerly against the suspect, but the prosecutor filed a new indictment against the accused due to drug abuse [Section 266 (7)].

Suspension of the procedure

Section 266 (1)[751] The court shall

  1. a) suspend the procedure for reasons specified in Section 188 (1) a), b) and d)-g),
  2. b) suspend the procedure ex officio or upon a motion and initiate the procedure of the Constitutional Court, if the adjudication of the case involves the application of such legal regulation or other means of state governance or resolution for the uniformity of law which are found contrary to the Constitution or to international treaty,
  3. c) suspend the procedure ex officio or upon a motion and initates the procedure of the Supreme Court, if a disposition of a local government decree should be applied which found contrary to an other act,
  4. d) suspend the procedure ex officio or upon a motion, if the preparatory ruling of the European Court of Justice is initiated according to the rules set forth in the Treaty on European Union or the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. In its decision the court specifies the question requiring the preliminary ruling of the European Court of Justice and – to the extent required for answering the question – describes the facts and the affected Hungarian legal regulations. The decision shall be sent to the European Court of Justice, as well as to the Minister of Justice for guidance,
  5. e) suspend the procedure ex officio, if the prosecutor has filed a motion for recognizing the validity of a foreign judgment concerning the accused in a procedure specified by the Act on International Legal Aid in Criminal Matters on the grounds set forth by section 178/B (2) or (4), but this procedure has not been finished by the conclusion of the procedure of taking evidence.

(2) The court shall also suspend the procedure in the absence of the denunciation required to launch the procedure [Section 236 (1) and Section 240 of the Criminal Code].  The procedure may only be suspended up to the final conclusion of the base case.

(3)[752] The court may suspend the procedure, if

  1. a) the accused is abroad for a longer time period,
  2. b) requested the prosecutor to complete an insufficient indictment or to search for, secure, and examine evidence or to ensure that the evidence is at the disposal of the court at the trial [Section 268 (1)].
  3. c) in order to conduct a mediatory procedure, for maximum 6 months.

(4)[753] If the court does not deem the measure set forth in subsection (3) a) justified and the place of stay of the accused abroad is known, the court may issue an international and European  arrest warrant and initiate a procedure for the extradition of the accused based on the international or European arrest warrant.  Should the extradition or the surrender of the accused based on the European arrest warrant be denied or not possible, the court – if the conditions are met – may initiate the transfer of the criminal proceedings.

(5)[754] The court shall resume the procedure if the reason for suspending the procedure has ceased, or upon suspension pursuant to Section 188 (1) g), if the act promulgating the charter of the international criminal court or the act on the execution of the obligations arising from such charter provides so.

(6)[755] If the procedure may be terminated due to an element terminating punishability stipulated in Section 283 of the Criminal Code and the prosecutor did not postpone the indictment under Section 222 (2), the court shall suspend the procedure for a period of 1 year, provided that the drug user accused agrees to undergo a treatment for drug addiction or other therapeutic process treating drug users or to participate in preventive education.

(7)[756] The procedure shall be resumed if the suspect fails to verify that within 1 year following the suspension he has participated in a treatment for drug addiction, other therapeutic process treating drug users or preventive education for a period of at least 6 successive months, or the prosecutor filed a new indictment against the accused due to drug abuse.

(8)[757] Unless the prosecutor postponed the filing of the indictment pursuant to Section 222 (3), procedures launched due to non-payment of alimony (Section 196 of the Criminal Code) may be suspended by the court for a maximum of 1 year, if this may result in meeting the defaulted obligation.  The procedure shall be resumed prior to the lapse of the deadline if the accused still fails to fulfil his obligation to pay alimony.

(9)[758] The procedure may be suspended by the court secretary for the reasons listed in subsections (1) a) and (2).

Termination of the procedure

Section 267 (1) The court may terminate the procedure,

  1. a) if the action charged in the indictment does not constitute a criminal offence,
  2. b) if the accused is a minor,

c)[759] due to death, statutory limitation or pardon of the accused or the existence of other elements terminating punishability by law,

d)[760] if the action charged in the indictment has already been adjudicated by a final decision,

  1. e) if there is no private motion, request or denunciation and they cannot be subsequently submitted,
  2. f) if the prosecutor has dropped the charge and substitute private prosecution cannot be applied,

g)[761] due to a criminal offence having no significance for the purpose of liability as opposed to the graver criminal offence contained in the indictment,

h)[762] and shall reprimand the accused (Section 71 of the Criminal Code) if the criminal offence no longer poses a danger or poses only a marginal danger to the society and therefore, even the mildest punishment or other measure permitted by law is unnecessary,

i)[763] if the procedure has been suspended pursuant to Section 266 (6) or (8) and the accused verifies that he has participated in a treatment for drug addiction, other therapeutic process treating drug users or preventive education for a period of at least 6 successive months, or, if the person accused of the misdemeanour of non-payment of alimony, has performed his obligation.

j)[764] if the indictment is not lawful [Section 2(2)],

k)[765] if the indictment does not met the provisions set forth in Section 217 (3), and the prosecutor does not comply with the provisions set forth in Section 268 (1),

l)[766] in case of active contrition [Section 36 (1) of the Penal Code].

(2) The court shall advise the private party of the termination of the procedure as well as of his right to enforce his civil claim by way of other legal means.

(3)[767] If, upon dropping the charges, substitute private prosecution may be lodged, the court shall serve on the victim the statement of the prosecutor on dropping the charges in 15 days, and inform the victim about the provisions of Section 229 (3).  If the victim fails to stand as a substitute private accuser within 60 days, the court shall terminate the procedure.  The victim shall be advised thereof.  If the victim wishes to act as a substitute private accuser, the motion for prosecution shall be submitted to the court. The legal representation of the substitute private accuser is obligatory since the motion for prosecution has been submitted.

(4)[768] If the victim has filed for personal exemption from bearing the costs and for permission to be represented by legal aid counsel, the deadline specified in section (3) shall be reckoned from the announcement of the final decision on the objection.

(5)[769] If the victim has filed a request specified in section (4), he shall inform the court which has been acted in the case within 8 days reckoned from filing the request.  In case of failing to inform the court the calculation of the deadline specified in section (4) may not be applicable. The victim shall be advised thereof.

(6)[770] The fact that the statement of the prosecutor on dropping the charges could not be served on the victim due to his unknown residence shall not prevent the termination of the procedure.

(7)[771] Upon a substitute private prosecution, the provisions stipulated in Section 229 (2), Section 230, Section 231 and Section 233 shall apply as appropriate.

Measure to perform a procedural action

Section 268[772] (1)[773] The court shall take steps ex officio or on the motion of the participants to ensure that the evidence is available at the trial. In order to do so – with appointing a deadline, if it is necessary besides suspending the proceedings- the court may request the prosecutor, furthermore it may order to obtain the opinion of the probation officer. The request of the prosecutor may aim to complete the indictment, furthermore to find and secure means of evidence – if evidence cannot be taken by the way of a delegated judge or requested court (section 304), and the completion of proof cannot be performed at the trial -.

to find, secure and examine evidence and to ensure that means of evidence are available at the trial.

(2)[774] The court may request the body, authority, public body, smallholder association, trust funds, public funds and social organization of the government and the local government to put at its disposal the documents and data according to the provisions regarding request. Within the scope of this it may call the revenue authorities, institution handling medical data and data related thereto, institution handling data which is qualified as banking secret, stock-secret, counter-secret, other business secret, institution offering telecommunication service, records about road traffic, and the register of title deeds for providing information for the sake of the success of proof. Te court shall obtain the data regarding the accused from the criminal records and the central records of minor offences.

(3)[775] If the prosecutor wants to use the confession of a specially protected witness as evidence, the presiding judge shall obtain the minutes of the confession of the specially protected witness and the decision defined by section 207. (2) d) from the investigating judge. The minutes of the confession of the specially protected witness and the decision defined by section 207. (2) d) may be inspected by the members of the court, and no copies may be made thereof.

(4)[776] If the accused, the defence counsel or the prosecutor has filed a motion for raising a question to the specially protected witness [], or the presiding judge puts question to the specially protected witness, the court shall return the minutes of the confession of the specially protected witness and the decision defined by section 207. (2) d) and order the investigating judge to hear the specially protected witness again regarding the questions of the accused, the defence counsel or the prosecutor at the same time. Section 213. (2) and (4) shall be applicable to such hearing.

Decision on coercive measures

Section 269 (1) The court decides on the maintenance, order or termination of a coercive measure entailing the restriction or deprival of personal freedom at the motion of the prosecutor [Section 218 (1)] or ex officio.

(2) The coercive measures maintained or ordered by the court ordering the transfer of the case shall remain effective until the decision of the transferee court adopted in the course of preparing the trial.

Option to reclassify the charge

Section 270[777] (1)[778] The court may reclassify the charge contained in the indictment.  At that time, the court may also decide on the transfer, consolidation, severance of the cases as well as on the suspension or termination of the procedure.

(2) If the court establishes that the charge contained in the indictment is a criminal offence which may only be prosecuted based on a private prosecution, the statement of the prosecutor on taking over the accusation need not be obtained.

 

Transfer to council of the court[779]

 

Section 270/A[780](1) The court shall transfer the case in front of a counsel consisted of one professional judge and two associate judge if the decision on classification different from the indictment demands it.

(2) The court shall take measure written in section (1) if it is deemed to be necessary on other grounds.

 

Transfer to a five-member panel

Section 271[781] (1) The Local Court may order that the case shall be tried by a panel consisting of two professional judges and three associate judges, if this is justified by the large number of the persons accused or the exceptionally extensive scope of the case.

(2)[782] The Court of Justice may order that the case shall be tried by a panel consisting of two professional judges and three associate judges, if

  1. a) this is justified by the large number of the persons accused or the exceptionally extensive scope of the case,
  2. b) the criminal offence is punishable by life imprisonment by law.

The preparatory meeting

Section 272[783] (1) If prior to the adoption of a decision in issues examined in the course of the preparation for the trial it appears necessary to hear the prosecutor or the accused, the court shall hold meeting within 30 days after the lapse of the deadline specified in Section 263 (1).

(2) The arrangement session is compulsory if

  1. a) the court is going to make a decision on coercive measures depriving or limiting personal freedom (section 129, 137, 138, 138/A and 140), as well as on upholding the preliminary arrest or house arrest, and in the motion new circumstances, comparing to the former decision, were indicated as a reason for upholding the measures,
  2. b) The accused, the defence counsel or the victim initiated the mediation process within 15 days reckoned from the statement of the indictment,
  3. c) the accused or the defence counsel thereof filed a motion to cancel the special protection of the witness.

(3) The presiding judge shall notify the prosecutor, the accused and the defence counsel of the date of the preparatory meeting; in the case of subsection (2) and if the accused needs to be heard for another reason, the presiding judge shall summon the accused and – if defence is statutory – the defence counsel, furthermore in the case of subsection (2) B) summon the victim.

(4) The preparatory meeting may not be held in the absence of the prosecutor, and the summoned accused and defence counsel, unless its subject is an order for preliminary arrest, prohibition of leaving residence, house arrest or temporary involuntary treatment in a mental institution.

(5) If the person, who filed the motion underlying the arrangement session, does not make an appearance despite the summoning, this shall be regarded as withdrawing the motion.

(6) At the arrangement session the presiding judge shall introduce the case to the necessary extent, the members of the council, the prosecutor, the accused and the defence counsel may initiate the introduction of additional documents.

(7) The members of the council and the presiding judge may ask questions from the prosecutor, the accused and – within the limits set forth by section (2) b) – from the victim. The prosecutor, the defence counsel and  – within the limits set forth by section (2) b) – victim may ask questions from the accused, the accused and the defence counsel may file a motion to be allowed to ask questions from the prosecutor.

(8) If the accused or the counsel for the defence name the specially protected witness, or identify the person in any other way without any doubt whatsoever, the court shall cancel the special protection of the witness. In such case, the summoning and the hearing of the witness shall be governed by the general rules; the presiding judge may initiate other kind of protection for the witness ex officio or on a motion if it is necessary.

(9)[784] The arrangement session may take place even if the hearing of the prosecutor, the accused and the defence counsel are deemed to be necessary in order to define the limit, the extent and the course of collecting evidence in consideration of the complexity of the case.

Scope of authority of the court

Section 273 (1)[785] It is either the court panel or the presiding judge that acts in the course of the preparation of a trial.

(2) In the issues examined in the course of the preparation of a trial, the court shall adopt a decision prior to the lapse of the deadline set forth in Section 263 (1) unless the hearing under Section 272 appears necessary.

(3) It shall fall in the scope of authority of the court panel to adopt a decision on the termination of the procedure and coercive measures entailing the deprival or restriction of personal freedom.

(4)[786] The court panel shall be entitled to decide on all issues which otherwise fall within the scope of authority of the presiding judge.

Scope of authority of the presiding judge

Section 274[787] (1) The presiding judge shall decide on all issues which do not fall within the scope of authority of the court panel under Section 273 (3) and which were not decided by the court panel pursuant to Section 273 (4).

(2) If the court reprimanded the accused in his absence (Section 71 of the Criminal Code), the reprimand shall be effected by the presiding judge.

Decision after the preparation of the trial

Section 275 (1)[788] After the completion of the preparation of the trial, and setting the date of the trial, issues regulated in a Sections 267 and 269 shall be decided upon by the court at a panel meeting, while issues regulated in Sections 264, 265, 266, 268, 270, 270/A and 271 shall be decided upon by the presiding judge.

(2)[789] The presiding judge may postpone the trial for an important reason.  In case the presence of the defence counsel at the trial is obligatory and the empowered defence counsel did not arrange for replacement or the accused does not give a power of attorney to another defence counsel the court shall appoint a substitute defence counsel  or a new defence counsel.

Preclusion of legal remedy during the preparation of a trial

Section 276 (1) No appeal may be lodged against

  1. a) the setting and postponement of the trial,
  2. b) the summons to the preparatory meeting and the trial and the notification of the trial,

c)[790] the suspension of the procedure pursuant to Section 188 (1) a) or Section 266 (1) b) to d) and (3) a) and b), as well as against the rejection of a motion for initiating procedures set forth by Section 266 (1) b) to b),

  1. d) the option of reclassification compared to the indictment,

e)[791] reference to the panel of the court or the refusal thereof,

f)[792] reference to the five-member panel or the refusal thereof,

g)[793] termination of the procedure pursuant to Section 267 (1) f),

h)[794] the rejection of the statement on legal remedy made after the acknowledgement of a decision, and

i)[795] the measures of the court specified in Section 268 (1) – (4).

(2) The court may omit the adoption of a decision concerning the consideration of an appeal against decisions listed under subsection (1).

(3) The court may omit the decision concerning the consideration of motions for an appeal against final decisions.

(4)[796] Even though the reprimand received by the accused from the court (Section 71 of the Criminal Code) cannot be appealed, within 8 days after the communication of the decision, the prosecutor, the accused and the defence counsel thereof may request that a trial be held.  Based on the request, the court shall hold a trial.  The summons shall be served on the accused 5 days prior to the trial at the latest.

Scope of authority of the single judge

Section 277 If the Local Court acts as a single judge in a case, the decisions falling within the authority of both the court panel and the presiding judge under this Chapter shall be adopted by the single judge.

Setting the trial

Section 278 (1)[797] Within 30 days reckoned from the notification of the indictment, the presiding judge shall examine the possible motions for taking evidence filed by the defendant and his counsel and shall establish the date of the trial, make arrangements for the trial, the summons and notices.

(2) As a rule, the trial shall be conducted in the official premises of the court.  If deemed justified, the court may order another location.

(3)[798] The date of the trial shall be set – taking into consideration the order of arrival of the cases and the order concerning the priority handling of the case – at the closest possible day allowing the court to conclude the case in a reasonable time without adjournment.

(4)[799] If it is obvious, because of the great extent of the evidentiary procedure to be conducted, that the case can not be settled within one trial day, several or continuous trial days shall be fixed and the evidentiary procedure shall be completed within a reasonable time limit.

 

Summons and notification

Section 279 (1) The accused, the defence counsel (in the case of statutory defence) and all other persons whose presence at the trial is obligatory shall be summoned to attend on the date set.  Notification shall be sent to the prosecutor and – unless an exception is provided by this Act – the expert and other persons participating in the criminal proceedings whose presence at the trial are allowed by this Act.  If the prosecutor filed a motion to terminate the parental right of custody of the accused, the other parent and the child welfare agency shall also be advised of the trial.

(2) In the summons or notification, the persons participating in the criminal proceedings shall be requested to submit their motions for evidence without delay, prior to the trial.  The presiding judge shall arrange for the availability of the means of evidence required for the adjudication of the case at the trial.

(3)[800] The summons shall be served on the accused at least 8 days prior to the trial. Simultaneously with the summons, the court shall inform the accused about the trial may be held in his absence and the procedure can be concluded if he beforehand reports that he does not wish to be present at the trial.

(4)[801] If the accused reports beforehand by reason of a notice of the court, that he does not wish to be present at the trial and he does not have a defence counsel, the court shall appoint a defence counsel for him and he shall be summoned to attend on the date set.

 

Section 280 (1) If the witness is a minor under fourteen years of age and he has been heard by the court in the course of the investigation [Section 207 (4)], he may not be summoned to the trial.  If such witness has reached the age of fourteen at the time of the trial, he may be summoned to the trial in exceptionally justified cases.

(2)[802] A person who is not fourteen years old by the time of the hearing shall be heard by delegated judges or requested court if he was not heard as a witness by the court during the investigation but his hearing became necessary.

(3) [803]The specially protected witness (Section 97) may not be summoned to the trial.

 

Chapter XIII

TRIAL OF THE COURT OF FIRST INSTANCE

Title I

COURSE OF EVENTS AT THE TRIAL

Opening the trial

Section 281 (1) The trial is public by the presiding judge by enumerating the charges in the indictment, requesting the audience to maintain silence and order and warning them of the consequences of disturbing order.  The presiding judge states the names of the members of the court, the keeper of the minutes, the prosecutor and the defence counsel.  The presiding judge records those attending the trial then, depending on whether those summoned and notified are present, establishes whether the trial can be held.

(2)[804] If the duly summoned accused or witness fails to attend, where it is feasible, the presiding judge arranges that they to be taken to the court without delay – with the exception of section 279 (4) -, and also requests the absent prosecutor or expert to appear at the trial; the request to the prosecutor shall be sent through the head of the prosecutor’s office.

(3)[805] If the summoned defence counsel does not attend, the accused may assign another defence counsel. If the presence of the defence counsel at the trial is statutory and the empowered defence counsel does not attend at the trial and does not even arrange for replacement, the court shall appoint a substitute defence counsel or in case of an appointed defence counsel who is not present the court shall appoint another one.  The substitute defence counsel or the appointed new defence counsel shall have sufficient time to prepare for the defence.  The trial may be held, but if upon the request of the accused or the defence counsel attending at the trial the procedure of taking evidence cannot be concluded, the trial shall be postponed at the cost of the defence counsel who has failed to attend.

(4)[806] The trial shall may take place in the absence of the accused if the subject of the proceedings is the order of the forced medical treatment of the accused, and due to his health condition he cannot be in present at the trial, as well as he is unable to exercise his rights. If the procedure is dealing with several accused, that part of the trial may still take place in the absence of the accused, which does not concerns him; in such case this part of the trial may take place in the absence of the defence counsel of the absent accused even if the defence is statutory.

(5)[807] If the measure of the presiding judge set forth in subsection (2) is not feasible or failed to bring result, the trial may also be held in the absence of the duly summoned accused who has failed to attend and is at liberty, however, the evidentiary procedure – with the exception of the case specified in subsection (9) below – may not be concluded.

(6)[808] In case of section (5), if section (9) may not be applicable, the trial shall be adjourned following the interrogation and the hearing of the persons present and the court shall order to bring the absent accused to court on the following day appointed for the hearing.  If in the course of the judicial proceedings it has been ordered to bring the absent accused to court, in case of a crime punishable by imprisonment an arrest warrant shall be issued or – with the exception of section (7) – if the residence, as well as the place of stay of the accused is known, trial-custody shall be ordered from the day before the appointed for the hearing. If the accused does not have a defence counsel, it shall be ordered for him. The decision on ordering the trial custody shall be served for the accused by the police at the time of carrying it out. The decision shall be executable regardless of an appeal. The decision on the trial-custody shall be served by the police to the accused at the time of executing such coercive measure. The decision shall be executed regardless of an appeal. The length of trial custody shall not exceed 72 hours; it shall be counted from the time of its execution. The accused shall be brought to the court ordering the trial-custody on the day set for hearing after the execution of trial-custody. The court shall hear the accused and depending on the result thereof if may order the preliminary arrest of the accused or may hold the accused in trial-custody for the time of the trial – but for a maximum period of 72 hours. If the court did not hold the accused in trial-custody or ordered the preliminary arrest of the accused yet, the accused shall be released.

(7)[809] If the accused cannot be arrested on a bench warrant on the new date of the trial because he left for an unknown location from his place of residence or if the accused could not be taken to court under the warrant of arrest until the new date of the trial, the court shall establish that the accused is absconding and thereafter act in compliance with the provisions of Chapter XXV.

(8)[810] If the accused is present at the trial set pursuant to subsection (6), the minutes of the trial having been held in his absence shall be read out after questioning the accused.  If required, the court may order to summon witnesses and experts who had already been questioned and heard and to repeatedly question and hear them in the presence of the accused, further, the court may require a written testimony of such witnesses [Section 85 (5) and (6)].

(9)[811] The court may acquit the accused or terminate the criminal proceedings against him in his absence; the notification of the related decision indicating also the clause in the purview concerning the right of appeal (Section 324- 325) shall be served on the accused and the defence counsel. The court shall conclude the procedure against a properly summoned but absent accused –if he reported beforehand that he does not wish to be present at the trial -, the final judgment shall be served on the absent accused, and shall be served by the way of announcement on the defence counsel attending at the trial.

 

Section 282 (1) If the trial can take place in the absence of a person not attending, the court shall decide on the commencement of the trial after hearing the prosecutor, the accused and the defence counsel.

(2) If there is no obstacle to hold the trial, the presiding judge shall request the witnesses – with the exception of the victim – to leave the court room.  The presiding judge shall advise such persons of the consequences of unjustified leave.  The expert shall only be required to leave if this is deemed necessary by the court; otherwise the expert may be present at the trial from the commencement thereof.

(3)[812] It is not necessary to postpone the trial if the notification period was not kept [Section 279 (3)] provided that the accused and the defence counsel unanimously request that the trial be held.  If defence is not statutory and the assigned defence counsel fails to attend the trial, the trial needs not be postponed unless requested so by the accused.

(4)[813] If there is an obstacle to holding the trial, the court shall postpone it.

 

Section 283 (1) Prior to the commencement of the trial, the prosecutor, the accused, the defence counsel and the victim

  1. a) may initiate the transfer, consolidation or severance of the case(s),
  2. b) may initiate the exclusion of the presiding judge, a member of the court or the keeper of the minutes, and
  3. c) may indicate other circumstances which hinder the holding of the trial or need to be taken into consideration prior to the commencement of the trial.

(2) Prior to the commencement of the trial, the accused, the defence counsel and the victim may motion for the exclusion of the prosecutor.

Commencement of the trial

Section 284 (1) If the presiding judge establishes that there is no obstacle to holding the trial and the witness and expert has left the court room [Section 282 (2)], the court shall commence with the trial.

(2) At the request of the presiding judge

  1. a) the prosecutor shall present the charge,

b)[814] the victim and his representative present shall state whether they intend to enforce a civil claim; if so, the presiding judge shall request the victim to describe his claim and – if the victim has no representative – advise him of the provisions in Section 54 (7); and thereafter,

  1. c) the victim to be questioned as a witness shall leave the court room.

Order of taking evidence [815]

Section 285[816] (1) In the course of the evidentiary procedure the prosecutor, the accused, the defence counsel, the victim, the private party, and in the issues of his concern, the other interested party may make motions and observations.

(2) The evidentiary actions initiated by the prosecutor, the accused and the defence counsel and the order thereof shall be decided upon by the presiding judge, taking into consideration the motions of the prosecutor, the accused and the defence counsel.

(3) The rejection of the motion for evidence may not be appealed, only contested in an appeal against the conclusive decision.

(4) As a rule, evidence motioned for by the prosecutor shall precede the taking of evidence initiated by the accused and the defence counsel.

 

Section 286[817] (1) The evidentiary procedure shall start with the questioning of the accused.

(2) In case the accused has already give information about his personal data prescribed by Section 117 (1) as well as the witness has already give information about his personal data prescribed by Section 85 (2) during the investigation or the trial, the cross-check of these data can be performed out of court by another person – thus the draftsman of the court, court secretary, an official and the court reporter. In such cases the presiding judge only makes a record of the fact that the cross-check was performed and of the possible changes of these data in accordance with Section 288 (3) and 293 (1).

(3) Generally, from among the witnesses, the victim shall be questioned first.

(4) When the accused and the witness are questioned and the expert is heard, they may be required to answer the questions of – in addition to the members of the court– the prosecutor, the accused, the defence counsel, the victim, the private party, and in issues of his concern, by the other interested party and the expert.

Continuity of the trial [818]

Section 287 [819](1)[820] If practicable, the court shall not interrupt an already commenced trial.  If required due to the scope of the case or for other reasons, the presiding judge may interrupt the already commenced trial for maximum 8 days, and the court – to complement evidence, for successful ending of the mediatory process or for other important reason – may adjourn the trial.

(2) In the case stipulated in subsection (1) above, the date of resuming the trial shall be set, unless considering the reason for the adjournment the resumption of the trial within 6 months does not seem practicable.

(3) Within 6 months, the trial may be resumed without repetition, unless the composition of the panel has changed; otherwise the trial shall be recommenced anew.

(4)[821] The trial may be repeated by presenting the documents of the case.  After the presentation of the documents of the case, the prosecutor, the accused and the defence counsel shall be advised that they may make observations on, and request the supplementation of the presentation.  The advice and the observations shall be entered in the minutes.

(5) Adjourned trial shall be resumed by presenting the minutes taken at the latest session of the trial, if the interruption has lasted for more than 8 days and the prosecutor, the accused or the defence counsel motions for such presentation.  After the presentation of the minutes, the prosecutor, the accused and the defence counsel shall be advised that they may make observations on, and request the supplementation of the presentation. The advice and the observations shall be entered in the minutes.

 

Questioning the accused[822]

Section 288[823] (1) As a rule, the accused shall be questioned in the absence of the other accused who have not been questioned as yet.

(2) At the motion of the prosecutor, the accused or the defence counsel or ex officio, for the duration of questioning the accused, the presiding judge may order the other accused to leave the court room if the presence of the latter disturbed the accused in the course of the questioning.

(3)[824] The presiding judge establishes the identity and the personal data listed in Section 117 (1) of the accused, asks whether the accused has understood the charges and if not, he shall explain the charges.  Thereafter, the accused shall be granted the opportunity to briefly summarise his position concerning the charges.  The accused or his defence counsel – if they deem this necessary – may also mention the type of evidentiary procedure they intend to motion for in the interest of the defence.

(4)[825] If the accused does not grasp the opportunity specified in subsection (3), or his statement is unclear in this regard, the presiding judge shall ask the accused whether he admits his criminal liability.

 

Section 289[826] (1) The questioning of the accused shall be governed by the provisions set forth in Section 117 (2) – (5) and Section 118, with the exceptions stipulated in subsection (2).

(2)[827] In addition to those stipulated in Section 117 (2), the presiding judge shall advise the accused that he may ask questions from those questioned in the course of the evidentiary procedure, and may also make motions and observations.  The accused shall also be warned that if he does not give testimony his earlier testimony made as a defendant shall be subject to presentation or reading out.

(3) Unless this disturbs the order of the trial, the accused may also consult with his defence counsel during the trial, however, during his questioning this shall be subject to the permission of the presiding judge.

 

Section 290[828] (1) If the accused wishes to make a testimony after the warning set forth in Section 289 (2), he may present his testimony concerning the charges as a comprehensive whole, including his defence.  Thereafter, the presiding judge, then the persons listed in Section 286 (3) – in the order stipulated therein – may ask questions from the accused.

(2) The presiding judge shall ensure that the method of questioning does not injure the human dignity of the accused.

(3) If the question may influence the accused, suggests the reply, irrelevant, has been asked by an unauthorised person, injures the dignity of the trial, or is repeatedly directed to the same fact, the presiding judge shall prohibit the reply.

Reading out and presenting the earlier testimony of the accused [829]

Section 291[830] (1)[831] If the accused does not wish to make a testimony at the trial, and in the case of Section 281 (5) or of an accused of unknown location, at the motion of the prosecutor, the accused or the defence counsel or ex officio, the presiding judge shall either read the testimony of the accused given in the course of the investigation or have it read out by the keeper of the minutes.

(2)[832] If the accused had been questioned as a witness in the course of the investigation, the testimony may only be read out if it is motioned by the accused, or the minutes taken on the testimony clearly indicate the warning specified in Section 85 (3), as well as the reply thereto.

(3)[833] The testimony of the accused given in other criminal proceedings as a suspect or accused may only be read out if the minutes taken on the testimony clearly indicate the warning specified in Section 117 (2), as well as the reply thereto.

(4) At the motion of the prosecutor or the defence counsel, or ex officio, the presiding judge may also present parts of the earlier testimonies – i.e. those given in the course of the proceedings as a suspect or accused – of the accused, if the accused has changed his testimony in the meantime.

(5) Parts of the earlier testimony may only be presented, if the accused has been asked about facts and circumstances contained in the presentation, or the accused has given a testimony concerning such facts and circumstances.  The presiding judge shall ensure that the extent of the presentation is sufficient to establish the facts of the case.

Questioning the witness[834]

Section 292[835] (1) The witness shall be questioned in the absence of the other witnesses who have not been questioned as yet.  Derogation from this provision is permitted in the case of questioning the victim as a witness.

(2) At the motion of the prosecutor, the accused or the defence counsel, or ex officio, for the duration of questioning, the presiding judge may order the accused whose presence may disturb the witness in the course of the questioning to leave the court room.

 

Section 293[836] (1) When commencing the questioning of the witness, the presiding judge shall act in compliance with the provisions of Section 85 (2) and (3), then, if there is no obstacle to the testimony, the presiding judge shall question the witness, taking into consideration of the provisions set forth by Section 88. At the commencement of the questioning, a victim to be questioned as a witness may also make the statement described in Section 284 (2) b), unless he had already made such a statement earlier.

(2) To the questioning of the witness, the provisions set forth in Section 290 (2) and (3) shall be applied as appropriate.

(3) If it can be established that the witness accuses himself or his relative with commiting a crime in his testimony – with the exception of case specified by Section 82 (4) -, the witness must be advised again according to Section 82 (1) b), and the answer of the witness must be recorded in the minutes.

 

Section 294[837] Specially protected witnesses may not be questioned at the trial.  If the witness was questioned pursuant to Section 207 (4), he may only be questioned if he has reached the age of fourteen at the time of the trial, and his questioning at the trial is exceptionally justified.

Questioning of the witness by the prosecutor, the accused or the defence counsel[838]

Section 295[839] (1) At the motion of the prosecutor, the accused or the defence counsel, the presiding judge may permit the questioning of the witness first by the prosecutor and the defence counsel.  In such a case, to the questioning of the witness the provisions of Section 293 shall be applied, with the following derogation:

  1. a) if the witness is questioned upon the motion of the prosecutor, the witness shall first be questioned by the prosecutor, then the accused and the defence counsel may ask questions from the accused and finally, the victim may motion for asking questions,
  2. b) if the witness is questioned upon the motion of the accused or the defence counsel, the witness shall first be questioned by the accused or the defence counsel, then the prosecutor may ask questions from the accused, and finally, the victim may motion for asking questions,
  3. c) in the next step, that party may ask further questions from the witness who had motioned for questioning the witness, but they may only concern facts and circumstances that have arisen as a result of the questions of the other party,
  4. d) the presiding judge and the court members may ask questions from the witness both after the conclusion of the questioning and after a reply to any of the questions.

(2) If any of the parties asking questions repeatedly violates the provisions Section 290 (3) the presiding judge shall deprive that party from the right of questioning.

(3)[840] The rejection of the motion specified in subsection (1) may not be appealed, only contested in an appeal against the conclusive decision.

Reading out and presenting the earlier testimony of the witness[841]

Section 296[842] (1) At the motion of the prosecutor, the accused or the defence counsel or ex officio, the presiding judge shall either read the testimony of the witness given in the course of the investigation or have it read out by the keeper of the minutes, in the following cases:

  1. a) the witness cannot be questioned at the trial, or his attendance would pose unreasonable difficulties due to his state of health, or would not be possible owing to his long term stay abroad,
  2. b) the witness unlawfully refuses to give testimony at the trial,
  3. c) the trial has to be recommenced pursuant to Section 287 (3),
  4. d) the witness gave a written testimony pursuant to Section 85 (5) and (6) and the court does not deem his questioning at the trial necessary,
  5. e) the court requested a written testimony from the witness pursuant to Section 281 (8).

(2) The presiding judge shall read out loud, present or have the testimony of the witness given in the course of the investigation read out by the keeper of the minutes upon the motion of the prosecutor written in the indictment according to section 217 (3) h), if the questioning of the witness was not requested on the grounds set fort by section 285 (1) and the questioning of the witness at the trial does not deemed to be necessary by the court either.

(3) If the witness exercises his right of exemption at the trial, his earlier testimony may not be read out.

(4) If the person to be questioned at the trial had been questioned as a suspect or accused in the earlier stage of the procedure, his earlier testimony or the part of his testimony is subjected to the right to exemption granted in Section 82 (1) may only be read out with his consent.

 

Section 297[843] (1) At the motion of the prosecutor, the accused or the defence counsel, or ex officio, the presiding judge may present parts of the earlier testimony of the witness, if the witness cannot reckon the events or there is a contradiction in his testimonies given at the trial and earlier.  The presentation – subject to the provisions set forth in Section 296 (3) – may also extend to the testimony of the witness given in the former stages of the procedure or in another procedure as a suspect or accused.

(2) Parts of the earlier testimony may only be presented, if the witness has been asked about facts and circumstances contained in the presentation, or the witness has given a testimony concerning such facts and circumstances.  The presiding judge shall ensure that the extent of the presentation is sufficient to establish the facts of the case.

Hearing the expert

Section 298 (1) After giving the warning specified in Section 110 (1), the expert shall be heard by applying, as appropriate, the rules pertaining to the questioning of the witness.

(2) In the course of the hearing, the expert may use his written expert opinion or notes and may also use audio-visual aid.

Reading out and presenting the expert opinion[844]

Section 299[845] (1) If the expert fails to attend the trial despite notification, or the court did not notify the expert pursuant to Section 108 (6), the presiding judge shall present, read out, or have the keeper of the minutes read out the expert opinion having been submitted in writing upon the motion of the prosecutor, the accused, or the defence counsel.  Should the hearing of the expert be necessary under Section 109 after the presentation or reading out the expert opinion, the trial shall be adjourned and the expert be summoned to the set trial.

(2) If the expert fails to attend the trial despite the summons, the court – ex officio or upon a motion – may permit that the expert opinion submitted in writing to be presented or read out.  Should the prosecutor, the accused, the defence counsel, the victim or the private party wish to ask questions after the expert opinion has been presented or read out, the trial shall be adjourned and the expert shall be summoned again to the set trial.

(3) In addition to the cases mentioned in subsections (1) and (2), the expert opinion may also be presented or read out, if the expert has already been heard at the trial, but the trial shall be recommenced once again pursuant to Section 287 (3).

 

Assignment of an expert at the trial

Section 300 If the assignment of the expert becomes necessary at the trial, the presiding judge shall immediately summon him to the trial.  If this is not feasible, the court shall adjourn the trial and set a deadline for preparing an expert opinion.

Reading out and presenting documents and other papers[846]

Section 301 (1)[847] The presiding judge shall arrange the presentation and reading out of documents and other papers serving as evidence at the trial. The presiding judge may order upon the motion of the prosecutor, the defence counsel or the accused to indicate only the main points of the document instead of presenting it.

(2)[848] The report of the investigating authority may be presented as a document.

(3)[849] Upon the motion of the prosecutor, the defence counsel or the accused, the presiding judge may permit that instead of presenting a document, it shall be read out.

(4)[850] Papers submitted at the trial shall be attached to the minutes of the trial by the presiding judge.

Using audio and video recordings taken at the procedural action

Section 302 (1) The presiding judge may have the records made by an audio or video recorder or other equipment at the procedural action presented at the trial, either ex officio or at the motion of the prosecutor, the accused or the defence counsel.

(2) If the recordings referred to in subsection (1) were taken at the questioning of the suspect or the witness, the presentation shall be governed by the provisions of Section 291 to 292 and Sections 296 to 297.

Judicial inspection

Section 303 (1) At the trial, physical evidence shall be exhibited by the presiding judge.  if this is not practicable, a photo of the physical evidence shall be shown and its description be given.

(2) In the course of the trial, the court shall – ex officio or upon a motion – conduct an inspection.

(3) The judicial inspection shall be conducted by the court or a delegated member thereof.

Evidentiary actions by way of a delegated or requested judge

Section 304 (1) If taking evidence is not feasible at the trial, or poses extraordinary difficulties, the court shall delegate its professional judge member (delegated judge) or – if required – request another court (requested court).  The prosecutor, the accused and the defence counsel thereof, as well as the victim shall be notified if evidence is taken.

(2)[851] The requested court shall be informed of the name and residence of the accused, the defence counsel and the victim, the facts to be elucidated by taking evidence, the name and residence of the persons to be questioned and the circumstances concerning which they should be questioned.  The papers or the copies thereof which are required to fulfil the request shall be forwarded to the requested court.

(3)[852] The requested court shall fulfil the request within 30 days.  If the requested court does not fulfil the request within thirty days, it shall inform the requesting court of the obstacle to the fulfilment.  If the fulfilment of the request partially falls within the jurisdiction of another court, the requested court – after taking the evidence falling within its own jurisdiction – shall transmit the papers to the other court, informing thereof the requesting court.

(4)[853] The minutes taken during the procedure of the delegated and requested courts shall be read out at the trial.

(5)[854] The accused, the defence counsel and the victim shall not be notified, if their presence resulted in their learning of the data of the witness handled confidentially pursuant to Section 96.  The accused and the defence counsel need not be notified when evidence is taken from a witness under fourteen years of age [Section 280 (1)-(2)].

Supplementary evidentiary action

Section 305[855] (1)[856] If the court deems the results of the evidentiary procedure insufficient and more thorough investigation needed, it may, either ex officio or upon a motion order to take or obtain further evidence.  If this is not feasible without delay, the court shall adjourn the trial and take evidence on the trial set for the new date.

(2) [857]If it is not feasible to take evidence by way of a delegated judge or requested court (Section 304), further, if supplementary evidence cannot be taken at the trial, the court shall take measures regarding procedural actions to be done (Section 268).

(3)[858] Based on the findings of the evidentiary action, the prosecutor, the accused and the defence counsel may motion for asking further questions from a specially protected witness.  The court may also ask questions from the specially protected witness.  In such a case, the provisions in Section 268 (3) and (4) shall apply.

(4) If the accused or the defence counsel names or unambiguously identifies the specially protected witness in any other way, either at the trial or after – as a result of – the measures set forth in subsection (1) above, the court shall terminate the specially protected status of the witness.  In such a case, the witness shall be summoned and questioned according to the general rules; if necessary, the presiding judge may – ex officio or upon a motion – initiate another form of witness protection.

Omission of the evidentiary action [859]

Section 306[860] The court may omit the evidentiary action due to a criminal offence having no significance for the purpose of liability as opposed to the graver criminal offence contained in the indictment.

Suspension of the procedure

Section 307[861] The procedure may also be suspended after the commencement of the trial (Section 266). If the court has suspended the procedure because the accused became mentally disabled after the commitment of the criminal offence or the accused is siding at an unknown place, the court may order confiscation or forfeiture of property.

(2) No appeal may be filed against the suspension of the procedure due to the provisions of Section 266 (1) b) to d) and (3) a) and b), as well as against the rejection of a motion for initiating a procedure set forth by Section 266 (1) b) to d).

Transfer, consolidation and severance of cases

Section 308 (1) After the commencement of the trial, the case may only be transferred if its adjudication is beyond the competence of the court, is subject to military law, or falls within the jurisdiction of another court pursuant to Section 17 (5) to (6).

(2) Consolidation and severance of the cases may take place even after the commencement of the trial (Section 265).

(3) After the commencement of the trial, the case may not be referred to a five-member panel. (Section 271).

(4)[862] No appeal shall be granted against the decision on the transfer, consolidation or severance of cases.

Out-of-trial decisions

Section 309[863] (1)[864] After the adjournment of the trial, if necessary, the court may decide at a panel meeting on the transfer [Section 308 (1)], consolidation or severance [Section 308 (2)] of the cases, the suspension [Section 266 (1) to (3) and (6) and (8)] or termination [Section 267 (1) c)-e),i), k)-l)] of the procedure, a measure to perform a procedural action (Section 268), as well as on a coercive measure entailing the restriction or deprival of personal freedom.

(2) In the issues not listed in subsection (1) above, decision shall be adopted by the presiding judge out of trial.

Amendment of the charge

Section 310 (1)[865] If the prosecutor – with regard to the charge contained in the indictment or the facts related thereto – deems that the accused is guilty of having committed a different or another criminal offence than the subject of the indictment, the prosecutor shall amend or expand the indictment before the panel meeting held pursuant to Section 321 (1), or motion for the adjournment of the trial in order to supplement the indictment.

(2) If the indictment is amended, upon the motion of the prosecutor or – in order to prepare a defence – the accused or the defence counsel, the court may adjourn the trial.

(3) If the indictment is expanded, at the joint motion of the accused and the defence counsel, the court shall, or ex officio may, adjourn the trial for a period of minimum 8 days, or shall separate the case to which the indictment has been expanded.

(4)[866] The case shall be transferred if the deliberation of the amended charge exceeds the competence of the court or – considering Section 17 (5) and (6) – it belongs to the exclusive competence of another court or it is subject to the military procedure law.

Dropping the charge

Section 311 (1) Before the panel meeting held pursuant to Section 321 (1), the prosecutor may drop the charge.  The prosecutor shall provide justification for dropping the charge.

(2) If the prosecutor took over the representation of the prosecution from the substitute private accuser, he may not drop the charge but may withdraw from the prosecution.  In the event that the substitute private accuser and the representative thereof are present, the trial shall be continued; otherwise the court shall adjourn the trial, simultaneously setting a new one, and notifying the substitute private accuser that it is him who represents the prosecution again.

Actions of the substitute private accuser

Section 312 (1)[867] If substitute private prosecution is applicable when the charge is dropped, the court adjourns the trial, and serves on the victim the statement of the prosecutor on dropping the charge and on provisions set forth in Section 229. (3) in 15 days.  If the victim fails to stand as substitute private accuser within 60 days, the court shall terminate the procedure. The victim shall be notified thereon.

(2) After the charge has been dropped, the victim shall be granted the opportunity to examine, in the official premises of the court, the documents related to the criminal offence having been committed against him.  Confidential documents handled separately from the files of the case may not be disclosed to the substitute private accuser.

(3)[868] If the victim wishes to act as a substitute private accuser, the motion for prosecution shall be submitted to the court that had proceeded in the case before.  Representation of the substitute private accuser by a lawyer shall be obligatory from the time of submitting the motion for prosecution.

(4)[869] If the victim has filed for personal exemption from bearing the costs and for permission to be represented by legal aid counsel, the deadline specified in section (1) shall be reckoned from the announcement of the final decision on the motion.

(5)[870] If the victim has filed a request specified in section (4), he shall inform the court which has been acted up to that time about filing the request within 8 days.  In case of failing to inform the court the computation of the deadline specified in section (4) may not be applicable. The victim shall be advised thereof.

(6)[871] The motion for prosecution shall contain the items listed in Section 217 (3) a)-c), g) and h), as well as the reasons for requesting the continuation of the court procedure despite the fact that the prosecutor has dropped the charge.

(7)[872] If the substitute private accuser submitted a motion for prosecution, the court shall act in compliance with the provisions set forth in Section 231, provided that the substitute private accuser may repeatedly submit the motion for prosecution prior to the lapse of the deadline specified in subsection (1) above.  The decision rejecting the motion for prosecution shall not be subject to an appeal.

(8)[873] If the prosecutor has dropped the charge and there is a substitute private accuser acting in the case, the trial shall be continued.  The continuity of the trial shall be governed by the provisions of Section 286.

(9)[874] If the procedure involves several criminal offences and the prosecutor drops the charge in any of them, substitute private prosecution may only apply if the case concerning which the charge was dropped is subject to severance.  In such a case, the charges shall be severed.

Conclusion of the evidentiary procedure

Section 313 After conducting the evidentiary procedure, if no motion for evidence has been submitted or the motion for evidence has been rejected by the court, the presiding judge shall declare the evidentiary procedure concluded and requests those entitled to make their argument in the case and their addresses.

Closing arguments and addresses

Section 314 (1) The prosecutor shall speak for the prosecution and the defence counsel, while the accused, the victim, the private party and the other interested party may make an address to the court.

(2)[875] If several counsels for the defence act on behalf of the same accused, it is the counsel of record or the defence counsel designated by him who shall speak for the defence.  If the victim, the private party and the other interested party have several representatives, they shall agree on the person to make the address.

(3) While presenting their closing arguments, no one may be called to order.

(4) The closing arguments may not be interrupted unless it includes a term that constitutes a criminal offence, disturbs the order or it is required in order to prevent the procrastination of the procedure.

(5)[876]  If the defence counsel is not present at the trial, the accused shall speak for the defence.

 

Section 315 (1) If the prosecutor deems that the guilt of the accused can be established, when speaking for the prosecution, he shall put forward a motion – specifying the relevant legal regulations – to the court

  1. a) for convicting the accused, naming the underlying facts and the criminal offence,
  2. b) for the type of punishment to be imposed or measure to be applied,
  3. c) for other orders to be issued.

(2) The prosecutor may not propose specifically the extent of the punishment or measure.

(3) If the prosecutor deems that the guilt of the accused cannot be established, when speaking for the prosecution, he shall put forward a motion – specifying the relevant legal regulations and giving justification – to the court to acquit the accused.

 

Section 316[877] Following the prosecutor, the victim, the private party and the other interested parties may make their address.  The victim may state if he requests the establishment of the guilt and punishment of the accused.  The private party indicates – and may justify – the amount for which he intends to enforce his civil claim; in his absence, the announced claim shall be read out from the documents.  The other interested party may make a motion in issues directly affecting his right or rightful interest.

 

Section 317 (1)[878] The addresses are followed by the speech for the defence.  Having heard the closing argument of the defence counsel, the accused may also speak in his own defence

(2) Should there be several accused, the order of sequence of the speeches for their defence shall be determined by the presiding judge.

 

Section 318 (1) After the closing arguments and addresses, in the same order of sequence, rebuttals may be made.  Such rebuttal may also be rebutted, it is the defence counsel, or the accused who shall have the last say.

(2)[879] After the closing arguments, addresses and rebuttals, if the accused is disabled in hearing, the accused shall be granted the opportunity to read the minutes.

The right to the last say

Section 319 Prior to the adoption of the conclusive decision, the accused has the last say.

Re-opening the evidentiary procedure

Section 320 Prior to adopting the conclusive decision, the court shall re-open the evidentiary procedure, if deemed necessary based on the closing arguments, addresses, and the last say.

Announcement of the adoption of the decision and the decision

Section 321 (1) After hearing the closing arguments, addresses and the last say of the accused, the court shall withdraw to adopt a decision at a panel meeting.  At the panel meeting the purview of the decision shall be recorded and signed by the court members.

(2)[880] The conclusive decision shall be announced immediately after its adoption.  The original copy of the purview of the decision made at the trial, signed by the court members, shall be attached to the minutes of the trial.

(3)[881] The purview of the conclusive decision shall be read out by the presiding judge and heard by those present standing; owing to the state of health of a person present, the presiding judge may grant an exception to this rule.  Thereafter, the presiding judge orally presents the gist of the justification.

(4)[882] If prior to adopting the conclusive decision, the court establishes that the charge contained in the indictment should be reclassified, it may adjourn the trial in order to prepare for the defence, and shall hear the prosecutor, the accused and the defence counsel present in this regard.

 

Section 322[883] (1) If necessary due to the complexity of the case or the extensive scope of the decision or other important reason, the  trial may be adjourned for eight – in exceptional cases, for 15 – days to allow time for adopting and announcing the decision.  At the time of adjourning the trial, the new date thereof shall be set.

(2)[884] At the trial set pursuant to subsection (1), the minutes taken at the latest session of the trial needs not be presented.  Should the duly summoned accused or the defence counsel fail to attend the trial, the decision may be announced in their absence as well.  No justification for the absence is allowed.

Statements on legal remedy

Section 323 (1)[885] After announcing the decision, the presiding judge shall ask those who are entitled to appeal whether they intend to exercise this right.  The order of sequence of making statements on appeal is as follows: the prosecutor, the private party, other interested parties, the accused and the defence counsel.

(2)[886] The appellant shall indicate the provision in the decision found deleterious and the object of the appeal.  Incorrect indication of the cause for the appeal or other mistakes related to the appeal shall not be a reason for rejecting the consideration of the appeal in its merit.  The prosecutor shall also indicate if he wishes to lodge an appeal to the detriment of the accused [Section 354 (2)].

(3)[887] The appeal may enumerate a new fact; refer to new evidence of which the appellant obtained knowledge after the decision has been pronounced. A motion for an evidentiary action may be submitted as well which had been omitted by the court of first instance.

(4)[888] The justification of the appeal may be made in writing.  Prior to the submission of the documents, the justification shall be presented at the court of first instance, and thereafter at the court of appeal, not later than on the 15th day preceding the trial.

Parties entitled to appeal

Section 324[889] (1) The following parties shall be entitled to lodge an appeal against the verdict of the court of first instance:

  1. a) the accused,
  2. b) the prosecutor,
  3. c) the substitute private accuser,
  4. d) the defence counsel – even without the consent of the accused,
  5. e) the heir of the accused – against orders granting a civil claim,
  6. f) the legal representative and the spouse of an accused of legal age – even without the consent of the accused – against an order for involuntary treatment in a mental institution,
  7. g) the private party, against a disposition adjudicating a civil claim in its merit,
  8. h) those against whom a disposition has been made in the verdict, in respect of the relevant order.

(2) The prosecutor may lodge an appeal to the detriment of in favour of the accused; the substitute private accuser may do so just to the detriment of the accused.

Announcement of the appeal

Section 325 (1) Those to whom the verdict has been communicated by way of an announcement shall lodge their appeal immediately, or may request a 3-day deadline.  No justification may be admitted for missing this deadline.

(2) Verdicts communicated by way of a notice served may be appealed within 8 days.

(3)[890] If the appeal is not made at the time of the announcement of the verdict, it shall be either submitted to the court of first instance in writing, by the means of telefax, computer or recorded in the minutes upon a verbal statement.

(4) The court of first instance shall notify the accused and the defence counsel of the appeal of the prosecutor lodged pursuant to subsection (3).

 

Section 326 If the court of first instance communicates the non-conclusive decision by way of an announcement, the appeal shall be announced at that time.  Otherwise the announcement of appeals against a non-conclusive shall be governed by the provisions set forth in Section 325 (2) to (4).

Decision on a coercive measure and concurrent sentences [891]

Section 327[892] (1)[893] If the conclusive decision does not become final at the time of its announcement, the court shall immediately make a decision on preliminary arrest, temporary involuntary treatment in a mental institution, prohibition of leaving residence or house arrest.

(2) In the case specified in subsection (1), preliminary arrest may also be ordered – in addition to the reasons stipulated in Section 129 (2) a), b) or d) – owing to the risk that the accused may escape or hide, taken the duration of the imprisonment imposed in the verdict.

(3)[894] If the accused is acquitted or put on probation, or the procedure is terminated, or if the court did not pronounce a sentence for imprisonment to be enforced or partially suspended, or did not order corrective education or – in the case of acquittal –involuntary treatment in a mental institution, the court shall terminate the preliminary arrest, prohibition of leaving residence, house arrest, restraining order or the temporary involuntary treatment in a mental institution, and forthwith arranges the release of the accused.

(4) In the event that the verdict becomes final and the relevant conditions prevail, if practicable, the court shall conduct the concurrent sentencing procedure.

Closing the trial

Section 328 After the statements on legal remedy and the adoption of the decisions referred to in Section 327, the presiding judge closes the trial.

 

 

Title II

CONCLUSIVE DECISIONS OF THE COURT OF FIRST INSTANCE

The judgement

Section 329 The court shall make a decision concerning the charges by way of a judgement, either convicting or acquitting the accused.

The condemning judgement

Section 330 (1) The court shall convict the accused, if it ascertains that the accused had committed a criminal offence and may be punished.

(2) In the condemning, the court shall

  1. a) impose a punishment,
  2. b) place the accused on probation or reprimand the accused,
  3. c) omit the imposition of a punishment.

(3) When imposing a judgement of probation, in addition to the items listed in Section 258 (2), the purview of the sentence shall contain the rules of conduct established by the court.

(4)[895] If the court establishes the guilt of the accused for a criminal offence committed thereby during or prior to the probation, the court shall repeal the disposition concerning probation and impose concurrent sentences.

The verdict of acquittal

Section 331 (1) The court shall acquit the accused of the charges, if the guilt of the accused cannot be ascertained and the procedure is not terminated.

(2) In the case an accused acquitted from the charges due to mental disability, the court shall order the involuntary treatment of the accused in a mental institution provided that the conditions therefore are fulfilled.

(3) The justification of the verdict shall include, in addition to the items listed in Section 258 (3), the factors having led the court to formulate the verdict, with special regard to the absence of the criminal offence, the absence of evidence for the criminal offence, and reference to the grounds for the preclusion or termination of punishability.

(4)[896] If the verdict of acquittal is based on the grounds for the preclusion or termination of punishability, the court may order confiscation, or forfeiture of property.

Ruling terminating the procedure

Section 332 (1) The court shall terminate the procedure,

  1. a) due to the death, statutory limitation or pardon of the accused,
  2. b) if there is no private motion, denunciation or request and they have not been or cannot be subsequently submitted,
  3. c) if the action has already been adjudicated by a final decision,

d)[897] if the indictment is unlawful [Section 2. (2)],

e)[898] if the prosecutor has dropped the charge and substitute private prosecution cannot take place,

f)[899] in case of active contrition [Section 36 (1) of the Criminal Code],

g)[900] due to other grounds for the preclusion of punishability stipulated by law a [Section 32 e) of the Criminal Code],

(2) The court shall terminate the procedure concerning a criminal offence having no significance for the purpose of liability as opposed to the graver criminal offence contained in the indictment.

(3)[901] Upon learning of the reasons specified in subsections (1) or (2), the court shall immediately terminate the procedure.

(4)[902] The court shall advise the private party of the termination of the procedure as well as of his right to enforce his civil claim by way of other legal means.

(5)[903] If the fact that the accused died or was pardoned ex officio becomes known after the announcement of the conclusive decision, but before such decision has become final, and no appeal has been announced against the decision, the court shall repeal the non-final conclusive decision or the disposition concerning the same accused and terminate the procedure.

 

Section 333 If the prosecutor has dropped the charges and substitute private prosecution may be lodged, the fact that the statement of the prosecutor on dropping the charges could not be served on an absconding victim shall not prevent the termination of the procedure.

 

Section 334[904] Upon terminating the procedure pursuant to Section 332 (1) a)-b) and f)-g) the court may order confiscation or forfeiture of property. Upon terminating the procedure pursuant to Section 332 (5), the court shall uphold the effect of the dispositions in its earlier conclusive decision regarding confiscation or forfeiture of property.

Adjudication of a civil claim

Section 335 (1)[905] Inasmuch as possible, in the judgement the court shall adjudicate the civil claim in its merit; by either accepting or rejecting it. If this considerably delayed the conclusion of the procedure, or if the accused is acquitted, or if the adjudication of the motion on its merits in criminal proceedings is precluded due to other conditions, the court shall refer the enforcement of a civil claim to other legal means.

(2)[906] If the court determines the amount of damage, financial loss, decrease of Inland Revenue, decrease of customs caused by the criminal offence or the value of the subject of the committed crime, up to this limit of amount the court shall adjudicate the civil claim in its merit.

(3)[907] If, during the enforcement of the civil claim a different motion is lodged, the court shall consider them based on the higher amount of claim.

Termination of parental right of custody

Section 336 (1) Upon the motion of the prosecutor, the court shall terminate the parental right of parental custody, if it declared the accused guilty in a wilful criminal offence to the injury of his child and establishes that the conditions stipulated in Section 88 (1) of Act IV of 1952 on Marriage, family and guardianship.

(2) In the absence of the conditions specified in subsection (1) the court shall reject the motion.

(3) The court shall refer the enforcement of a claim to terminate the parental right of custody to other legal means, if the adjudication of the motion considerably delayed the conclusion of the procedure, or if the adjudication of the motion on its merits in criminal proceedings is precluded due to other conditions.

Adjudication of an infraction

Section 337 (1) If, based on the results of the hearings, the court finds that the charge in the indictment is an infaction, and acquits the accused thereof, the court shall adjudicate the infraction.

(2)[908] In the case of subsection (1), the court may order confiscation and adjudicate the civil claim on its merits.

(3)[909] If the accused was indicted due to several criminal offences, and the court establishes that any of the criminal offences in the indictment is an infraction, the court may terminate the procedure regarding this infraction if it has no significance for the purpose of liability as opposed to the graver criminal offence in the indictment.

Bearing the cost of criminal proceedings

Section 338 (1) The court shall order the accused to pay the cost of the criminal proceedings, if the accused is found guilty, or the liability of the accused is established concerning the perpetration of an infraction. This provision shall not apply to the cost of criminal proceedings borne by other parties pursuant to the law.

(2) The accused may only be ordered to bear the cost of criminal proceedings incurred in connection with the act or the part of the facts of the case regarding which the guilt or the liability of the accused has been established. The accused may not be ordered to bear the part of the cost of criminal proceedings incurred unnecessarily, for reasons other than the omission of the accused.

(3)[910] The court orders each accused declared guilty to bear the cost of criminal proceedings separately. If the cost of criminal proceedings, or a part thereof cannot be allocated by the accused persons declared guilty, the court shall order all the accused to bear the cost of criminal proceedings jointly and severally.

(4) The court may relieve the accused from paying a part of the cost of criminal proceedings, if such cost is unreasonably high compared to the gravity of the criminal offence.

 

Section 339 (1) Of the cost of criminal proceedings specified in Section 74 (1) a), the state shall bear the amount which the accused may not be ordered to pay pursuant to Section 338, as well as the costs which the accused needs not reimbursed pursuant to Section 74 (3).

(2)[911] The state shall also bear the cost incurred because of the accused is disabled in hearing or talking, blind, or cannot command the Hungarian language, and used his regional or minority language in the course of the proceedings.

(3)[912] If prosecution was represented by the prosecutor and the court acquits the accused, or terminates the procedure due to the fact that the prosecutor dropped the charges, within 30 days after the decision has become final, the state shall – to the extent specified in separate laws – reimburse the out-of-pocket expenses of the accused as well as the fee of his defence counsel not paid in advance during the proceedings and the out-of-pocket expenses thereof.

(4) Regardless of the acquittal of the accused or the termination of the procedure, the accused shall be ordered to bear the cost incurred due to his omission.

(5) [913]The fee of the legal aid counsel, which the participant in the criminal procedure may not be obliged to pay, the state shall bear.

 

Section 340 (1) The court shall order the accused to pay the out-of-pocket expenses of the private party and the representative thereof and the fee of the latter, if it accepts the civil claim enforced by the private party. In the event of partial acceptance, the accused shall be ordered to pay the proportionate part of such cost; otherwise the cost shall be borne by the private party.

(2) The court shall order the accused to pay the out-of-pocket expenses of the substitute private accuser and the representative thereof and the fee of the latter, if prosecution is represented by the substitute private accuser and the court declares the accused guilty.

(3)[914] The court shall indicate in the final decision who shall bear the remuneration of the legal aid counsel without determining the amount, or determining the just share of the remuneration. The court passing the final judgment shall inform the legal aid organization, acted in order to permit the legal aid, about the final judgment on bearing the remuneration of the legal aid counsel within 8 days by disclosing the following information:

  1. the decision regarding the remuneration of the legal aid counsel,
  2. indicating the person who is obliged to bear the remuneration of the legal aid counsel

(name, address, mother’s name, date of birth, in case of organization the name thereof, head-quarters, designating the recording organ, number of the record).

 

 

Title III

TASKS OF THE COURT OF FIRST INSTANCE AND THE PROSECUTOR

AFTER AN APPEAL

 

Section 341 (1)[915] Appeals not permitted by law, or lodged by a non-eligible party, or are belated shall be rejected by the court of first instance. The decision on rejecting an appeal not permitted by law, or lodged by a non-eligible party shall not be appealed. The court may omit the adoption of a decision on such appeal and shall notify the appellant thereof.

(2)[916] If the deadline to lodge an appeal has lapsed with respect to all entitled parties, the chairperson of the panel of the court of first instance – through the prosecutor working with the court of appeal – shall submit the documents without delay, but not later than within thirty days to the court of appeal.

(3) If the appeal is based on a procedural irregularity the circumstances of which are not clearly specified in the documents, the presiding judge shall provide information thereof in the submission.

(4) The prosecutor working with the court of appeal shall send the documents, together with his motion, to the court of appeal within 15 days, or, if the case is especially complex or has an extensive scope, within 30 days.

 

Title IV[917]

 

Section 342[918]

 

Title V

DEROGATION RELATING TO THE SUBSTITUTE PRIVATE ACCUSER

 

Section 343 (1) The representative of the substitute private accuser shall be obliged to attend the trial. Should the representative of the substitute private accuser fail to attend the trial without having immediately provided sufficient excuse in advance, the court shall postpone the trial at his expense and may impose disciplinary penalty on the representative.

(2)[919] If the legal representation of the substitute private accuser ceases during the procedure, within 8 days of gaining cognisance thereof, the court shall request the substitute private accuser to arrange for legal representation within 15 days, furthermore the court shall inform the substitute private accuser about the possibility of turning to a legal aid service for permission of being represented by legal aid counsel and personal exemption from expenses due to his remuneration and financial status.

In the event that the substitute private accuser fails to arrange for a power of attorney within the set deadline, the procedure shall be terminated. The substitute private accuser shall be warned of this fact.

(3)[920] The institution specified by law may give permission for personal exemption from expenses of the substitute private accuser – if the conditions set forth by the Act on legal aid are met. In the event of a personal exemption from paying the costs

  1. a) the substitute private accuser is entitled to be represented by a legal aid counsel,
  2. b) the substitute private accuser and his legal aid counsel shall be entitled to the right of prenotation of duty during one issuance of the copy of the documents of the criminal case,
  3. c) the fee and verified out-of-pocket expenses of the legal aid counsel is advanced by the state.

(4)[921] If the substitute private accuser has filed for personal exemption from bearing the costs and for permission to be represented by legal aid counsel, the deadline of 15 days, specified in section (2), shall be reckoned from the announcement of the final decision on the motion.

(5)[922] If the substitute private accuser has filed a request specified in section (4), he shall inform the court which has been acted up to that time about filing the request within 8 days.  In case of failing to inform the court the computation of the deadline specified in section (4) may not be applicable. The substitute private accuser shall be advised thereof.

(6) [923]The substitute private accuser may not extend the charges.

(7)[924] The closing arguments shall be made by the representative of the substitute private accuser.

(8)[925] If prosecution is represented by the substitute private accuser at the announcement of the appeal, the court of first instance shall submit the documents directly to the court of the second instance.

(9)[926] The court shall send the final decision taken in the procedure conducted due to substitute private prosecution to the prosecutor acted formerly in the case.

 

Section 344 (1)[927] If the accused has been acquitted or the procedure against him was terminated, the part of the cost of criminal proceedings specified in Section 74 (1) which was incurred after the commencement of the actions of the substitute private accuser, shall be borne by the substitute private accuser.

(2)[928] The substitute private accuser may be obliged to bear the cost caused by actions or connected to the part of the facts of the case which was concerned by his motion for prosecution and regarding which the accused was acquitted by the court or the procedure was terminated. In case the accused has been acquitted or the procedure against him was terminated, the substitute private accusers shall be obliged separately to bear the costs. If the costs of the criminal case or a specified amount thereof cannot be separated by the substitute private accusers, the court shall oblige the substitute private accusers to bear the costs conjointly.

(3)[929] If the substitute private accusers should be obliged to bear the costs, the substitute private accuser who drops his motion for prosecution shall bear the proportional part of the costs of the criminal case.

 

Chapter XIV

PROCEDURE OF THE COURT OF APPEAL

Title I

GENERAL RULES

Provisions applicable in the course of the appeal proceeding

Section 345 The provisions stipulated in Chapters XI–XIII of this Act shall be applied to the procedures of the court of appeal with the deviations set forth in this Chapter.

The right of appeal and the effect of the appeal

Section 346 (1) [930]The judgement of the court of first instance may be appealed at the court of the second instance. The appeal against the final ruling issued by the court of first instance shall be governed by the rules of the appeal against a judgement.

(2) The appeal against the judgement of the court of first instance may involve any of the dispositions therein or exclusively the justification thereof.

(3) An appeal may be lodged for legal or factual reasons.

(4) An appeal suspends the part of the judgement to become final which is to be reviewed by the court of appeal owing to the appeal.

(5)[931] The following may not be appealed

  1. a) the termination of the procedure under Section 332 (1) e),
  2. b) the enforcement of the civil claim or the order of a motion for termination of parental right of supervision to be settled by other legal means, furthermore
  3. c) the rejection of the statement on legal remedy made after the acknowledgement of a decision.

(6)[932] In case the accused has beforehand reported that he does not wish to be present at the trial no appeal shall be granted based on the fact that the court has passed a final decision in the absence of the accused.

 

Appeal against a ruling[933]

 

Section 347[934] (1) The non-conclusive ruling of the court of first instance may be appealed, unless prohibited by this Act. The arrangement of the appeal against the ruling shall be governed by the rules of appeal against a judgement.

(2) Complaint against the ruling of the court of first instance which can not be appealed and judicial measures which do not demand to have decisional form may be lodged in the appeal against the final decision.

(3) The ruling may be enforced regardless of an appeal, unless this Act stipulates that the appeal has a delaying effect. In especially exceptional cases, both the court of first instance and the court of appeal may suspend the enforcement of the ruling.

(4) If evidence is taken, the court of appeal shall adjudicate the appeal against the ruling at a trial, otherwise at a panel session.

The scope of the review

Section 348 (1)[935] Unless an exception is provided for in this Act, the court of appeal shall review the judgement contested by the appeal, together with the preceding court procedures. The dispositions of the judgement concerning the substantial facts of the case, the establishment of guilt, the classification of the criminal offence, the imposition of punishment and the application of measures shall be reviewed by the court of appeal regardless of the person of the appellant and the reason for the appeal. The court of appeal shall decide ex officio on the auxiliary issues related to the above, thus, for example, on the dispositions concerning the civil claim and the cost of criminal proceedings.

(2) If the indictment contained charges against the accused for several criminal offences, in the judgement only that disposition concerning acquittal or the termination of the procedure may be reviewed, against which the appeal has been lodged.

(3)[936] If the appeal concerns exclusively the disposition in the judgement concerning the termination of seizure, a civil claim, order of probation, the termination of a parental right of custody or the cost of criminal proceedings, the court of the second instance shall only review the relevant part of the judgement.

(4)[937]

 

Section 349 (1) If the judgement of the court of first instance contains dispositions on several persons accused, the court of appeal shall only review the part of the judgement regarding the accused concerned by the appeal.

(2) The court of appeal shall acquit the accused not concerned by the appeal and – if the classification of the criminal offence is degraded – commute the unlawfully grave punishment or the measure imposed in lieu of a punishment, or repeal the dispositions in the judgement of the court of first instance regarding such accused and terminates the procedure against him or orders the court of first instance to conduct a new procedure, if it adopts the same decision regarding the accused whom the appeal concerns.

(3)[938] If the court of second instance revokes the part of the decision of the court of first instance which concerns the accused not affected by the appeal, or drops the charges against the accused not affected by the appeal, and the penalty imposed by the court of first instance regarding this accused was transformed into sum total of penalty, the court of second instance shall revoke the decision on the sum total of penalty.

 

Section 350 In the event that the judgement is found unsubstantiated, the court of first instance may be ordered to conduct a new procedure pursuant to Section 349 (2), if this may result in the acquittal of the accused not concerned by the appeal, or the commutation of the unlawfully grave punishment of the accused owing to the degraded classification of the criminal offence, or the termination of the procedure.

Restrictions as to the facts of the case in the judgement of the court of first instance

Section 351 (1)[939] The court of appeal shall decide based on the facts of the case established by the court of first instance, unless the judgement of the court of first instance is not substantiated, or the appeal makes statements on new facts or reference to new evidence [Section 323 (3)], and therefore, the court of appeal conducts an evidentiary procedure.

(2) The judgement of the court of first instance shall be regarded unsubstantiated, if

  1. a) the facts of the case are not elucidated,
  2. b) the court of first instance has failed to establish the facts of the case, or established them insufficiently,
  3. c) the established facts of the case are contrary to the contents of the documents,
  4. d) from the facts established, the court of first instance has drawn inaccurate conclusions.

 

Section 352 (1) In the event of a non-substantiated judgement [Section 351 (2)], the court of the second instance

  1. a) shall supplement or correct the facts of the case, if the entirety of, or the correct facts of the case can be ascertained from the contents of the documents, factual conclusions or evidence taken;

b)[940] may ascertain the facts of the case differently than those established by the court of first instance due to the content of the documents, factual conclusion or evidence taken, if the accused may be acquitted (partially acquitted) or the procedure terminated (partially terminated) based on the evidence taken.

(2) The court of the second instance shall review the judgement of the court of first instance based on the corrected, supplemented, or different facts of the case.

(3)[941] The court of the second instance may evaluate the proofs differently than the court of first instance only in connection with the facts concerning which evidence had been taken, except if, according to the content of the documents or factual conclusion, the accused may be acquitted or the procedure may be terminated on the ground of Section (1) b).

Evidentiary procedure by the court of appeal

Section 353[942] (1) In the course of the procedure of the court of the second instance, evidence may be taken if the court of first instance did not clear up the facts of the case or it is insufficient, furthermore if the evidence may result in remedy for an infraction committed in the course of the procedure of the court of first instance.

(2) With the exception of the case stipulated in subsection (3) a trial shall be set for taking evidence.

(3) Should it be necessary to hear the accused in order to further clarify the conditions of imposing the punishment, the court of the second instance shall hold a public session.

(4) The court of the second instance shall omit to collect evidence regarding facts which does not influence the establishment of guilt, acquittal, termination of process, classification of crime, imposition of penalty, and application of measures.

Restriction against severity

Section 354 (1)[943] The guilt of an accused having been acquitted by the court of first instance and the punishment or the measure imposed on such accused in lieu of the punishment may only be increased if an appeal was lodged to the detriment of the accused. This provision shall also apply if, the evidence taken by the court of the second instance pursuant to Section 353 leads to the establishment of a graver criminal offence.

(2) An appeal lodged to the detriment of the accused shall mean an appeal requesting the establishment of the guilt of the accused, or a graver classification of the criminal offence, or increasing the punishment or a stricter measure imposed in lieu of a punishment, or the imposition of a punishment instead of the said measure.

(3) If the court of first instance – after imposing a punishment or a measure imposed in lieu of thereof for a criminal offence – acquits the accused from the charges pressed for any criminal offence, or terminates the procedure related to such accused, the punishment or the measure imposed in lieu of thereof for a criminal offence may only be increased or made stricter, respectively, if the appeal – lodged to the detriment of the accused exclusively against his acquittal or the termination of the procedure – against the disposition in the judgement concerning the acquittal or the termination of the proceedings succeeds.

(4)[944] Owing to the prohibition of reformation in peius, in the absence of an appeal to the detriment of the accused, the court of the second instance may not impose

  1. a) punishment on a person, whose case had been adjudicated in the first instance by way of an independently applied measure,
  2. b) imprisonment even it is suspended or partially suspended instead of penal labour of general interest, fine, suspension of the licence to practice, suspension of the driving licence, or expulsion,
  3. c) partially suspended imprisonment or imprisonment to be served instead of suspended imprisonment;
  4. d) a longer term of imprisonment instead of imprisonment to be served, even if it would be suspended or partially suspended,

e)[945] longer term of partially suspended imprisonment instead of partially suspended imprisonment, longer term of imprisonment to be executed instead of the imprisonment to be executed from the partially suspended imprisonment,

  1. f) additional punishments exceeding the punishments imposed by the court of first instance, excluding punishments imposed instead of imprisonment,
  2. g) an ancillary punishment not applied by the court of first instance,
  3. h) imprisonment instead of reduction to lower rank or termination of service, not even in case it is suspended or partially suspended.

(5)[946] If the court of first instance made no disposition concerning confiscation or forfeiture of property despite the provisions of law, but the facts of the case contain the data required for the decision, such decision may also be adopted by the court of appeal, even if no appeal has been lodged to the detriment of the defendant.

(6)[947] If the court of first instance applied a legal consequence due to an infraction [Section 337 (1)], this legal consequence may only be made stricter in the course of the appeal proceeding, if the appeal was lodged against the disposition of acquittal or requests the imposition of stricter legal consequence for the infraction.

 

Section 355[948] In the case of life-long imprisonment, the extension of the date of the first release on parole or the exclusion of the possibility of granting parole shall be regarded as an increase of the punishment and the appeal lodged with this aim shall be regarded as an appeal to the detriment of the accused.

 

Title II

THE APPEAL PROCEEDING

Comments on the appeal

Section 356 Until the submission of the documents, those concerned by the appeal may make comments regarding the appeal at the court of first instance, and thereafter at the court of appeal.

Withdrawal of the appeal

Section 357 (1) The appellant may withdraw the appeal until the panel session of the court of appeal held for the purpose of making a decision.

(2) After the submission of the documents, the appeal of the prosecutor may be withdrawn by the prosecutor working with the court of appeal. If the prosecutor withdraws the appeal and no one else has lodged an appeal, the prosecutor shall return the documents, together with his statement, to the court of first instance.

(3) The appeal lodged in favour of the accused by another party may only be withdrawn by the appellant with the consent of the accused. This provision shall not apply to the appeal of the prosecutor.

(4) One withdrawn, the appeal may not be submitted again.

Preparations for adjudicating an appeal

Section 358 (1) The presiding judge of the panel of the court of appeal

a)[949] takes measures – if necessary – to obtain missing documents or information, supplement documents, obtain new documents, as well as to request information from the court of the first instance,

  1. b) requests the appellant to supplement the appeal within 8 days, if the reason for considering the procedure of the court of first instance or the judgement detrimental cannot be clearly established there from,
  2. c) returns the documents to the court of first instance, if the appeals have been withdrawn,

d)[950] serves the appeal lodged by another party and the motion of the prosecutor working with the court of appeal on the accused and the defence counsel,

  1. e) sends the justification of the appeal made by the accused or the defence counsel before the court of appeal to the prosecutor working with the court of appeal

f)[951] examine the possibility to establish different classification,

g)[952] examine the fact that the presence of the prosecutor and the defence counsel is obligatory at the procedure of second instance,

h)[953] examine the question that a decision shall be taken or not on compulsory measures.

(2)[954] The presiding judge may schedule panel session, open session or trial in order to deliver a judgement on the appeal to the next possible date within 60 days reckoned from the date of the arrival of the case.

(3)[955] Prior to the trial, the court of the second instance may order that evidence shall be taken and the presiding judge may adopt the measures required therefore.

Rejection of the appeal, transfer, suspension of the proceeding

Section 359 (1)[956] The court of appeal shall reject the appeal at the panel session, if the court of first instance omitted the rejection of the appeal in the cases listed in Section 341 (1) or the request for the amendment of the appeal did not resulted in success [Section 358.(1) b)].

(2) If the court of appeal is not competent or has no jurisdiction in the adjudication of the appeal, it shall transfer the documents to the court of competence or jurisdiction at the panel session.

(3)[957] The court of appeal shall suspend the proceeding at the panel session, if Section 266 (1) is deemed applicable. The proceedings may only be suspended under Section 188 (1) b) if the trial cannot be held in the absence of the accused.

The panel session[958]

Section 360[959] (1) The court of the second instance shall pass a decision at panel session

  1. on dismissing the appeal, remittal of the case, merging the cases or separating tem, suspending the procedure,
  2. if the appeal concerns only the termination of seizure or the provisions about the costs of the case,
  3. on the acquittal of the accused, and as well as the termination of the procedure against him,
  4. if the court of the second instance decides on the acquittal of the accused not affected by the appeal or the termination of the procedure against him due to the appeal, presuming that such decisions shall be taken at council meeting concerning the accused affected by the appeal.
  5. if the procedure shall be terminated according to section 373 (1) I.,
  6. if the court of the first instance passed the decision by the way of committing a procedural contravention defined by section 373 (1) II-IV,
  7. [960] if the court of first instance terminated the procedure according to Section 267,
  8. [961] if the court of second instance revises the decision of first instance according to Section 379 only.

(2)The presiding judge may schedule public session or trial in case belonging to panel session.

(3)The presiding judge shall inform the appellants about the schedule of the panel session, and that they can complete their appeal within 8 days, or may make a remark to the appeal (motion or statement) filed by someone else.

(4) If the judgment of the first instance is appealed in favour of the accused, and the facts of the case is grounded, the presiding judge shall inform the accused, the defence counsel, the prosecutor and the appellant about the constitution of the council acting in the case and that they can request to schedule the public session or if the conditions met, the trial within 8 days. If the schedule of the public session or the trial was not requested by anyone, the court of the second instance shall deal with the case at panel session.

(5) If the court of the second instance establishes at panel session that the case cannot be dealt with at panel session, it shall schedule a public session or trial therefore. The court of the second instance may pass a decision, which may be passed at panel session, at public session or trial if the reason therefore is noticed at the public session or trial.

 

The public session

Section 361[962] (1) The court of second instance shall settle the appeal at public session, except if the case should be settled at panel session or trial.

(2) The court of second instance at public session

a)         shall establish the complete or proper facts of the case if the judgement of the court of first instance was groundless and the contents of the documents and factual reasoning make it possible,

b)         shall hear the accused regarding further explanation of the circumstances of imposing punishment.

(3) The accused, the defence counsel, if defence is statutory, and the legal representative of the substitute private accuser shall be summoned to the public session by the court of second instance, and the court shall take measures –simultaneously with his summon- to present the detained accused.

(4)The court of second instance shall inform the prosecutor, the substitute private accuser, the defence counsel if defence is statutory, the victim, and the persons who have filed an appeal about the public session.

Section 362[963] (1) The rules of the trial (section 366) shall be applicable to the arrangement and holding of the public session with the difference that the presentation of the case – if those present do not ask therefore – may be omitted.

(2) At the public session the prosecutor is not obliged to be in present.

(3) The public session may be held even if the duly summoned accused is not in present and as a result of the public session it can be stated that his hearing is not necessary and the appeal may be judged.

(4) On the grounds of default at the public session no excuse shall be granted.

The trial[964]

Section 363[965] (1) In the course of the proceedings by the court of appeal, the provisions set forth in Chapter XIII shall be applied with the deviations set forth hereunder.

(2) The trial shall be held if

  1. a) the case can not be settled on a panel session,
  2. b) if taking evidence is necessary, and it can not be dine at the open session [361. (2)]
  3. c) the presiding judge scheduled the case to trial which belonged to panel session or public session.

 

Section 364[966] (1) The accused, if defence is statutory the defence counsel and the legal representative of the substitute private accuser shall be summoned to the trial. If the accused is detained, the court of the second instance shall arrange that the accused is brought to court. The summons shall be served on the accused at least 5 days before the date of the trial.

(2) A notification shall be sent of the trial to the prosecutor and the substitute private accuser, with the exception of statutory defence the defence counsel, the victim and all parties who have lodged an appeal. The notification shall be sent leaving sufficient time for its service, at least 5 days prior to the trial at the latest.

(3)[967]

 

Section 365[968] (1) The trial may be held in the absence of the accused, if the accused has previously announced the he does not whish to attend, and no appeal had been submitted against the accused.

(2) No justification may be admitted for not attending the trial.

 

Section 366[969] (1) At the trial, the judge designated by the presiding judge shall present the case. He shall recite the judgement of the court of first instance, the appeal and the comments thereon, and outline the facts in the documents required to review the case. Unless requested by those present or deemed necessary by the court of appeal, the recital of the justification for the judgement of the court of first instance may be omitted.

(2) The members of the court, the prosecutor, the accused, the defence counsel and the victim may request the supplementation of the recital.

(3) Thereafter, those entitled to appeal [Section 324 (1)] shall be enabled to put forward their propositions and motions.

(4) Evidence shall be taken after the presentation of the case and the motions stipulated in subsection (3).

(5) After the case has been presented and evidence taken, those entitled shall present their closing arguments and give their speech. It is the appellant who shall present his closing argument first. If the prosecutor has also lodged an appeal, the closing argument shall be first presented by the prosecutor.

(6) If the court of appeal establishes prior to the delivery of the conclusive decision that the classification of the act established by the court of first instance may need to be changed, it shall act in compliance with the provisions set forth in Section 321 (4).

 

The service of the decision of the second instance[970]

 

Section 367 [971](1) The final decision of the court of the second instance and the ruling revoking the judgment of the court of the first instance shall be served upon the prosecutor, the accused, the defence counsel, the substitute private accuser, the victim, the appellant and to those who are concerned by the provisions of the decision.

(2) The final decision of the court of the second instance shall be served on those who are entitled to file an appeal against the decision of the court of the second instance.

 

Filing the appeal against the decision of the court of the second instance[972]

 

Section 367/A[973] (1) The following may file an appeal against the final judgement of the court of second instance to the court of third instance

  1. the accused,
  2. the prosecutor,
  3. the substitute private accuser,
  4. the defence counsel, even without the permission of the accused,
  5. the legal representative, spouse or life-partner of the accused of full age –even without the permission of the accused- in case of involuntary medical treatment.

(2) The prosecutor may to the detriment or in favour of the accused; the substitute private accuser shall only to the detriment of the accused file an appeal.

(3) The appeal against the decision of the court of second instance shall be file din words by those authorized present after pronouncing the judgement, the other authorized shall file the appeal in writing within 8 days reckoned from serving the decision to the court of second instance.

(4) The appeal must be reasoned in writing by the prosecutor and the defence counsel. The reasoning shall be submitted to the court of the second instance within the time limit prescribed for filing the appeal.

 

Decision on coercive measure

Section 368[974] In the event that the judgement of the court of first instance is repealed, the court of appeal shall decide on preliminary arrest, prohibition of leaving residence, house arrest, restraining order, temporary involuntary treatment in a mental institution in a revoking ruling.

Measures after the conclusion of the procedure of the court of the second instance [975]

Section 369[976] (1) After concluding the procedure of the court of the second instance, the court of the second instance shall serve the official copies of its decisions, and if no appeal has been filed against the decision of the second instance or it was rejected by the court of the second instance, the documents of the case with the official copies of the decision and the minutes of the trial and public session enclosed shall be sent back to the court of first instance.

(2) The court of second instance shall dismiss the appeal excluded by law, filed by non-authorized or filed late against the decision of the court of second instance.

(3) If the decision of second instance was appealed and the deadline for filing an appeal has elapsed regarding all the authorized, the chairman of the council of the court of second instance – by the prosecutor working alongside the court of third instance, by direct means in case of an appeal filed by substitute private accuser- shall present immediately the documents to the court of third instance after putting in writing the decision.

(4) If the appeal was based on a procedural contravention and the circumstances thereof care not evident according to the documents, the presiding judge shall give information thereof in the submission.

(5) The prosecutor working alongside the court of third instance shall send the papers with his motion within 15 days or in extraordinarily complicated cases or cases of great extent within 30 days to the court of third instance.

 

Title III

DECISIONS OF THE COURT OF APPEAL

 

Section 370 (1) In the cases stipulated by this Act, the court of appeal shall uphold, modify or repeal the judgement of the court of first instance, or rejects the appeal.

(2) Upon modifying the judgement of the court of first instance, the court of appeal shall decide in the form of a judgement, otherwise by way of rulings.

(3) The justification of the decision shall identify the appellant and the reason for the appeal and explain the reasons underlying the decision of the court.

Upholding the judgement of the court of first instance

Section 371 (1)[977] The court of the second instance shall uphold the judgement of the court of first instance, if the appeal is not substantiated, or the judgement needs not be repealed otherwise, or needs not be modified or – pursuant to the restriction against severity or the provisions of subsection (2) – may not be modified.

(2)[978] In the event that the facts of the case have not been supplemented or corrected [Section 352 (1) a)] no minor changes may be effected concerning the punishment imposed in the judgement of the court of first instance within the sentence-limits permitted by law.

(3) The ruling of the court of the second instance upholding the judgement of the court of first instance shall be a conclusive decision.

(4) The justification of the decision shall briefly describe the reasons for upholding the judgement.

Changing the judgement of the court of first instance

Section 372 (1)[979] If the court of first instance misapplied a legal regulation and the judgement does not need be repealed, the court of the second instance shall revise the judgement and adopt a decision in compliance with the law.

(2)[980] The court of the second instance may also revise the judgement of the court of first instance, even if, in compliance with Section 352 or 353, the groundlessness of the judgment of the court of the second instance was set right in the course of the procedure of the second instance.

Repealing the judgement of the court of first instance

Section 373 (1)[981] At the panel session, the court of appeal

  1. shall repeal the judgement of the court of first instance and terminate the procedure,
  2. a) upon the death of the suspect, statutory limitation or pardon,
  3. b) if the court of first instance had delivered its judgement in the absence of a private motion, request or denunciation required to conduct the procedure,

c)[982] if the court of first instance has proceed in the absence of lawful indictment,

d)[983] the action has already been adjudicated by a final decision;

  1. shall repeal the judgement of the court of first instance and orders the court of first instance to conduct a new procedure, if

a)[984] the court was not lawfully formed or at the trial not all members of the council were present [240. (1)],

b)[985] the judgement was delivered with the participation of a judge excluded therefrom by law, or a judge who was not present at the trial from the outset,

c)[986] the court transgressed its competence, adjudicating a case falling within the scope of military justice or the exclusive jurisdiction of another court,

  1. d) the trial was held in the absence of a person whose presence is statutory by law,

e)[987] the court terminated the procedure on the basis of the unlawful establishment of a reason set forth in provision I.

f)[988] the public was excluded without a legal reason.

III.[989] shall revoke the judgment of the court of first instance, and orders the court of first instance ot conduct a new procedure, if regarding the establishment of guilt, the acquittal, the termination of proceedings, a legal classification ofthe act or imposing the punishment, or else taking measures

  1. the court of first instance fulfil its reasoning obligations to such an extent that on the grounds thereof the judgement cannot be subjected to supervision,
  2. the reasoning of the judgement of the court of first instance is totally inconsistent with the operative part.

IV.[990] shall repeal the judgement of the court of first instance and

  1. a) send the documents to the prosecutor, if the prosecutor had motioned for the procedure specified in Chapter XXVI in the absence of the preconditions stipulated by law,
  2. b) order the court of first instance to conduct a new procedure, if the court had conducted the procedure specified in Chapter XXVI in the absence of the preconditions stipulated by law.

(2)[991] The judgement does not need to be repealed under subsection (1) II. a), if the conclusion of the court of the second instance is that the case should have been adjudicated by the panel of court of first instance is based on the reclassification of the criminal offence.

(3)[992] Pursuant to subsection (1) II. d),

  1. a) if the court of the second instance establishes that – due to the reclassification of the criminal offence – the attendance of the defence counsel should have been statutory at the trial of the court of first instance [Section 242 (1) b)], the judgement shall only be repealed, if the prosecutor had originally lodged the indictment due to a criminal offence punishable by 5 years’ or more imprisonment, or in the course of the procedure of the first instance, the court established that the classification may be graver than that indicated in the indictment,
  2. b) the judgement may not be repealed due to the absence of the defence counsel, if the court of first instance erroneously classified the action as criminal offence punishable by 5 years’ or more imprisonment.

 

Section 374 (1) If the court of the second instance terminates the procedure under Section 373 (1) I. a), the disposition in the judgement of the court of first instance regarding confiscation, forfeiture of property and the establishment of a civil claim[993]

a)[994] shall be upheld, if no appeal has been lodged against such dispositions,

b)[995]

(2) [996]

(3)[997] The verdict of acquittal or the disposition of the judgement on acquittal does not need to be repealed pursuant to Section 373 (1) II. d), if the judgement was delivered in the absence of the accused or the defence counsel.

 

Section 375 (1)[998] The court of the second instance shall repeal the judgement of the court of first instance and order the court of first instance to conduct a new procedure, in the event of a procedural infraction not listed under Section 373 (1) II., which had a significant impact on conducting the procedure or the establishment of guilt, or the classification of the criminal offence, or the imposition of the sentence or application of a measure. Such irregularities are, in particular, if the rules governing the lawfulness of taking evidence has been violated, or the persons participating in the procedure were prevented from or restricted in exercising their lawful rights.

(2) The verdict of acquittal or the disposition of the judgement on acquittal needs not be repealed, if the procedural infraction specified in subsection (1) restricted the accused or the defence counsel in exercising their lawful rights.

(3)[999] The judgement needs not be repealed under subsection (1), if the court failed to hold a preparatory session despite the statutory legal stipulation.

(4)[1000] If the court of first instance failed to make a disposition concerning a seized item, confiscation or forfeiture of property despite a legal stipulation thereon, and the data required for such decision cannot be clarified by taking evidence in the course of the second instance proceeding, the court of the second instance shall order the court of first instance to conduct the special procedure described in Section 569 (1).

 

Section 376[1001] (1) The court of the second instance shall repeal the judgement of the court of first instance and order the court of first instance to conduct a new procedure, if the judgement is unsubstantial and this cannot be remedied in compliance with Section 352, and this had a significant impact on the establishment of guilt, imposition of a sentence or the application of a measure.

(2) The disposition of the judgement on acquittal needs not be repealed, if only a single part of the judgement is unsubstantiated.

 

Section 377 The court of appeal shall repeal the judgement of the court of first instance and terminate the procedure concerning a criminal offence having no significance for the purpose of liability of the accused.

 

Section 378 (1)[1002] The justification of the repealing ruling shall contain the reason for the repeal, and guidelines for the court of appeal concerning the repetition of the procedure.

(2) The court of appeal may order that the case be adjudicated by another panel of the court of first instance or – in exceptional cases – by another court.

The limited overruling of the judgment of the court of the first instance[1003]

 

Section 379 (1)[1004] The court of the second instance overrules only the disposition of the judgement of the court of first instance concerning seizure, confiscation of property, order of probation, sequestration, civil claim, termination of the parental right of supervision or bearing the cost of the criminal case if the appeal concerns only this part of the judgment. If the court of the second instance finds the appeal grounded, it shall revoke or revise the relevant part of the judgement. If the appeal is not grounded, the court of the second instance shall sustain the judgement of the court of first instance.

(2)[1005] The court of the second instance may revise the disposition of the judgement of the court of first instance concerning establishment of criminal responsibility if it is unlawful, and pass a decision in conformity with the law on matters set forth in Section (1).

(3)[1006] If the other interested party lodged an appeal against the disposition in the judgement of the court of first instance concerning confiscation or forfeiture of property and based on this or any other appeal, the disposition in the judgement of the court of first instance concerning confiscation or forfeiture of property – affecting the ownership right of the other interested party –

  1. a) has not been modified or repealed by the court of the second instance, the court of the second instance shall send the documents to the court having competence and jurisdiction to adjudicate civil case regarding the ownership-related claim of the other interested party in the first instance,
  2. b) has been modified by the court of the second instance, without omitting the confiscation or forfeiture of property, the court of first instance shall ensure that the decision of the court of the second instance is notified to the other interested party together with the information regarding the right of the other interested party stipulated in Section 55 (3).

(4)[1007] If the confiscation or forfeiture of property affecting the ownership right of the other interested party is ordered by the court of appeal, the purview of the decision shall contain the information regarding the right of the other interested party stipulated in Section 55 (3).

(5)[1008] In the case specified in subsection (1), the court of first instance proceeding in the civil suit shall adjudicate the ownership claim of the other interested party within the framework of the appeal lodged by the other interested party in the course of the criminal proceedings, in compliance with the Code of Civil Procedure.

Disposition concerning the civil claim and the termination of the parental right of custody[1009]

Section 380[1010] If the decision on civil claim or on the termination of the right of parental supervision would significantly delay the conclusion the criminal procedure, or other circumstance excludes to pass a final judgement thereon in the criminal procedure, the court of second instance revokes the part of  its decision regarding this matter made by the court of first instance, and sends the civil claim or the motion for termination of the right of parental supervision to be settled by other legal means.

Cost of criminal proceedings

Section 381 (1) In its decision, the court of second instance shall establish the costs of criminal proceedings incurred during the appeal proceeding, and if necessary, make a disposition on bearing such costs.

(2) The court of the second instance may exempt the accused declared guilty from the payment of the entirety or a part of costs of criminal proceedings incurred during the procedure of the second instance if the appeal of the accused or the defence counsel was successful.

 

Title IV[1011]

APPEAL AGAINST THE NON-CONCLUSIVE RULING DELIVERED IN THE COURSE OF THE APPEAL PROCEEDING [1012]

 

Section 382[1013] The legal remedy granted against a non-conclusive ruling in the course of the proceeding of the court of the second instance, which would be subject to an appeal in a procedure of the first instance, the provisions of Section 326 and Titles I to III shall be applied with the deviations set forth in this Title.

 

Section 383[1014] (1) A ruling delivered in the course of the proceeding of the court of the second instance ordering or terminating a coercive measure, or the review of the period of a coercive measure after more than 1 year, and a non-conclusive ruling delivered in the course of a procedure of the second instance that would be subject to an appeal in a procedure of the first instance, may be appealed

a)[1015] at a High Court of Appeal, if the ruling was delivered by a Court of Justice,

b)[1016]at the Supreme Court, if the ruling was delivered by a High Court of Appeal.

 

Section 384[1017] The appeal shall be adjudicated by the High Court of Appeal or the Supreme Court at a panel session.

Chapter XV[1018]

THE PROCEDURE OF THE THIRD INSTANCE[1019]

Title I.[1020]

GENERAL PROVISIONS OF THE PROCEDURE OF THE THRID INSTANCE[1021]

 

The provisions applicable in the course of the procedure of the third instance[1022]

 

Section 385[1023] In the procedure of third instance the provisions of Chapter XIV concerning the procedure of second instance shall be applicable with the differences set forth in this chapter.

 

The right to appeal and the effect of the appeal[1024]

 

Section 386[1025] (1) The judgement of the court of second instance may be appealed at the court of third instance if the court of second instance

  1. found guilty such an accused or ordered forced medical treatment for such an accused who was acquitted by the court of first instance or the proceedings against him was terminated,
  2. [1026]found guilty the accused of an act, which was not adjudicated by the court of first instance,
  3. [1027]acquitted the accused, or terminated the procedure against the accused who was convicted in the first place,

(2) In the appeal no motion for collecting evidence, no statement of new facts or no reference to new evidence shall be done.

(3) If the prosecutor or the substitute private accuser has not filed an appeal against the final decision of the court of first instance to the detriment of the accused, they may file an appeal against the judgment of the court of second instance only in order to acquit the accused or terminate the proceedings.

(4) The appeal suspends only that part of the judgement of the second instance to become final which is going to be supervised by the court of third instance as a result of the appeal

 

The extent of the supervision[1028]

 

Section 387[1029] (1) The appealed judgment of second instance and the procedure of first and second instance ahead thereof shall be supervised by the court of third instance regarding such questions that the procedural provisions was or was not kept by the court of first and second instance, and that the judgment of second instance is whether or not grounded.

(2) If the judgment of the court of second instance was passed regarding several criminal offences, as a result of the appeal the court of third instance shall supervise every provisions of the judgement, except parts where the court of second instance sustains the decision of the court of first instance regarding the acquittal or termination of the proceedings.

(3) If the appeal concerns only the order or the omission of forced medical treatment, the supervision shall include the acquittal provisions of the judgment.

(4) The provisions of the judgment of second instance, regarding seizure, confiscation of property, order the participation of the parole officer service, levy, civil claim, termination of parental right of supervision or bearing the costs of the criminal case, shall be supervised ex officio by the court of third instance.

(5)[1030] If the court of third instance revokes the part of the judgment of the court of second instance which concerns an accused to whom no reference was made by the appeal or acquits accused to whom no reference was made by the appeal, and the court of third instance shall revoke the decision on the sum total of the penalty if penalty imposed on the accused by the court of second instance was transformed into a sum total of the penalty.

 

The restriction to be bound tot he facts of the case determined by supervision[1031]

 

Section 388[1032] (1) The court of third instance shall ground its decision on such facts of the case according to which the court of second instance passed the appealed judgement, except if this facts of the case is groundless.

(2) No evidence shall be taken in the course of procedure of the court of third instance. If the facts of the case according to which the court of second instance passed the appealed judgement, and the proper facts of the case may be established on the basis of the documents or the incorrect factual reasoning may be eliminated on the basis of the documents, the court of third instance shall complete or amend the facts of the case ex officio.

 

Title II.[1033]

The settlement of the appeal[1034]

 

General provisions[1035]

 

Section 389[1036] (1) The persons affected by the appeal shall make a remark until the submission of the documents at the court of second instance, after the submission of the documents at the court of third instance regarding the appeal.

(2) The appellant may withdraw the appeal until the panel session of the court of third instance kept in order to pass a resolution.

(3) The appeal of the prosecutor may be withdrawn by the prosecutor working alongside the court of third instance after the submission of the documents. If the prosecutor withdraws the appeal, and no one else has filed an appeal, the prosecutor shall send back the documents together with his statement tot the court of second instance.

(4) The defence counsel must be in present in the course of the proceedings of the court of third instance. If the accused does not have a defence counsel, the presiding judge shall appoint one immediately for him after the arrival of the appeal to the court of the third instance.

 

The arrangement of the settlement of the appeal, the dismissal of the appeal, the transmittal, the suspension of the procedure[1037]

 

Section 390[1038] (1) The presiding judge of the panel of the court of the third instance

  1. a) takes measures – if necessary – for the completion of the documents, supplement documents, obtain new documents, as well as to request information from the court of the second instance,
  2. b) requests the appellant to supplement the appeal within 8 days, if the reason for considering the judgement of the second instance detrimental cannot be clearly established therefrom,
  3. c) returns the documents to the court of second instance, if the appeals have been withdrawn,
  4. d) serves the motion of the prosecutor working with the court of the third instance on the accused and the defence counsel,
  5. e) sends the justification of the appeal made by the accused or the defence counsel to the prosecutor working with the court of the third instance, if it6 was filed to the court of the third instance and it has not been directly sent to the prosecutor,
  6. f) Examine the question that a decision shall be taken or not on coercive measures.

(2) The court of the third instance shall dismiss the appeal if in cases specified in section 369 (2) the court of the second instance has failed to dismissed the appeal.

(3) If the court of the third instance has not jurisdiction and competence to adjudicate the appeal, it shall remit the case to the court of competence and jurisdiction.

(4) Te court of the third instance shall suspend the procedure if it finds this necessary according to section 266 (1).

 

Fixing the date for panel session or public session[1039]

 

Section 391[1040] (1) The presiding judge shall fix the nearest date within 60 days reckoned from the arrival of the case for passing a decision on the appeal in the form of council or public session.

(2) The court of third instance shall decide upon the appeal in cases specified in section 392 (2) in the form of council, in other case at a public session.

 

The panel session[1041]

 

Section 392[1042] (1) The court of the third instance shall take a decision at panel session

  1. on dismissing the appeal, remittal of the case, merging the cases or separating tem, suspending the procedure,
  2. on the acquittal of the accused, and as well as the termination of the procedure against him,
  3. if the court of the third instance decides on the acquittal of the accused not affected by the appeal or the termination of the procedure against him due to the appeal, presuming that such decisions is going to be taken at panel session as well concerning the accused affected by the appeal,
  4. if the appeal cannot be judged due to the groundlessness of the appealed decision,
  5. if the procedure shall be terminated according to section 373 (1) I.,
  6. if the court of the first and second instance passed the decision by the way of committing a procedural contravention defined by section 373 (1) II-IV.

(2) The presiding judge may schedule public session or trial in case belonging to panel session.

(3) he presiding judge shall inform the appellants about the schedule of the panel session, and that they can complete their appeal within 8 days, or may make a remark to the appeal (motion or statement) filed by someone else.

(4)[1043] If the judgment of  the second instance is appealed only in favour of the accused, the presiding judge shall inform the accused, the defence counsel, the prosecutor and the appellant about the appeal, the constitution of the council acting in the case and that they can request to schedule the public session within 8 days. If the schedule of the public session was not requested by anyone, the court of the third instance may deal with the case at panel session.

(5) If the court of the third instance establishes at panel session that the case cannot be dealt with at panel session, it shall schedule a public session therefore. The court of the third instance may pass a decision, which may be passed at panel session, at public session if the reason therefore was noticed at the public session.

 

 

The public session[1044]

 

Section 393[1045] (1) The provisions regarding the public session of the court of the second instance shall be applicable to the public session of the court of the third instance as appropriate.

(2) The court of third instance shall settle the appeal at public session, except if the case should be settled at panel session or trial.

(3) The accused, the defence counsel and the legal representative of the substitute private accuser shall be summoned to the public session. If the summoned accused is in detention, the court of the third instance shall take steps in order to bring him to court. The writ of summons to appear shall be served to the accused at least 5 days prior to the public session.

(4) The prosecutor, the substitute private accuser, the victim, and the persons who have filed an appeal shall be informed about the public session. The notification shall be issued in such time that the serving thereof shall take place at least 5 days prior to the public session.

 

Section 394[1046] (1) At the public session the prosecutor shall be in present.

(2) The public session may be held in the absence of the accused if the accused has previously made it known that he does not intend to be in present or no appeal has been filed to the detriment of the accused.

(3)No excuse shall be granted on account of failing to be present at public session.

 

 

The announcement of the decision, decisions on coercive measures, measures taken after the settlement of the appeal[1047]

 

Section 395[1048] (1) The court of the third instance shall serve its decision on the prosecutor, the accused, the defence counsel, the substitute private accuser, the victim, the appellant and to the party concerning whom the decision contains a disposition.

(2) In the event that the judgement of the court of second instance is repealed, the court of the third instance shall decide on preliminary arrest, prohibition of leaving residence, house arrest, restraining order, temporary forced medical treatment in the order repealing the decision. The court of the third instance shall act in the same way if it repeals the decision of the court of the first instance.

(3) The court of the third instance shall serve the official copies of its decision after adjudication of the appeal, and shall send back the documents of the case, the official copies of its decision and the minutes of the procedure of the third instance to the court of the second instance or to the court ordered to conduct the new procedure.

 

 

Title III[1049]

THE DECISIONS OF THE COURT OF THE THIRD INSTANCE[1050]

 

Section 396[1051] (1) The court of the third instance may – in cases specified by this Act- approve, alter or repeal the appealed judgment, or may dismiss the appeal.

(2) The court of the third instance shall adopt a judgment in case of altering the judgment of the court of the second instance; otherwise it shall rule by an order.

(3) The justification of the decision shall contain that who and on what ground has filed the appeal, and the reasons of the decision of the court of the third instance.

 

The approval of the judgment of the court of the second instance[1052]

 

Section 397[1053] The court of third instance shall sustain the judgment of the court of second instance, if the appeal is groundless, or the judgment does not need to be revoked, or rather because of the prohibition of reformatio in peius or the limit of revision it may not be altered.

 

The alteration of the judgment of the court of the second instance[1054]

 

Section 398[1055]  (1) The court of the third shall alter the judgment of the court of the second instance and shall take a decision in accordance with the law if the court of the second instance passed the decision by violating the rules of criminal law on the conviction or the acquittal of the accused, the order of his forced medical treatment, the termination of the procedure, presuming that the facts of the case underlying the decision of the court of the second instance is grounded or the groundlessness of the facts of the case could have been eliminated in the course of the third instance.

(2) In case specified in subsection (1) the court of the third instance shall take a decision on the classification of the act, passing a sentence or application of measures on the accused, as well as on the omission thereof.

(3) The court of the third instance shall in case of altering the judgment of the court of the second instance pass a decision on sequestration, confiscation of property, order of probation, seizure, and civil claim, the termination of the parental right of supervision and on bearing the costs of the criminal procedure.

 

The repeal of the judgment of the court of the second instance[1056]

 

Section 399[1057] (1) The court of the third instance shall repeal the judgment of the court of the second instance and terminate the procedure in cases specified in section 373 (1) I.

(2)[1058] The court of the third instance shall repeal the judgment of the court of the second instance and order the court of the second instance to conduct a new procedure if the judgment of the second instance was taken

  1. a) by the way of committing one of the procedural contravention regulated by section 373 (1) II or II,
  2. b) by the way of violating the prohibition of reformatio in peius [Section 354 and 355, Section 405 (1) and (3), Section 549 (4)].

(3)[1059] The court of the third instance shall repeal besides the judgment of the court of the second instance, the judgment of the court of the first instance and order the court of the first instance to conduct new procedure if the procedural infraction determined by subsection (2) was committed by the court of the first instance and the court of the second instance did not notice it.

(4) The court of the third instance shall repeal the judgment of the second and the first instance as well and

  1. a) send the documents to the prosecutor if the prosecutor initiated the procedure for the lack of the legal preconditions set forth by Chapter XXVI,
  2. b) order the court of the first instance to conduct new procedure if the court conducted the procedure for the lack of the legal preconditions set forth by Chapter XXVI.

(5) If the court of the third instance cannot eliminate the groundlessness of the judgment of the court of the second instance on the basis of section 388 (2), it shall repeal the judgment of the second instance or if it is necessary the judgment of the court of the first instance and order the court of the second or the first instance to conduct a new procedure.

 

 

Title IV[1060]

The settlement of the appeal against the non-final order taken in the course of the procedure of the second and the third instance[1061]

 

Section 400[1062] (1) The provisions of Title IV of Chapter XIV and the provisions of Title I-III with the deviation regulated by this Title shall be applicable to the appeal against a non-final order, which was taken in the course of the procedure of the court of the third instance, against which – if it was taken in the course of the first instance – an appeal may be grounded.

(2) Against the order of the order or termination of coercive measures as well as against the order regarding the supervision, which exceeds 1 year, of the duration of the coercive measure, furthermore against other non-final orders taken in the course of the second instance an appeal may be filed to the court of the third instance.

(3) The court of the third instance shall adjudicate the appeal at panel session.

 

Section 401[1063] If the orders regulated by section 400 (2) were passed in the procedure of third instance, the appeal against the order shall be judged by the Supreme Court, if the order was passed by the High Court of Appeal.

 

 

 

Chapter XVI[1064]

REPEATED PROCEDURE[1065]

Section 402[1066]

General provisions [1067]

Section 403[1068] (1)[1069] In the course of the procedure repeated owing to the repeal of the decision of the court or to its annulment by the Constitutional Court, the provisions stipulated in Chapter XII and XIII shall be applied with the deviations specified in this Chapter.

(2) In the repeated procedure, the court shall follow an expedited procedure.

(3)[1070] In the repeated procedure the court shall adjudicate the case by taking into consideration the reasons and comments of the decision repealing the case or of the decision of the Constitutional Court on annulment.

(4) When reviewing the decision delivered in a repeated procedure, the court of first and second instance shall not be bound by the reasons and comments explained in the repealing decision, even if the facts of the case have remained unchanged.

(5) the accused shall not be obliged to bear the costs of the case which incurred because the procedure must have been repeated.

Title I[1071]

REPEATED PROCEDURE OF THE COURT OF FIRST INSTANCE[1072]

 

Section 404[1073] (1)[1074] After the commencement of the trial, the presiding judge recites the repealing decision of the court of the second and third instance or the decision of the Constitutional Court on annulment; the repealed or annulled decision of the court of first and the second instance, if evidence was taken at the procedure of the second instance; the minutes of the trial of the court of the second instance and the indictment.

(2) If the prosecutor modified the indictment after the decision of the court of first instance has been repealed, the prosecutor shall recite the modified indictment.

(3)[1075] If the accused does not wish to give testimony, the presiding judge may also read out or present the testimony of the accused given at the trial based on which the repealed or annulled (by the Constitutional Court) decision had been delivered.

(4)[1076] The questioning of the witness or hearing of the expert may be substituted by reading out or presenting the minutes of the testimony of the witness given at the trial based on which the repealed or annulled (by the Constitutional Court) decision had been delivered, and the opinion submitted by the expert there.

(5) Subsection (4) may not be applied if the judgement of the court of first instance was repealed due to its groundlessness could not be set right by the procedure of the second instance.

(6)[1077] Subsection (5) shall not be considered as a prohibition of reading out or presenting the witness testimony or expert opinion which does not concern the groundless part of the facts of the case in the judgement.

 

Section 405[1078] (1) If no appeal has been lodged to the detriment of the accused, the repeated procedure may not establish the guilt of the acquitted accused, and may not increase the sentence imposed in the repealed judgement or make the measure imposed in lieu of punishment stricter.

(1a)[1079] If the Constitutional Court annuls the judgment, the acquitted defendant cannot be found guilty, a heavier punishment cannot be imposed than the one determined by the annulled judgment or heavier easures cannot be taken than the one applied instead of punishment during the repeated procedure.

(2) The provisions set forth in subsection (1) shall not apply, if

  1. a) the judgement of the court of first instance was repealed for reasons stipulated in Section 373 (1) II. a) to c) or e) or Section 376 (1),
  2. b) based on new evidence revealed in the course of the repeated procedure the court established a new fact subject to a stricter punishment, provided that the prosecutor lodges a motion therefore,
  3. c) owing to the extension of the indictment by the prosecutor, the guilt of the accused needs to be established in another criminal offence as well,
  4. d) the judgement of the court of first instance was repealed in a review procedure, owing to a motion for review submitted to the detriment of the defendant.

(3) In the case specified in subsection (2), the repeated procedure may not establish the guilt of the accused, and increase the sentence imposed in the repealed judgement or make the measure imposed in lieu of punishment stricter, if the court of appeal repealed the judgement of the court of first instance pursuant to the provisions in Section 349 (2).

 

Title II[1080]

REPEATING THE PROCEDURE OF THE COURT OF APPEAL[1081]

 

Section 406[1082] (1) In the event that the court of third instance or the Supreme Court repeals the decision of the court of second instance and orders the court of second instance to conduct a new procedure, or the Constitutional Court annuls the decision of the court of second instance, such new procedure of the court of second instance shall be governed by the provisions set forth by Chapter XIV as appropriate.

(2)If the Constitutional Court annuls the decision of the court of third instance, the procedure of the court of third instance shall be governed by the provisions set forth by Chapter XV as appropriate.

 

Title III[1083]

TRIAL UPON THE SUBSEQUENT CONSOLIDATION OF CASES[1084]

 

Section 407[1085] (1) The trial set pursuant to Section 568 (3) shall be governed by the provisions stipulated in this Section.

(2) After the commencement of the trial, the presiding judge recites the decision of the court concerning the subsequent consolidation and the decisions adopted in the basic cases.

(3) Based on the trial, the court shall terminate the probation, repeal the disposition concerning the sentence for a criminal offence committed prior to or during the probation and imposes concurrent sentences.

(4) If, based on the trial, the court ascertains that the subsequent consolidation was inappropriate; it shall repeal the ruling ordering the consolidation.

 

PART FOUR [1086]

Chapter XVI[1087]

RE-TRIAL[1088]

Reasons for re-trial [1089]

Section 408[1090] (1) An act adjudicated by a final judgement of a court (basic case) may be subject to re-trial, if

  1. a) new evidence is found – whether or not concerning a fact emerged in the basic case –which makes probable that
  2. the defendant shall be acquitted, the sentence imposed shall be significantly commuted, or a measure shall be applied instead of a punishment, or the criminal proceedings shall be terminated,
  3. the guilt of the defendant shall be established, or a significantly stricter sentence shall be imposed, or punishment shall be applied instead of a measure, or the measure imposed in lieu of punishment shall be made significantly stricter;[1091]
  4. b) more than one final judgement has been delivered against the defendant for the same act, or the defendant was not sentenced under his own name;
  5. c) false or falsified evidence was used in the basic case;
  6. d) in the basic case a member of the court, the prosecutor’s office or the investigating authority violated their obligation by breaching the penal law;

e)[1092] pursuant to Chapter XXV, the judgement in the basic case was delivered at a trial held in the absence of the defendant[1093],

f)[1094] the President of the Republic decided on termination of the criminal proceedings against the defendant on the basis of pardon.

(2) The cases stipulated in subsection (1) c) and d), may only be subject to re-trial, if

  1. a) the commitment of the criminal offence indicated as the reason for re-trial has been established by a final judgement, or the delivery of such judgement is not precluded due to lack of evidence, and
  2. b) the criminal offence influenced the decision of the court.

(3) If the calling to account did not happen because of complete plea in bar or reason of termination of punishability in case of criminal offences set forth in Section (2) a) shall not be an obstacle to the re-trial.

(4) The testimony of a person who, exercising his right of immunity, had refused to testify in the basic case shall also be construed as new evidence under Section 392 (1) a).

(5) Re-trial to the detriment of the defendant shall only apply in the life of the defendant and within the statutory limitation. The fact that the sentence of the defendant has been executed shall not be an obstacle to the re-trial, while a re-trial to the benefit of the defendant shall not be precluded because the punishability of the defendant is terminated.

A motion for re-trial[1095]

Section 409[1096] (1) A motion for re-trial to the detriment of the defendant may be submitted by

  1. a) the prosecutor,
  2. b) the substitute private accuser, in order to establish the guilt of an acquitted accused.

(2) A motion for re-trial to the benefit of the defendant may be submitted by

  1. a) the prosecutor,
  2. b) the defendant,
  3. c) the defence counsel, unless this was prohibited by the defendant,
  4. d) the legal representative of a juvenile offender defendant,
  5. e) against an order for involuntary treatment in a mental institution – even without the consent of the defendant – the legal representative, spouse and common-law partner of the defendant,
  6. f) after the death of the defendant, a relative in direct line, the brother or sister or the spouse or common-law partner of the defendant.

(3)[1097] In the case specified in Section 408 (1) e), re-trial may only be motioned for to the benefit of the defendant and only when the defendant may be summoned from his place of stay. In such case to conduct the re-trial is obligatory. If only the procedure of second or third instance has been conducted in the absence of the defendant, the re-trial shall be conducted just concerning the procedure of second or third instance. If the defendant has left for an unknown destination again after the re-trial has been ordered, the re-trial procedure shall be quashed.

(4) [1098]To conduct re-trial is compulsory in case specified in Section 408 (1) f).

 

Section 410[1099] (1) The prosecutor shall not send to the court the motion for re-trial submitted by a non-eligible person, and shall advise him thereof in writing.

(2) A motion for re-trial shall indicate the reason and proofs of the motion. The indistinct indication of the reason shall not be an obstacle to the re-trial.

(3) If any court, other authority or official person acting in their own official competence gains cognisance of a circumstance based on which a motion for re-trial may be submitted, they shall notify thereof the prosecutor acting in the area of the court entitled to decide on the permissibility of a re-trial.

The re-trial procedure[1100]

Section 411[1101] (1)[1102] The decision of the permissibility of a re-trial shall be adopted by the Court of Justice, if the basic case was processed by the Local Court at first instance and by the High Court of Appeals, if the Court of Justice proceeded at firt instance.

(2) Unless it is submitted by the prosecutor, the motion for re-trial shall be submitted to or recorded in minutes at the prosecutor acting in the area of the court entitled to decide on the permissibility of the re-trial. The prosecutor shall send the motion, together with his statement to the court within 30 days. The substitute private accuser shall submit the motion for re-trial directly to the court entitled to make the decision.

(3) Prior to sending the motion for re-trial, the prosecutor may order an investigation. If the prosecutor orders an investigation, the deadline stipulated in subsection (2) shall be calculated from the conclusion of the investigation.

(4) If the motion for re-trial is submitted pursuant to Section 408 (1) e) the re-trial procedure shall be conducted out of turn.

 

Section 412[1103] (1) The court shall obtain the documents of the basic case, and may contact the prosecutor, if required for the decision concerning the permissibility of a re-trial, in order to find the means of evidence indicated by the party having submitted the motion. To the investigation the provisions stipulated in Chapter IX shall be applied as appropriate according to the nature of the re-trial procedure. Preliminary arrest, temporary involuntary treatment in a mental institution, prohibition of leaving residence and house arrest may not be ordered.

(2) The motion for re-trial shall be considered by the panel of second instance of the court at a panel session.

(3) Until the commencement of the panel session under subsection (2), the motion for re-trial may be withdrawn. Should any of the parties listed in Section 409 (2) b) to f) withdraw the motion for re-trial before the prosecutor has sent it together with his statement to the court, the motion for re-trial needs not be forwarded to the court.

 

Section 413[1104] (1) If court finds the motion for re-trial substantiated, it orders the re-trial and forwards the case to the court of first instance having proceeded in the basic case to repeat the procedure, or transfers the case to a court having competence and jurisdiction to conduct the repeated procedure, and simultaneously may suspend or interrupt the execution of any disposition made in the basic case, or order the necessary coercive measure. In the case specified in Section 408 (1) b), the court may terminate the basic procedure itself under Section 332 (1) c).

(2) The court shall reject the motion for re-trial if it is not substantiated or was submitted by a non-eligible person. The court shall notify its decision to the party having submitted the motion for re-trial, and, unless it was submitted by the prosecutor, to the prosecutor as well.

(3) The court may omit to make a decision concerning the rejection of a motion submitted repeatedly with unchanged content by the same eligible party or by another party.

(4) In the event that the motion for re-trial is rejected, the cost of criminal proceedings shall be borne by the party having submitted the motion, or, if the motion for re-trial was submitted by the prosecutor, by the state.

 

Section 414[1105] (1) The order for a re-trial shall not be subject to an appeal, while the rejection of a motion for re-trial may be appealed by the party having submitted the motion. The court may omit to make a decision on the adjudication of an appeal against a final decision.

(2)[1106] The appeal against the ruling of a Court of Justice shall be considered by the High Court of Appeal, while the appeal against the ruling of the High Court of Appeal shall be considered by the Supreme Court at a panel session.

(3) Upon ordering a re-trial, the provisions of Chapters XI and XIII shall be applied with the deviations due to the nature of re-trial. The court may suspend or interrupt the execution of any decision taken in the basic case, or orders the necessary coercive measures to be taken.

(4) Unless served earlier, the ruling ordering the re-trial shall be served on the defendant together with the summons to the trial; at the trial instead of the indictment, the presiding judge shall recite the judgement contested by the re-trial and the ruling ordering the re-trial.

 

Section 415[1107] (1) If, depending on the outcome of the trial, the court establishes that the re-trial is substantiated, it shall repeal the judgement delivered in the basic case or the part of the judgement contested by the re-trial and delivers a new judgement; but shall reject the re-trial if it is found groundless.[1108]

(2) If a cumulative sentence was imposed in the basic case and the judgement ordering the cumulative sentence also needs to be repealed because the re-trial is substantiated, the court shall also repeal the judgement concerning the cumulative sentence and – if the conditions therefore are met – conducts the procedure for cumulating the sentences, unless this would be beyond competence specified in Section 574 (1); in adverse cases the court shall forward the documents to the court having competence to conduct the procedure for cumulating sentences.

(3) If the motion for re-trial was submitted to the benefit of the defendant, the judgement may not be modified to the detriment of the defendant.

(4) The decisions adopted after ordering the re-trial shall be subject to legal remedy according to the general rules.

(5) In the case of re-trial the civil claim having been adjudicated on its merits shall be adjudicated once again upon the motion of the prosecutor, the defendant or the private party. At the motion of the prosecutor or the defendant, a new decision shall be adopted in respect of the termination of the parental right of custody. However, re-trial (new procedure) concerning exclusively a civil claim or parental right of custody may only be held (conducted) by a court proceeding in civil suits, in compliance with the relevant conditions and procedural rules.

 

Chapter XVIII[1109]

JUDICIAL REVIEW[1110]

Reasons for the judicial review [1111]

Section 416[1112] (1) The final conclusive decision by the court may be subject to judicial review, if

  1. a) the defendant was acquitted or the procedure terminated, the criminal liability of the defendant established or the involuntary treatment in a mental institution ordered in violation of the substantive law,

b)[1113] an unlawful punishment was imposed due to the unlawful classification of the criminal offence or the violation of other rules of criminal law, or an unlawful measure was applied, or the execution of the punishment was suspended despite the grounds for exclusion stipulated in Section 91 (1) of the Criminal Code,

c)[1114] the court adopted its decision by a procedural irregularity specified in Section 373 (1) I. b) or c), and II to IV,

  1. d) the court adopted its decision by violating the restriction against severity [Sections 354 and 355, Section 405 (1) and (3), Section 549 (4)],
  2. e) the Constitutional Court ordered the review of the criminal proceedings concluded by a final decision, unless the defendant has already been relieved from the detrimental consequences relating to his criminal record, or the sentence imposed or measure applied has been completely executed or their enforceability ceased

f)[1115] criminal liability was established, sentence was imposed opr measure was apllied by the reason  of a provision of criminal law which was declared unconstitutional by the Constitutional Court, but the defendant has already been relieved from the detrimental consequences relating to his criminal record, or the sentence imposed has been completely executed or its enforceability ceased, or the defendant is no longer subjected to the effect of the measure.

g)[1116] a body for the protection of human rights created by way of an international treaty established that the procedure or the final decision of the court has violated a provision of the international treaty promulgated by law, provided that the Hungary has submitted itself to the jurisdiction of the international body for the protection of human rights.

(2) The motion for judicial review based on Section (1) f) shall be submitted within 6 months reckoned from the statement of the decision of the Constitutional Court.

(3) The review may take place according to section (1) g) even if a human rights organization, founded by an international treaty, established the violation of a provision of the international treaty which violation is a procedural infraction and this may attacked only by an appeal and not review according to this Act. Review shall not be granted according to section (1) g), if the human rights organization established the violation of the requirement of the conclusion of a case within a reasonable time.

(4). No judicial review shall apply

  1. a) in cases specified in Section (1) a) and b) if the conclusive decision was delivered by the court of third instance,

b)[1117] against the decision of the Supreme Court delivered at a procedure for the uniformity of law, review procedure or procedure of appeal on legal grounds,

  1. c) No judicial review shall apply if the breach of law can be remedied by conducting a special procedure (Titles I to II of Chapter XXIX).

(5) A request for review may be submitted as set forth by the Civil Code if it only concerns the provisions of the final decision, made in a criminal case, regarding the civil claim or the termination of parental right of supervision.

 

The motion for review[1118]

Section 417[1119] The motion for review may be submitted by

  1. to the detriment of the defendant:
  2. a) the prosecutor,
  3. b) in the case of acquittal or the termination of the procedure, the private accuser or the substitute private accuser,
  4. to the benefit of the defendant:
  5. a) the prosecutor,
  6. b) the defendant,
  7. c) the defence counsel, unless this was prohibited by the defendant,
  8. d) the legal representative of the juvenile offender defendant,
  9. e) against an order for involuntary treatment in a mental institution – even without the consent of the defendant – the legal representative and the spouse or common-law partner of the defendant of legal age,
  10. f) after the death of the defendant, a relative in direct line, the brother or sister or the spouse or common-law partner of the defendant.

(2) In the cases listed in Section 416 (1) e) and g), the Supreme Prosecutor shall submit the motion for review ex officio.

(3) Any court, other authority or official person acting in their own official competence gaining cognisance of a violation of law to the detriment of the defendant in a criminal proceeding, shall notify the Prosecutor General thereof.

 

Section 418[1120] (1) The motion for review to the detriment of the defendant may be submitted within 6 months following the communication of the final conclusive decision.

(2) With the exception of the case specified in Section 416 (2), there is no deadline for the submission of a motion for review to the benefit of the defendant. The fact that the punishment of the defendant has been executed or the punishability of the defendant has ceased shall not be an obstacle to submitting the motion.

(3) Each entitled person may only submit a motion for review on one occasion, unless the new motion for review is submitted pursuant to Section 416 (1) e) or g).

 

The review procedure[1121]

Section 419[1122] (1) The provisions of Chapter XV. regulating procedure of third instance shall be applicable to the institution of review procedure with the deviation set forth in this Chapter.

(2)[1123] The motion for review, indicating the reason and the purpose therefore, shall be submitted in writing to the court of first instance having proceeded in the basic case. The motion for review may be submitted to the court which conducted the procedure subjected to complaint in the motion for review. The motion for review of the Supreme Prosecutor shall be submitted directly – with the documents of the basic case – to the Supreme Court.

(3)[1124] Within 30 days, the court shall submit the motion for review, together with the documents of the basic case to the Supreme Court.

(4)[1125] The motion for review may be revoked until the panel session of the Supreme Court held in order to pass a resolution.

(5) The motion for review submitted by the defence counsel shall be revoked by him just with the consent of the defendant.

(6)[1126] In case the motion for review has been revoked the Supreme Court terminates the review procedure.

 

Section 420[1127] (1)[1128] The motion for review shall be considered by the panel of the Supreme Court, or, if it contests a decision of the Supreme Court, it shall be judged by the panel of the Supreme Court consisting of five professional judges at panel session or at an public session.

(2) The participation of a defence counsel shall be statutory in the review procedure. If the defendant has no defence counsel, the presiding judge shall appoint one and if necessary, requests him to compile the motion for review.

(3) If the appointed defence counsel fails to submit or submits incompletely the motion within 30 days, a disciplinary penalty may be imposed.

 

Section 421[1129] (1) The presiding judge shall request the party having submitted the motion to supplement the motion within 30 days, if the reason for considering the decision detrimental cannot be clearly established therefrom, or the motion refers to a reason other than those prompting a review.

(2)[1130] Motions precluded by law or submitted by a non-entitled person, as well as belated motions shall be rejected by the Supreme Court. With the exception of the case specified in Section 420 (3), the same applies to motions for review that were not submitted or submitted incompletely despite the request.

(3)[1131] The Supreme Court may omit to make a decision concerning the rejection of a motion submitted repeatedly with unchanged content or submitted repeatedly by the same eligible party.

 

Section 422[1132] (1) If the motion for review is not subjected to rejection and the prosecutor was presenting the charges in the basic case, the presiding judge shall send the motion, together with the documents of the basic case, to the office of Prosecutor General.

(2) The motion for review filed against a decision delivered in a procedure based on the accusation of a private accuser or substitute private accuser shall be served upon the private accuser and the substitute private accuser.

(3)[1133] The prosecutor shall return the documents, together with his statement within 15 days, the private accuser and the substitute private accuser send their statement within 15 days to the Supreme Court.

(4) The presiding judge shall send the motion for review and the statement regulated by subsection (3) to the party having submitted the motion for review and to the authorized person with the notice that he may make a remark thereof within 15 days reckoned from the delivery. The defendant and his defence counsel shall receive the motion for review submitted by other parties and the statement of the prosecutor made thereon.

 

Section 423[1134] (1) The facts of the case established by a final judgement shall prevail in the review procedure. The facts of the case established by the final judgement may not be applied by the motion for review.

(2) With the exception of the case specified in Section 416 (1) e) and f), the motion for review shall be adjudicated in compliance with the legal regulations in effect at the time of the delivery of the contested decision. In the cases specified in Section 416 (1) e) and f), the motion for review shall be considered in compliance with the legal regulations in effect of the adjudication.

(3) In case specified in Section 416 (1) g) the motion shall be adjudicated disregarding the legal regulation which is contrary to the international treaty promulgated by law, and shall be adjudicated taking for basis the decision of an international body for the protection of human rights.

(4)[1135] With the exception of the case specified in subsection (5), the Supreme Court proceeding on the basis of the motion for review shall review only the part of the decision contested by the motion for review and only for the reasons specified therein; however, in the case of a motion for review submitted to the detriment of the defendant the court may modify the contested decision to the benefit of the defendant.

(5)[1136] The Supreme Court shall review the contested decision under Section 416 (1) c), even if the motion was not submitted for this reason.

(6)[1137] The motion for review has no delaying effect; however, the Supreme Court may suspend or interrupt the execution of the contested decision until the motion is adjudicated.

 

Section 424[1138] (1) The Supreme Court shall adopt a decision at a panel session, if[1139]

  1. a) the procedure shall be terminated or the motion may be rejected,
  2. b) it may suspend or interrupt the execution of the contested decision,
  3. c) according to the motion the contested decision shall be annulled and the procedure shall be terminated or the court adopted the contested decision shall be ordered to conduct a new proceedings,

d)[1140] the motion was filed according to Section 416 (1) c).

(2) The presiding judge may refer a case falling in the domain of a panel session to a public session.

 

Section 425[1141] (1) The public session may only be held in the presence of the defence counsel and the Supreme Prosecutor or the representative thereof if the indictment was presented by a prosecutor.

(2) The defendant, the private accuser and the substitute private accuser and the eligible parties listed in Section 417 (1) shall be informed about the public session. If the defendant is detained, he shall be brought to court in order to attend the public session.

(3) The notification shall be sent leaving sufficient time for its service 8 days prior to the public session at the latest. The fact that the notification could not be served on an absconding addressee shall not prevent holding the public session.

(4) After opening the public session, the judge designated by the presiding judge shall recite the motion for review, the contested decision and the contents of the documents inasmuch as necessary to adjudicate the motion for review.

(5) After the presentation of the case, the party having submitted the motion for review, the prosecutor, the defence counsel and other eligible parties listed in Section 417 (1) may make their addresses on the subject of the motion for review. The addresses are followed by replies thereto. The last address shall be made by the defendant.

 

The decision passed in the course of the review procedure[1142]

 

Section 426[1143] If the court proceeding on the basis of the motion for review does not grant the motion for review, the contested decision shall remain in force.

 

Section 427[1144] (1) The Supreme Court shall alter the contested decision, and pass a judgement complying with the law, if[1145]

a)[1146] the defendant was found guilty, furthermore his compulsory medical treatment was ordered owing to the violation of substantive law,

  1. b) unlawful classification of the crime, unlawful penalty has been imposed or measure has been taken owing to the violation of other rules of criminal law or the execution of penalty has been suspended despite grounds set forth in Section 90 of the Criminal Code,
  2. c) the decision of the court was taken with the violation of prohibition of reformatio in peius [Section 354,355,405 (1) and (3), 549 (4)]

(2)[1147] If the review procedure has been conducted on the basis of the decision of the Constitutional Court [416.(1) e) and f)], the Supreme Court shall alter the contested decision and adopt a decision in compliance with the law if this is possible on the ground of the documents.

(3)[1148] The Supreme Court may make itself the decision, if the review was conducted because the human rights organization, founded by an international treaty, established that the way the procedure was conducted or the final decision of the court violated a provision of the international treaty, and the process does not need to be duplicated in order to pass a judgement required by the international treaty promulgated by law.

 

Section 428 (1)[1149] The Supreme Court shall set aside the decision and order the court of authority and competence to conduct a new procedure, if the defendant was acquitted, furthermore the procedure was terminated owing to the violation of substantive law and if the decision regulated by Section 427 (1) may not be taken according to the documents.

(2)[1150] If a procedural contravention provided by section 373 (1) I. b) or c) or II.-IV. was committed while the decision was passed, and a request for review has been filed against it, the Supreme Court shall revoke the decision, and terminate the proceedings, order the court of authority and competence to conduct new proceedings, and send the documents to the prosecutor.

(3)[1151] If the review was conducted upon the decision of the Constitutional Court [section 416 (1) e) and f)], and a decision in conform with the law cannot be made on the evidence of the documents, the Supreme Court shall revoke the decision subjected to the request for review, and order the court proceeded earlier to conduct new proceedings.

(4)[1152] If the request for review was filed because the human rights organization, founded by an international treaty, established that the way the procedure was conducted or the final decision of the court violated a provision of the international treaty promulgated by law and the process needs to be duplicated in order to pass a judgement required by the international treaty promulgated by law, the Supreme Court shall revoke the judgement and order the court proceeded earlier to conduct new proceedings even if the human rights organization established such violation f the law which by the way do not give reason to revoke the judgement according to this Act.

(5)[1153] If the Supreme Court revokes the decision subjected to the request for review, and the defendant is detained, shall decide about the custody.

 

 

Section 429[1154] (1) If the motion for review is rejected – unless it has been initiated by the prosecutor – the cost of criminal proceedings incurred in the course of the review procedure, including the fee of the defence counsel appointed to compile the motion for review, shall be borne by the party having submitted the motion. In other cases the cost of criminal proceedings shall be borne by the state.

(2)[1155] After the adjudication of the motion for review, the Supreme Court shall serve the estreats of its decision, and return the documents of the case, together with the estreat of its decision and the minutes taken at the session to the court having delivered the contested decision or the court ordered to conduct a new procedure or conduct the procedure.

 

 

Chapter XVIII/A.[1156]

PROCEDURE IN CASE OF A CONSTITUTIONAL COMPLAINT[1157]

 

Section 429/A[1158] The constitutional complaint shall be forwarded to the Constitutional Court by the court that proceeded at first instance in the case with delay.

Section 429 /B[1159] (1) The court that proceeded at first instance may suspend or brak off the execution of the effective final decision until the end of the procedure of the Contituitional Court.

(2)The court that proceeded at first instance shall inform the Constitutional Court about the suspension or breaking off of the execution of the effective final decision.

Section 429/C[1160] The court that proceeded at first instance shall suspend or break off the execution of the effective final decision upon the notice of the Constitutional Court, and inform the Constitutional Court thereof. No appeal may be filed against such order.

Chapter XIX [1161]

APPEAL ON LEGAL GROUNDS[1162]

 

Section 430[1163] Lodging an appeal on legal grounds shall be governed by the provisions set forth in Chapter XVIII, with the deviations stipulated in this Chapter.

Request for appeal on legal grounds [1164]

Section 431[1165] The Supreme Prosecutor may lodge an appeal on legal grounds at the Supreme Court against the unlawful and final decision of the court, unless the final decision may be contested by other means of legal remedy.

 

Section 432[1166] No deadline is set for lodging an appeal on legal grounds, and it has no delaying effect on the execution of the decision.

 

Section 433[1167] No appeal may be lodged on legal grounds if the decision has been delivered by the Supreme Court.

Procedure in the case of an appeal on legal grounds[1168]

Section 434[1169] (1)[1170] The appeal on legal grounds shall be adjudicated by the panel of the Supreme Court at a public session.

(2)[1171] The Prosecutor General, the defendant and the defence counsel thereof shall be advised of the public session. If the defendant had no defence counsel in the basic case, the Supreme Court shall appoint a defence counsel for the defendant.

(3) The defendant and the defence counsel may make comments on the appeal on legal grounds.

 

Section 435[1172] (1) The public session may not be held in the absence of the Prosecutor General or the representative thereof.

(2) In respect of the public session, the provisions set forth in Chapter XIV shall apply as appropriate. At the public session, the Supreme Prosecutor or the representative thereof, the defendant and his defence counsel may make an address and – according to the nature of the procedure – may put forward motions.

Decision concerning the appeal on legal grounds[1173]

Section 436[1174] If the Supreme Court finds the appeal on legal grounds substantiated, it shall state in its decision that the contested decision is unlawful; in adverse cases, it shall reject the appeal in a ruling.

 

Section 437[1175] Upon establishing the violation of law, the Supreme Court may acquit the defendant, omit the involuntary treatment in a mental institution, terminate the procedure, commute the sentence or the measure or repeal the contested decision to facilitate the adoption of such decision, and if necessary, may order the court having proceeded in the case to conduct a new procedure; in other cases the decision of the Supreme Court may only establish the fact of unlawfulness.

 

Section 438[1176] The cost of criminal proceedings incurred in the course of the appeal proceeding shall be borne by the state.

 

Chapter XX[1177]

PROCEDURE FOR THE UNIFORMITY OF THE LAW

 

Section 439[1178] (1) The procedure for the uniformity of the law shall be governed by the provisions concerning the procedure for the uniformity of the law as set forth by the act on the organization and administration of courts, with the deviations stipulated by subsetion (2) to (5).

(2) If the result of the procedure for the uniformity of the law may affect other extraordinary legal remedy procedure that is in progress in the Supreme Court, the Supreme Court shall suspend the extraordinary legal remedy procedure until the decision for the uniformity of the law has been passed.

(3) If, according to the guidance given to a theoretical question, the  provision of the final decision which is affected by the decision for the uniformity of the law and which establises the guilt of the defendant is unlawful, then the panel for the uniformity of the law shall revoke this provision, and acquit the defendant and terminate the procedure. If the defendant is in custody, it shall terminate the custody as well.

(4) The justification of the decision for the uniformity of the law shall include the reasons of the acquittal and termination of procedure as well.

(5) The decision for the uniformity of the law shall be communitated to a defendant who was acquitted or against whom the procedure was terminated. If in the basic case the charge was represented by private prosecutor or substitute private prosecutor, then the decision shall be communicated to such persons as well.

Section 440-445[1179]

 

PART FIVE

Chapter XXI[1180]

CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS AGAINST JUVENILE OFFENDERS

 

Section 446 In the criminal proceedings against juvenile offender [Section 107 (1) of the Criminal Code], the provisions set forth in this Act shall be applied with the deviations stipulated in this Chapter.

General provisions

Section 447 (1) The proceedings against a juvenile offender shall be conducted by taking into account the characteristics of his age and in a way that promotes the respect of the juvenile offender for the laws.

(2)[1181] In the course of the criminal proceedings – when necessary, or according to the provisions of separate laws –measures of the child welfare agency should be initiated in the interest of the juvenile offender, as well as actions against the person having neglected to educate, care for or supervise the juvenile offender.

Juvenile court [1182]

Section 448[1183] (1) [1184]

(2)[1185] In the first instance, the presiding judge (single judge), while in the second instance and third instance – except the Supreme Court -, a member of the panel shall be the judge designated by the president of the National Judiciary Council’s Office.

(3) At the court of first instance, one of the associate judges on the panel shall be a teacher.

(4) The juvenile court shall also adjudicate the case of a defendant of legal age, if it is related to the case of a juvenile offender.

The prosecutor

Section 449 (1) The powers of the prosecutor shall be exercised by the prosecutor (prosecutor for juvenile offenders) designated by a superior prosecutor.[1186]

(2) Criminal proceedings against a juvenile offender may only be based on a public prosecution. No substitute private prosecution shall apply against a juvenile offender; it is the prosecutor’s task to proceed in the cases of criminal offences subject to prosecution based on private prosecution.

Defence counsel

Section 450 The participation of a defence counsel is statutory in the proceedings against a juvenile offender.

The legal representative

Section 451[1187] The legal representative may inspect the documents of the case after the conclusion of the investigation. In the course of the investigation, he may also inspect the documents prepared on procedural actions he had the right to attend. In other respects, the rights of the legal representative to be present, to request information, submit motions and request legal remedy shall be governed by the rights of the defence counsel.

 

Section 452 (1) Before the filing of the indictment at the request of the prosecutor, thereafter at the request of the court, the child welfare agency shall appoint an ad hoc supervisor, if[1188]

  1. a) the legal representative committed the criminal offence together with the juvenile offender, or the interests of the legal representative are otherwise in conflict with the interests of the juvenile offender,
  2. b) the legal representative is prevented from exercising his rights,
  3. c) the juvenile offender has no legal representative, or the legal representative cannot be identified.

(2)[1189] In the case specified in subsection (1) a) before the filing of the indictment the prosecutor, thereafter the court may exclude the legal representative from the proceedings until the appointment of the ad hoc supervisor.

(3)[1190] During the proceedings, the ad hoc supervisor shall act as a legal representative.

Means of evidence

Section 453 (1)[1191]

(2)[1192] The age of the juvenile offender shall be proven by way of a public deed. A study of living conditions of the juvenile shall be obtained which includes the data recorded and managed by the institution entitled by the Act on Public Education, or the information given by his workplace. The study of living conditions shall be prepared by the probation officer. The probation officer may request the co-operation of the police in the preparation of the study of living conditions.

(3) The testimony of the juvenile offender defendant may not be tested by a polygraph.

 

Preliminary arrest

 

Section 454 (1) Even in the cases specified in Section 129 (2), the preliminary arrest of a juvenile offender may only be applied if this is necessary due to special gravity of the criminal offence.

(2) The preliminary arrest of the juvenile offender shall be executed in

  1. a) detention home or
  2. b) penal institution.

(3) The place of preliminary arrest shall be decided upon by the court, taking into consideration the personality of the juvenile offender and the nature of the criminal offence he is charged with.

(4) During the period of the preliminary arrest, the court may change the place of preliminary arrest at the motion of the prosecutor, the defendant or the defence counsel. Prior to the decision during the preparations for the trial, the decision thereon shall be adopted by the court ordering preliminary arrest, and thereafter the court proceeding in the criminal case.

(5) If the preliminary arrest of the juvenile offender is executed in a detention home, and the court decides on the temporary custody of the juvenile offender in a penal institution or a police holding cell, the competence and jurisdiction of the court shall be governed by the provisions of subsection (4).

(6) In the course of preliminary arrest, juvenile offenders shall be separated from offenders of legal age.

 

Section 455[1193] After the lapse of 2 years after the commencement of the execution of preliminary arrest ordered against a juvenile offender, the preliminary arrest shall be terminated, unless the preliminary arrest was ordered or maintained after the announcement of the conclusive decision, or unless a repeated procedure is in progress in the case due to repeal.

Ordering coercive measure prior to the indictment

Section 456 (1) Prior to the filing of the indictment, in the procedure related to coercive measures (Sections 210 and 211), the session may not be held in the absence of the defence counsel.

(2) The legal representative and the person responsible for the juvenile offender shall also be advised of the session.

 

Section 457 The legal representative and the person responsible for the juvenile offender may address the session.

Communication of the decision

Section 458 The decision delivered in the course of the proceedings shall be notified to the legal representative, while the conclusive decision and the decision concerning a coercive measure restricting personal freedom shall also be notified to the person responsible for the juvenile offender.

Postponement of the indictment and mediation procedure[1194]

Section 459 (1) In the case of a criminal offence punishable by a maximum of 5 years’ imprisonment, if the conditions for an indictment are met, the prosecutor may decide to postpone the filing of an indictment, if this is likely to have a positive impact on the future development of the juvenile offender.

(2)[1195] The prosecutor shall order to obtain the opinion of the probation officer before filing the indictment. In his decision concerning the postponement of the indictment, the prosecutor shall oblige the juvenile offender to keep certain rules of conduct or fulfil other obligations. The obligations specified in Section 225 (2) c) may not be imposed on juvenile offenders.

(3)[1196] The legal representative of the juvenile must be present at the mediatory procedure.

(4) [1197]If the mediatory procedure is successful, the juvenile has met his obligations, and application of Section 107/A of Criminal Code shall take place, the prosecutor shall terminate the procedure. If the juvenile has started to fulfil the agreement originated from the result of the mediatory procedure, the prosecutor shall postpone the indictment because of crime punishable by not more than 5 years of imprisonment for 1 to 2 years.

The trial

Section 460 (1) The general public shall be excluded from the trial even in cases not specified in Section 237 (3), if this is necessary in the interest of the juvenile offender.

(2) The court may order that the part of the trial which could have a harmful effect on the proper development of the juvenile offender be held in the absence of the juvenile offender. The gist of the trial held this way shall be presented to the juvenile offender by the presiding judge not later than prior to the adjournment of the trial.

(3)[1198] The presence of the prosecutor is statutory at the trial. The indictment cannot be presented by the draftsman of the prosecutors’ office or by the deputy prosecutor in the course of the criminal procedure against a juvenile offender.

 

Section 461[1199] (1) The trial may not be held in the absence of a juvenile offender accused under the provisions of Chapter XXV.

(2) Section 279 (3) of the Criminal Procedure Code shall not be applied against a juvenile accused.

 

Section 462 (1) At the trial of the case against a juvenile offender accused the accused and the witness shall be heard by the presiding judge (single judge). After hearing the accused and the witness, those entitled may ask questions from them.

(2) The study of the living conditions shall be presented at the trial.

(3) The prosecutor may not ledge a motion defining the extent of the measure on corrective education.

Waiving the right to trial

Section 463[1200] The provisions of Chapter XXVI may not be applied in the case of juvenile offenders.

Omission of the trial[1201]

Section 464 In addition to those listed in Section 548 (1), the legal representative of the juvenile offender, without the consent thereof, may also request that a trial be held.

Ordering corrective education

Section 465 The court shall order corrective education in a condemning judgement.

Replacing the fine with imprisonment

Section 466[1202] The court shall decide on replacing the fine with imprisonment either ex officio or at the motion of the prosecutor, if the juvenile offender failed to pay the fine and it cannot be collected.

Termination of a furlough order

Section 467 (1) If the decision concerning the termination of a furlough order shall be adopted due to a punishment or measure imposed in lieu of punishment in the course of a new criminal proceeding instituted against the juvenile offender, such decision shall fall in the competence of the court proceeding in the new case.

(2) In the case specified in subsection (1) the court shall decide on the termination of the furlough order at the motion of the prosecutor or ex officio subsequently, if no such disposition was made in the judgement.

(3) The cost of criminal proceedings shall be borne by the state, if the court does not terminate the furlough order.

Ordering consolidated measures

Section 468[1203] To the imposition of a consolidated measure in lieu of several corrective education institutions, the provisions stipulated in Sections 574 and 575 shall apply as appropriate.

 

Chapter XXII[1204]

MILITARY CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS

 

Section 469 In the event of military criminal proceedings the provisions of this Act shall be applied with the derogations stipulated in this Chapter.

Scope of military criminal proceedings

Section 470 (1) Military criminal proceedings shall apply in the case of

  1. a) a military crime (Chapter XX of the Criminal Code) committed by a soldier [Section 122 (1) of the Criminal Code] during the time of his actual service period,

b)[1205] any criminal offence committed by a member of the armed forces,

c)[1206] other criminal offence committed by a permanent staff member of the civil national security service or a penal institution at his post or in connection with his military duty,

d)[1207] a criminal offence committed by a member of allied armed forces (Section 368 of the Criminal Code) within the boundaries of Hungary, or on a Hungarian ship or Hungarian aircraft outside of Hungary, falling in the judicial authority of Hungary.

(2) All criminal offences committed by the defendant shall be subject to military criminal proceedings if military criminal proceedings apply to any of such offences and no severance is possible.

(3)[1208] In the case of several defendants, military criminal proceedings shall be conducted if the criminal offence committed by any of the defendants if subject to military criminal proceedings and the close connection between the facts of the case permit no separate proceedings.  This provision shall also apply to the receiver and the abettor.

The court

Section 471[1209] (1)[1210] In cases falling under the rules of military criminal proceedings, the military panel of the Court of Justice designated by the Act on the organisation and administration of courts shall act in the first instance.

(2)[1211] In cases subject to criminal proceedings, the military panel of the Budapest Metropolitan High Court of Appeals shall act in the second instance. On the matters of the permissibility of the re-opening of a case, and after the re-opening has been ordered other panel of the Metropolitan High Court of Appeals may act in the review procedure of the decision adopted during the re-opening procedure.

(3)[1212] The military judge may act in cases not belonging under the military procedure.

Composition of the court

Section 472[1213] (1) In military criminal proceedings, both in the first and second instances the professional judge shall be a military judge and the associate judge in the first instance shall be a military associate judge.

(2)[1214] In the cases of criminal offences specified in Section 14 (1) a) and Section 16 (1) a)-h) the court of first instance shall act in a panel, while in other cases it shall act as a single judge, without the  participation of associate judges.

(3) The court of first instance may also act in a panel consisting of one professional judge and two associate judges, if it establishes the court established that the classification may be graver than that indicated in the indictment.

(4) In the military criminal proceedings – with the exception of the case specified in subsection (5) – the associate judge may not be of lower rank than the accused.  As a rule, the panel shall consist of the associate judges of the armed force at which the accused discharged his duty at the time of the offence.  Derogation from the above rule is allowed if the required for the purpose of administration of justice.

(5)[1215] In proceedings against an accused bearing the rank of general, if the panel of the court consisting of the selected military associate judges cannot be set up as specified in subsection (4), anybody bearing the rank of a general may act as an associate judge in the case.

(6)[1216] If the panel cannot be set up even according to the rules of subsection (5), the president of the competent Court of Justice designated to conduct the military criminal proceedings – through the prsident of the National Judiciary Council’s Office – shall initiate a procedure to select associate judges as stipulated in the Act on the legal status and remuneration of judges. The staff meeting to select the associate judges shall be held within 15 days following its initiation by the president of the National Judiciary Council’s Office.  In such a case, the panel shall consist of military associate judges of the rank of general, selected at the staff meeting of generals.

 

Jurisdiction of the court of first instance

Section 473 (1)[1217] The geographical jurisdiction of the military panel of the Court of Justice designated to conduct the military criminal proceedings is stipulated in the Act on the organisation and administration of courts.

(2)[1218] Adjudication of a criminal offence committed outside of Hungary shall fall in the jurisdiction of the military panel of the Metropolitan Court of Justice.

(3)[1219] The ground for jurisdiction set forth in Section 17 (3) shall not be applied in military criminal proceedings.

The military prosecutor

Section 474 (1)[1220] In military criminal proceedings the responsibilities of a prosecutor shall be performed by a military prosecutor, or a prosecutor designated by the Supreme prosecutor to act in military criminal cases (hereinafter: military prosecutor).  In order to establish the existence of conditions for filing an indictment, the military prosecutor shall either conduct or order an investigation.

(2) The investigation shall be conducted exclusively by the military prosecutor if a soldier has committed

  1. a) a military felony,
  2. b) a military misdemeanour, if he has committed other related criminal offences or if there are several defendants and the cases shall not be severed,
  3. c) non-military criminal offence.

(3) Further, the investigation shall be conducted by the military prosecutor if the service relationship of the soldier has ceased in the meantime.

(4)[1221] The military prosecutor shall conduct the investigation in the case of a criminal offence committed by a member of allied armed forces (Section 368 of the Criminal Code) within Hungary, or on a Hungarian ship or Hungarian aircraft outside of Hungary, falling in the judicial authority of Hungary.

(5) [1222]Military criminal proceedings may only be conducted based on public accusation; while a criminal offence subject to private prosecution shall fall in the competence of the military prosecutor.  In military criminal proceedings no counter-charge may be filed.  In proceedings conducted owing to a military criminal offence, no substitute private prosecution may be applied.

(6)[1223] The military prosecutor may enforce a civil claim for the damage caused to armed forces by the criminal offence adjudicated in the military criminal proceedings.

(7)[1224] The military prosecutor may act in cases that do not fall under the rules of military criminal procedure.

 

Section 475[1225] (1) The military prosecutor shall operate beside the military panel of the court.

(2) According to the Act on prosecution, the tasks of prosecution at the Court of Justice and the Supreme Court shall be performed by the prosecutors’ office working beside these cousrts

(3) The jurisdiction of the military prosecutor shall depend on the jurisdiction of the court where it operates.

(4) Pursuant to the disposition of the Supreme Prosecutor the military prosecutor may also proceed in cases which would not otherwise fall in his jurisdiction.

 

Section 476 [1226]

The military investigating authority

Section 477 (1) If it is not the military prosecutor who conducts the investigation, the commanding officer shall act as the investigating authority.

(2) If the criminal offence subject to military criminal proceedings is detected by a non-military investigating authority, a non-military investigating authority gains cognisance of such a criminal offence, it shall immediately notify the military prosecutor of the performance of the actions stipulated in Section 170 (4).

(3)[1227] The commanders having powers to conduct the investigation and the detailed rules of the investigation by such commander shall be determined by the minister controlling the armed forces, in agreement with the minister of justice.

Protection of the witness

Section 478[1228] (1) In especially justified cases, a conscripted witness discharging military duty may request to be commanded or transferred to another post for duty.  Prior to filing the indictment the request shall be decided upon by the military prosecutor, and thereafter the court. The witness may appeal the rejection of the request.

(2) The command or the transfer shall be executed by the competent personnel department of the armed force within seventy-two hours following the service of the decision.

Custody

Section 479 If the order for taking a soldier in custody for a criminal offence subject to military criminal proceedings was given by a non-military investigating authority, the defendant shall be handed over to the competent military prosecutor within twenty-four hours.

Preliminary arrest

Section 480 (1)[1229] An order for the preliminary arrest of a soldier may also be issued if proceedings are conducted against him for a military criminal offence or other criminal offence subject to imprisonment and committed at his post or in connection with his military duty, and the defendant needs to be deprived of his liberty due to reasons of service or discipline.

(2) The preliminary arrest ordered pursuant to subsection (1) shall be ceased simultaneously with the cessation of the service relationship of the defendant.

Execution of the preliminary arrest

Section 481[1230]

 

Ensuring the right to defence [1231]

Section 482[1232] During his actual service relationship, the defendant shall be relieved of service if his participation in a procedural action is allowed or statutory pursuant to this Act.

Imposing close control

Section 483[1233]

Prohibition of granting bail[1234]

Section 484[1235] No bail may be accepted in the case of soldiers during the existence of their actual service relationship.

Rejection of the denunciation

Section 485 The denunciation may also be rejected by the military investigating authority due to grounds for the termination of punishability stipulated by law specified in Section 124 of the Criminal Code.

Adjudication of a criminal offence by disciplinary procedure[1236]

485/A. Section[1237] (1) The military prosecutor shall reject the denunciation or terminate the investigation, and send the documents to the commander entitled to conduct a disciplinary procedure, if the objective of the punishment for a military misdemeanour may also be attained by way of disciplinary punishment.

(2) If the military investigating authority deems that the criminal offence can be adjudicated in the course of a disciplinary procedure, it shall forthwith submit the documents to the competent military prosecutor for the adoption of the decision specified in subsection (1); the military prosecutor shall adopt a decision within seventy-two hours.

(3) An investigation shall be ordered to be conducted or the procedure continued, if the suspect or his defence counsel filed a complaint against the decision rejecting the denunciation or terminating the investigation and there has been no other reason for rejecting the denunciation or terminating the procedure. The suspect shall be warned thereof in the decision.

(4) If the military prosecutor referred the adjudication of the criminal offence to a disciplinary procedure, the competent commander may conduct a disciplinary procedure and impose the disciplinary punishments in compliance with the provisions of the separate acts regulating serve relations.

(5) The decision imposing the disciplinary punishment shall also be served on the military prosecutor.

 

485/B. Section[1238] (1) Within 3 days following the final decision of the commander, the punished person and his defence counsel – after exercising their right of complaint as defined in a separate act – may request the court review of the decision or order imposing a penalty for a criminal offence referred to disciplinary procedure.  Until the request is adjudicated, the punishment may not be executed.

(2)[1239] The request shall be submitted to the commander having imposed the punishment, who shall forward it, together with the documents of the case, to the military panel of the Court of Justice having geographical jurisdiction in the case within twenty-four hours.  The request may be withdrawn until the commencement of the trial.

(3) The court

  1. a) shall act as a single judge,
  2. b) shall adjudicate the request within 3 days, at a trial, after hearing the person punished and examining the documents; and if required, may take further evidence,
  3. c) the commander having imposed the punishment and the military prosecutor shall be notified of the time of the trial.

(4) The commander and the prosecutor may make an address as the trial.  Any written statements they may wish to make shall be sent to the court prior to the commencement of the trial.

(5) The court shall make a decision on the request in the form of a ruling.

(6) Requests not permitted by law, or lodged by a non-eligible party, and belated requests shall be rejected by the court.  The request may also be rejected prior to setting the date of the trial.

(7) The court

  1. a) shall uphold the decision or the order, if the request is not substantiated,
  2. b) applies a lower security of imprisonment or commutes the punishment,
  3. c) annuls the decision or order imposing the punishment, if a disposition concerning acquittal or the termination of the procedure should be adopted if the case was adjudicated in criminal proceedings.

(8) The appeal against the ruling of the course delivered pursuant to subsections (6) to (7) shall be governed by the provisions of Section 346 (1) concerning the appeal against the ruling terminating the procedure.

Prohibition of postponed indictment and exclusion of mediation procedure [1240]

485/C. Section[1241] (1) The indictment may not be postponed if the soldier has committed a military criminal offence during his actual service period or committed another criminal offence at his post or in connection with his military duty – if the actual service relationship of the defendant exists at the time specified in Section 216 (1).

(2) The prohibition set forth in subsection (1) may not be applied if the indictment shall be postponed for the reasons stipulated in Section 222 (2).

(3)[1242] No mediatory procedure may be conducted in case of crime against property committed against armed forces.

The investigating judge

Section 486[1243] In the course of military criminal proceedings, the tasks of the investigating judge shall be performed by the military judge of the Court of Justice.  The appeal against the decision adopted by the military judge acting as an investigating judge shall be considered by the military panel of the High Court of Appeals.

Termination of the procedure

Section 487 On the grounds for the termination of punishability specified in Section 124 of the Criminal Code, until the filing of the indictment the military prosecutor and thereafter the court may terminate the procedure.

Persons participating at the trial

Section 488[1244] The presence of the military prosecutor is statutory at the trial.  In military criminal proceedings the draftsman of the prosecutor’s office or the deputy prosecutor may not represent the indictment.

 

Section 489[1245] The presence of the defence counsel is statutory at the trial,

  1. a) if the criminal offence is punishable by 5 years’ or more imprisonment by law,
  2. b) in the cases regulated in Section 46,

c)[1246],

  1. d) if there is a substitute private accuser.

Voting order of the military panel

Section 490[1247] In the military panel, the judge of a lower rank shall vote before the judge of a higher rank.  In the case of equal ranks, the officer having been promoted to the higher rank earlier shall cast his vote first.  If the dates of promotion to the rank are identical, the younger officer shall vote first.  The presiding judge shall be the last to vote.

Costs of criminal proceedings

Section 491[1248]

Prohibition of the application of provisions pertaining to juvenile offenders

Section 492[1249]

 

Chapter XXIII[1250]

PROCEDURE BASED ON PRIVATE PROSECUTION

 

Section 493 In criminal proceedings conducted based on private prosecution, the provisions set forth in this Act shall be applied with the derogations stipulated in this Chapter.

The private accuser

Section 494 (1) The burden of proving the guilt of the defendant shall falls on the private accuser.

(2)[1251] In addition to the rights of the victim, the private accuser shall also have the rights what the representation of the prosecution entail.

(3)[1252] If there are several victims in a case, they shall agree on the person to act as the private accuser.  In the absence of such an agreement, the private accuser shall be designated by the court.

(4)[1253] If there are several private accusers, they shall appoint the person to exercise the rights included in the representation of the prosecution. In the absence of such agreement the court shall appoint the private accuser who has the right to represent the indictment during the procedure of first instance. The appointment lasts until the pronouncement of the judgement passed on the merits of the case. The decision, which may be appealed by the private accuser according to this Act, shall be communicated to all of the private accusers.

(5)[1254] In the absence of a counter-charge, the private accuser may be heard as a witness.

 

Section 495 (1) The private accuser shall be entitled to exercise the rights inherent to the representation of the prosecution in respect of the charge he pressed.  In the event of a counter-charge (charge pressed against the private accuser) the private accuser shall have the rights and obligations of an accused.

(2) In respect of the counter-charge, the representative of the private accuser shall have the same legal status as the defence counsel, provided that his mandate extends to the defence.

The prosecutor

Section 496[1255] In the procedure based on a private prosecution the prosecutor may examine the documents of the case and may also attend the trial.  The prosecutor may take over the representation of the prosecution from the private accuser in any stage of the procedure; in such a case the private accuser shall have the rights of the victim.  Should the prosecutor later withdraw from the representation of the prosecution, this role shall be taken over by the private accuser once again.  The judgement shall be served on the prosecutor if he has taken over the representation of the prosecution.

Grounds for instituting the procedure

Section 497 (1) The procedure shall be instituted based on a complaint.  In the complaint the denouncer shall identify the person against whom he requests the institution of the criminal proceedings, as well as designate the offence charged and the underlying evidence.  The denunciation shall be made at the court either in writing or verbally; verbal denunciations shall be recorded in minutes.

(2) The investigating authority shall forward the denunciation received to the competent court. The prosecutor shall send the denunciaition to the court if he does not take over the representation of the prosecution.

(3)[1256] In the case of mutual assault, libel or slander, the procedure instituted against either party for the criminal offence, the other party shall be entitled to file the private motion prior to the panel session described in Section 321 (1) even if the relevant deadline has lapsed, provided that the criminal liability has not lapsed yet.  Pressing a counter-charge is permitted even if the prosecutor has taken over the representation of the prosecution from the private accuser.

(4) The court shall also adjudicate the administrative offence of slander having been committed mutually by the criminal offences set forth in subsection (3).

 

Section 498 If the denounced person or the criminal offence cannot be identified from the denunciation, the court shall call the denouncer to make the denunciation more specific in writing and may hold a preliminary session or order an investigation.

Investigation in the procedure based on a private prosecution

Section 499 (1) Investigation may be ordered by the court or the prosecutor.

(2)[1257] The court shall order an investigation, if the identity, personal data or place of stay of the denounced person is unknown, or means of evidence needs to be sought.  The deadline of the investigation is determined by the court in a maximum period of 2 months, and it may be extended two times respectively by a maximum period of 2 months. The court shall send the ruling ordering the investigation and the documents to the investigating authority.  The investigation shall be conducted by the police.

(3) The prosecutor may order an investigation, if he takes over the representation of the prosecution prior to issuing the summons to a personal hearing [Section 502 (1)].

 

Section 500 (1) After the conclusion of the investigation ordered by the court, the documents shall be returned to the court.

(2) The court having ordered the investigation shall be notified if the identity of the unknown offender could not be established even from the data gathered during the investigation.

(3) Should the denouncer withdraw the denunciation during the investigation ordered by the court, the documents produced by that time and the statement concerning the withdrawal of the denunciation shall be returned to the court.

(4) In the cases specified in subsections (2) and (3) the court shall terminate the procedure.

Decision without a personal hearing

Section 501 (1) The court shall send the documents to the prosecutor, if

  1. a) the denunciation and the documents seem to suggest a criminal offence requiring the prosecutor to represent the prosecution,
  2. b) it deems necessary that the prosecutor should consider taking over the representation of the prosecution,
  3. c) the prosecutor has taken over the representation of the prosecution before the summons to the personal hearing is issued.

(2) If this is feasible based on the contents of the denunciation and the documents, the court shall decide on the transfer of the case, the suspension of the procedure and the termination of the procedure.

(3)[1258] In the case specified in subsection (1) a) the prosecutor shall order the investigation.  The investigation needs not be ordered, if the conditions stipulated in 174 (1) c) to f) prevail.

(4)[1259] If the prosecutor does not establish that the criminal offence is liable to be public prosecution and does not take over the representation of the indictment on the basis of subsection (1) a), the documents shall be sent back to the court. The court shall – if the conditions therefore are met – notify the victim in order to be able to appear as a private accuser. The deadline for appearing up as a private accuser set forth in Section 312 (1) shall be reckoned from the notification of the court.

The personal hearing

Section 502 (1) If the measures listed in Sections 498 and 501 do not apply, the court shall summon both the reported person and the denouncer to a personal hearing, and hold a session.  The defence counsel and the representative of the denouncer shall be notified thereof.  If there are several victims in the case, all of the victims shall be summoned to the personal hearing.

(2) In the summons the denouncer (victim) shall be warned that upon an insufficient excuse for his absence the court shall regard the charges dropped.  The summons sent to the denounced person shall refer to the name of the denouncer and the substance of the criminal offence.

(3) If the denounced person is a foreign citizen, an officer at the consulate of their native country may also attend the personal hearing.

(4) At the commencement of the personal hearing the court shall establish the identity of the denouncer and the denounced person, presents the substance of the denunciation, and – if the conditions therefore prevail – advises the denounced person of the option of a counter-charge.  Thereafter, the court shall endeavour to reconcile the denouncer and the denounced person.

(5) Should the attempt for reconciliation fail, the court records the data of the denounced person, then asks whether he pleas guilty of the charges contained in the denunciation, and requests him to specify the means of evidence in support of his defence.  If necessary, the court shall designates the victim to act as the private accuser, or designates the private accuser.

(6) If the denounced person lodges a counter-charge, the court may also hear the denouncer in his capacity as the denounced person.

(7) The court requests the denouncer – and in the case of a counter-charge the denounced person – to specify the means of evidence and indicate the facts they prove.  The court may set a 15-day deadline for this.

 

Section 503 (1) Minutes shall be taken of the personal hearing.

(2)[1260] The responsibilities of the court defined in Sections 501 and 502 – with the exception of subsection (3) – may also be discharged by the associate judge or the court secretary, and they are also entitled to adopt the decision described in Section 504 (1).

(3)[1261] The associate judge or the judicial secretary shall

  1. a) not suspend the procedure on other grounds than which are specified in Section 266 (9)
  2. b) not terminate the procedure on other grounds for termination set forth by law than which are specified in Section 267 (1) a), g) and h) and c).

Decision based on the personal hearing

Section 504 (1) The court shall terminate the procedure, if the denouncer

  1. a) did not attend the personal hearing and failed to forthwith provide a substantial excuse in advance, or could not be summoned because he had failed to report his change of address,
  2. b) has withdrawn the denunciation.

(2) The court may adopt a decision at the personal hearing in each issue it is entitled to decide upon prior to the personal hearing.

(3) In the case specified in subsection (1) the procedure instituted based on the counter-charge shall be terminated, provided that the deadline for filing a private motion has lapsed before the day of the personal hearing.

Appeal against the decisions and measures in the course of the preparation of a trial

Section 505 No appeal may be lodged

  1. a) against the order for an investigation,
  2. b) against the summons to a personal hearing, and the notification thereof,
  3. c) due to the designation of the private accuser,
  4. d) against the measure taken pursuant to Section 501 (1).

Setting the trial

Section 506 In the summons the private accuser shall be warned that upon an insufficient excuse for his absence the court shall regard the charges dropped, unless he arranges his representation.

Persons attending the trial

Section 507 If the private accuser fails to attend the trial and had failed to forthwith provide a substantial excuse in advance, or could not be summoned because he had failed to report his change of address, he shall be regarded as having dropped the charges.

Conducting the trial and maintaining the order of the trial

Section 508 Should the private accuser be ordered to leave or be removed from the trial due to disturbing the order, he shall be notified of the evidence taken in his absence not later than before the conclusion of the evidentiary procedure.  If the representative of the private accuser disturbs the order, and the private accuser is not present, the trial shall be adjourned at the cost of the former.

The trial

Section 509 (1) If the private accuser has no representative or the accused has no defence counsel, at the trial the court presents the substance of the charge and, where appropriate, the counter-charge.

(2) At the trial, the court shall hear the accused and the witness, as well as the expert.  The accused shall be heard in the absence of the private accuser.

Dropping the charge and withdrawal from the representation of the prosecution

Section 510 (1)[1262] The private accuser shall not provide justification for dropping the charge. At the trial, the condition set forth in Section 504 (1) a) shall also be applicable.  The private accuser may also drop the charge in a repeated procedure.

(2) If the prosecutor has taken over the representation of the prosecution from the private accuser, he may not drop the charge but may withdraw from the representation thereof.  If the private accuser is present, the trial shall be continued, otherwise the court shall adjourn the trial and simultaneously set the date for a new trial and notify the private accuser that prosecution shall be represented by him once again.

Ruling terminating the procedure

Section 511 (1) The court shall terminate the procedure if the private accuser has dropped the charge at the trial, or the charge should be regarded as dropped due to his negligence (Section 507).  Such cases shall also be governed by the provisions of Section 504 (3).

(2) The abridged minutes [Section 252 (5)] shall contain the statement of the accused – if appropriate – induced the private accuser to drop the charge as well as the declaration of dropping the charge.

Procedure of the court of second instance

Section 512 (1)[1263] The private accuser may file an appeal against the decision of the court of first instance to the detriment of the accused.

(2) The court of first instance shall submit the documents directly to the court of appeal.

(3) The court shall summon the private accuser to the hearing, if it deems that his presence is necessary.  Otherwise the private accuser shall be notified of the trial.

(4) The court of appeal shall repeal the judgement of the court of first instance at a panel session and terminate the procedure, if a motion to this effect is filed by the private accuser before the panel session to be held for adopting a decision.  This case shall also be governed by the provisions of Section 504 (3).

(5)[1264] If there are several private accusers the provisions set forth in Section 494 (4) shall be applicable in the procedure of second instance. The court of second instance shall revise the part of the decision of the court of first instance which is appealed by any of the private accusers.

 

Procedure of the court of third instance[1265]

 

Section 513 (1)[1266] The private accuser shall file an appeal against the decision of the court of second instance to the detriment of the accused.

(2) The court of second instance shall directly lay the documents before the court of third instance.

(3) The private accuser shall be present at the public session of the court of third instance. If the private accuser does not have a representative, the presiding judge shall order one for him.

 

Bearing the costs of criminal proceedings

Section 514 (1) In the case regulated in Section 339 (1) the costs of criminal proceedings shall be borne by the private accuser, however, if the criminal proceedings is terminated on the grounds terminating punishability as specified in Section 32 a) or c) of the Criminal Code, the costs of criminal proceedings defined in Section 74 (1) a) shall be borne by the state. Section 339 (2) shall also apply, if the court terminated the proceedings pursuant to Section 504 (1) b), the first sentence of Section 510 (1) or Section 512 (4).

(2) The court of second instance shall order the private accuser to bear the costs of criminal proceedings incurred in the course of the procedure of second instance, if only the private accuser lodged an appeal against the decision of the court of first instance, and the court of second instance has upheld such decision.

(3) In the event of a counter-charge, the court may also order the private accuser and the party having filed the counter-charge to bear the costs of criminal proceedings it has advanced.

(4)[1267] If the decision of the court of second instance is appealed only by the private accuser and it does not result in success, the cost arose in the procedure of third instance shall be borne by the private accuser.

(5)[1268] If the cost of the criminal procedure is born by the private accusers, the private accuser dropping the charges shall be obliged to bear the proportional cost conformed to the participation of the private accuser in question.

Motion for re-trial

Section 515 (1) The private accuser may also file a motion for re-trial, if the defendant was acquitted from the charge or the proceedings were terminated.

(2) The motion for re-trial shall be submitted directly to the court.  If the motion for re-trial requests the establishment of a criminal offence requiring the prosecutor to represent the prosecution, the statement of the prosecutor shall also be obtained.

 

Chapter XXIV[1269]

ARRAIGNMENT

 

Section 516 Upon an arraignment, the provisions of this Act shall be applied with the derogations set forth in this Chapter.

Conditions for the arraignment

Section 517 (1)[1270] The prosecutor may arraign the defendant to court within 30 days reckoned from his hearing as accused, if

  1. a) the criminal offence is punishable by not more than 8 years of imprisonment by law,
  2. b) the case is simple,
  3. c) the evidence is available,

d)[1271] the defendant admitted the commission of the criminal offence.

(2)[1272] If the conditions for an arraignment set forth in subsection (1) a) to c) are met and the defendant was caught in the act, the prosecutor shall arraign the defendant within 30 days of questioning of the defendant as a suspect.

(3)[1273] The private accuser and the substitute private accuser may not file a motion for arraignment.

Investigation and indictment

Section 518 (1) If the conditions for an arraignment are met and the prosecutor intends to summon the suspect to the court, the prosecutor shall communicate to the suspect both the criminal offence and the evidence of the arraignment.

(2) The prosecutor shall forthwith arrange that the suspect may retain a defence counsel; if the suspect has no defence counsel, the prosecutor shall appoint one.  If the defendant is in custody, the prosecutor shall also provide for an opportunity for the defence counsel to communicate with the defendant prior to the trial.

 

Section 519 (1)[1274] The prosecutor shall forthwith notify the court, if he intends to have the defendant arraigned; and the court shall immediately set the date of the trial.

(2)[1275] The coercive measure entailing the restriction or deprival of personal freedom ordered prior to the arraignment shall last up to the conclusion of the trial held on the day of arraignment.  If the conditions set forth in Section 517 (1) are met as well, the arrest may be ordered in order of arraignment. The arrest shall last for not more than 72 hours. If the documents are returned to the prosecutor by the court, it shall fall within the competence of the court to decide on the coercive measures entailing the restriction or deprival of personal freedom with regard to the general rules therefore.

 

Section 520 The prosecutor shall have the accused arraigned with the participation of the investigating authority or otherwise, directly summon the defence counsel and ensure the availability of the means of evidence at the trial.  The prosecutor shall also ensure that those who shall statutorily attend the trial be present there and those whose participation is not statutory may be present.

Preparation of the trial

Section 521 In the event of an arraignment, the provisions of Chapter XII may not be applied.

Trial of the court of first instance

Section 522 (1)[1276] The presence of defence counsel is statutorily at the trial.

(2) Unless this has been done earlier, prior to the commencement of the trial, the prosecutor shall transmit the documents and the physical evidence to the court, and thereafter present the charges orally.

(3)[1277] After the presentation of the charges, the court shall return the documents to the prosecutor, if more than 30 days have lapsed between the questioning of the defendant as a suspect and the arraignment, or the criminal offence is punishable by more than 8 years of imprisonment by law, or the evidence is not available.

 

Section 523 (1) The accused and the witness shall be heard by the presiding judge.

(2)[1278] The court may for one occasion adjourn the trial for not more than 8 days. If in the light of evidence taken at the trial the prosecutor needs to be contacted in order to seek further evidence, the court shall request the prosecutor and the trial can not be continued within 8 days or another adjournment is necessary, the court shall send the documents back to the prosecutor.

 

Section 524 The indictment may only be expanded, if the conditions for an arraignment are also met in respect of the criminal offence designated in the expanded indictment. Otherwise the court shall return the documents to the prosecutor.

 

Section 525 Returning the documents to the prosecutor shall not be subject to an appeal.

 

Chapter XXV[1279]

PROCEDURE AGAINST AN ABSENT DEFENDANT

 

Section 526 In the case of a procedure against an absent defendant, the provisions of this Act shall be applied with the derogations stipulated in this Chapter.

 

Investigation and pressing charges against a defendant residing at an unknown place[1280]

 

Section 527[1281] (1) The fact that the defendant’s place of stay is unknown shall not be an obstacle to the investigation; in such case measures shall be taken to locate the place of stay of the defendant [Section 73 (1)-(3)], as well as tracing and securing the means of evidence shall also be ensured.

(2) In case the investigation started due to a criminal offence punishable by imprisonment – if any other means taken in order to locate the residence of the absent defendant have had no success – an arrest warrant shall be issued and at the same time if the defendant does not have an attorney, a defence counsel shall be appointed for him.

(3) After the investigation based on a criminal offence punishable by imprisonment has been conducted, if

  1. a) the arrest warrant have had no result until the documents of the case was sent to the prosecutor [193. (5)],
  2. b) it may be reasonably presumed that the suspect fled or hid from the investigation authority and prosecutor,
  3. c) according to the details of the investigation there is no obstacle for filing the indictment,
  4. d) the consequence of the crime or the adjudication of the case gives reasons,

the prosecutor shall file an indictment.

(4) The indictment shall contain besides what set forth in Section 217-218 the detailed description of the circumstances enumerated in subsection (3) and the motion filed to the court in order to conduct the procedure against the absent defendant.

(5) Official documents addressed to the defendant shall be served on the defence counsel by public summons [Section 70 (5)-(6)].

(6) If the circumstances regulated by subsection (3) does not meet, the prosecutor may suspend the procedure [Section 188 (1) a)]

Court procedure against an accused residing at an unknown place

Section 528 (1)[1282] The court shall proceed against the accused of unknown place of stay based on the motion of the prosecutor to this effect.  Neither the private accuser, nor the substitute private accuser may motion for a court procedure against an accused of unknown place of stay.

(2)[1283] If the prosecutor filed a motion for holding the trial in the absence of the accused, and the place of stay of the accused has become known prior to the commencement of the trial, the court shall notify the prosecutor thereof, and if necessary orders a coercive measure entailing the restriction or deprival of personal freedom of the accused.

(3)[1284] The further procedure of the court shall be governed by the provisions set forth in Chapter XII-XIII.

 

Section 529 (1)[1285] If the place of stay of the accused became unknown after the filing of the indictment and it may be reasonably presumed that the accused has fled or hid, the court shall issue an arrest warrant in a procedure initiated due to a criminal offence punishable by imprisonment without suspending the procedure.

(2)[1286] If the arrest warrant did not result in success within 15 days the court shall notify the prosecutor thereof. If the prosecutor deems it justified to hold or resume the trial in the absence of the accused, he shall file a motion to this effect within 15 days reckoned from the notification of the court.

(3) If no defence counsel had acted on behalf of the accused formerly, in the motion filed pursuant to subsection (2) the prosecutor shall also motion for the appointment of a defence counsel.  The trial shall be continued with the presentation of the materials of the earlier trial.

(4) If the prosecutor does not file a motion for holding the trial in the absence of the accused, the presiding judge shall suspend the procedure.

(5)[1287] The provisions set forth in subsections (1) to (4) shall also be applied, as appropriate, to procedure of the court of second and third instance.

 

Section 530 (1)[1288] At the trial held in the absence of the accused, the presence of the defence counsel shall be statutory.

(2)[1289] The official documents served on the accused by way of public summons [Section 70 (5)-(6)] shall also be served on the defence counsel thereof.

 

Section 531[1290] (1) If the measures to locate the accused succeeded prior to the delivery of the conclusive decision of the court of first instance, the court shall continue the trial by the presentation of the material of the earlier trial, and if necessary, reopen the evidentiary procedure (Section 320).

(2) If the measures to locate the accused succeeded after the delivery of the conclusive decision of the court of first instance, within the deadline set for an appeal, the accused may, in lieu of an appeal, file a motion with the court of first instance for the repetition of the trial.

(3) Prior to the commencement of the trial, the court shall present its decision delivered based on the trial having been held in the absence of the accused and the motion of the accused to repeat the trial.  At the repeated trial, instead of repeatedly taking the testimony of the witness and repeatedly hearing the expert, the minutes taken of the earlier testimony given before the court and the earlier expert opinion may be read out.  In other respects, the trial shall be governed by the provisions stipulated in Chapter XIII.

(4) Depending on the outcome of the repeated trial, the court may either uphold its decision having been delivered based on the trial held in the absence of the accused, or repeal the same and deliver a new decision.

(5) If the measures to locate the accused succeeded during the procedure of the court of appeal, the court of appeal shall set the date of the trial and hear the accused there, and – if required – takes further evidence as motioned for by the accused.  Depending on the outcome of the procedure, the court of appeal may either uphold or change the judgement of the court of first instance, or repeal the same and order the court of first instance to conduct a new procedure.

(6)[1291] If the measures taken in order to locate the defendant result in success during the procedure of third instance, the court of third instance shall set aside the decision of first and second instance and orders the court of first instance to conduct a new procedure.

(7)[1292] If the defendant is located after the delivery of the final decision, a motion for re-trial may be submitted in his favour.

(8)[1293] If the accused at large leaves to an unknown place again during the repeated process of first instance [subsection (2)], the decision taken during the procedure in the absence of the accused shall remain in force without essential examination. The court shall advise the accused thereof.

Procedure in the absence of a defendant residing abroad

Section 532 [1294](1)[1295] If the defendant is staying abroad and extradition or surrender based on european arrest warrant may not be granted, or his extradition or surrender based on european arrest warrant was rejected and the criminal proceedings have not been transferred either, the prosecutor may motion in the indictment to hold the trial in the absence of the accused.

(2) If it is established in a court procedure that the accused is abroad and his place of stay is known, the court may ask the prosecutor whether he wishes to file a motion for holding the trial in the absence of the accused.

(3) If it is established during the trial commenced in the absence of the accused that the accused is abroad and his place of stay is known, the court shall continue the trial without such request to the prosecutor.

(4) No arrest warrant may be issued against the defendant who is staying abroad and his place of stay is known, if the prosecutor did not make a motion for imprisonment in the indictment.

(5) If the procedure is conducted against a defendant staying abroad, or the defendant has returned to Hungary, the provisions of Sections 527 to 531 shall be applied as appropriate.

 

Chapter XXVI[1296]

WAIVER OF THE TRIAL [1297]

 

Section 533[1298] In the case of the procedure conducted based on a waiver of the trial, the provisions of this Act shall be applied with the derogations stipulated in this Chapter.

 

Section 534[1299] (1) If the defendant waive his right to trial, and confess to committed a criminal offence and plead guilty prior to filing the indictment, the court – upon the motion of the prosecutor – may find the accused guilty and may impose penalty or take measures on account of the same facts of the case and same classification like it was stated in the indictment by passing a judgment at a public session.

(2) The court may impose penalty or take measures of the same kind like it was stated in the indictment. When sentencing for imprisonment the amount of punishment as determined by Section 87 (2) of the Criminal Code shall prevail.

(3) The private accuser and the substitute private accuser shall not initiate a procedure conducted on the basis of a waiver of the trial.

 

Section 535[1300] The procedure on the basis of waiver of the trial shall not be conducted – except for the case specified in Section 537– if the defendant committed the crime in conspiracy,

(2) The court shall not reject the civil claim.

 

Section 536[1301] (1) Taking into account the circumstances of the case, thus in particular the person of the defendant and the criminal offence committed, the prosecutor may initiate in the indictment the adjudication of the case at a public session.

(2) The prosecutor may not withdraw the motion for adjudicating the case at a public session. If the prosecutor thinks that the defendant is guilty in a more serious crime or in another crime as well in comparision to the result of the public session, then the prosecutor shall initiate to refer the case to trial.

 

Waiver of the trial in the case of a co-operating defendant [1302]

Section 537[1303] Anyone who committed the crime in conspiracy (Section 137 8. of the Criminal Code) and significantly co-operated with the prosecutor or the investigating authority in order to facilitate the proof of the case or other criminal case, but the investigation was not terminated for any other reason, the penalty shall be imposed during the waiver of the trial in accordance with Section 85/A and 87/C of the Criminal Code. If the criminal offence is punishable by more than 8 years of imprisonment, the penalty shall be imposed within this amount of punishment.

 

Section 538[1304] (1) If the prosecutor conducted the procedural actions regulated by Section 193 (1) himself, after this has been done, or if it was conducted by the investigating authority, after the documents has arrived to the prosecutor within 30 days the documents of the case shall be examined by prosecutor, and as a result thereof he decides on accepting the motion of the defendant having confessed his crime including his guilt for initiating a procedure in order to waive the trial. If the prosecutor agrees with it he shall pass a decision thereon.

(2) If the prosecutor does not agree with the motion, the defendant shall be notified thereof.

(3) The deadline set forth in subsection (1) may be prolonged according to Section 216 (3).

(4) If the prosecutor accepts the motion of the defendant a defence counsel must be present in the procedure. The prosecutor shall appoint the defence counsel – if the defendant does not have one -, and shall ensure that the counsel can get acquainted with the documents of the case.

(5) The prosecutor shall file the indictment within 30 days reckoned from passing the decision on the acceptance of the motion of the defendant.

(6) The prosecutor shall hear the defendant and inform him about

  1. a) the description of the criminal offence confessed by the defendant,
  2. b) its classification according to the Criminal Code,
  3. c) furthermore of what kind, extent and length of penalty to be imposed or measure to be taken may be approved by the prosecutor.

(7) The prosecutor shall advise the co-operating defendant about the consequences of the procedure of waiving the trial and that the court is not obliged to accept the agreement. The advice and the statement of the defendant shall be recorded in the minutes.

(8) If the defendant accepts the notification of the prosecutor regulated in subsection (6), the prosecutor and the defendant conclude the agreement in written. The agreement shall include the description of the crime the defendant confessed to, its classification according to the Criminal Code,  the statement of the prosecutor and the defendant what kind, extent and length of the punishment or measure is acceptable for them.

(9) The written agreement created according to provisions of this Chapter cannot produce legal effect beyond the aims of the procedure of waiving the trial.

(10) The prosecutor shall file the indictment on the grounds of the same facts of the case and same classification as written in the agreement, and makes a motion for the adjudication of the case at public session, as well as for the kind, extent and duration of penalty or measures fixed in the agreement to be taken, and the indication of lower and upper limit thereof.

(11) The prosecutor shall send the indictment and the documents of the investigation accompanied with the agreement and the minute thereof to the court.

 

Section 539[1305] (1) If an agreement between the defendant and the prosecutor has not been reached, the prosecutor shall not inform the court about the motion of the defendant, and shall not file the documents thereof to the court.

(2) In case specified in section (1), furthermore if the court does not agree on the content of the agreement or transfer the case to trial in accordance with this Chapter, the statements written in the agreement shall not bind the prosecutor and the defendant.

(3) The prosecutor may not withdraw the motion for the adjudication of the case at public session. If the prosecutor finds in comparison of the result of the session that the accused is guilty for a more serious crime, or guilty in another crime, shall make a motion for transferring the case to trial.

 

Section 540[1306](1) The defendant who has not confessed to having committed a crime during the investigation may make a motion to the prosecutor in order to file a proposal for the adjudication of the case at public session after the termination of the investigation but not later than 15 days reckoned from serving the indictment.

(2) If the prosecutor agrees on the motion, he shall hear the defendant in detail about the act subjected to impeachment in the course of the hearing, and shall inform him about what kind, extent, duration of punishment, or measures he might approve of. The prosecutor shall advise the defendant about the provisions set forth in section 538 (7).

(3) If the agreement between the prosecutor and the defendant regulated by section 538 (8) has been reached, the prosecutor files a motion for the adjudication of the case at public session, as well as for the kind, extent and duration of penalty or measures fixed in the agreement to be taken. The prosecutor shall send the indictment completed with the motions and the agreement and the minute thereof.

(4) If an agreement between the defendant and the prosecutor has not been reached, the prosecutor may not inform the court about the motion of the defendant, and shall not file the documents thereof to the court.

 

The procedure of the court[1307]

 

Section 541[1308] (1) If the court agrees on the facts of the case, classification, and the kind, – in case of an indictment filed against a person determined by Section 537 – extent and duration of the punishment or measures indicated by the prosecutor in the indictment, the court shall schedule the day of the public session within 60 days reckoned from the arrival of the documents of the case to the court.

(2) In case of waiving the trial the court shall act in a form of a single judge. At the public session the prosecutor and the defence counsel shall be in present.

(3) For the arrangement of the public session the provisions of arrangement of trial shall be applicable.

Section 542[1309] (1) At the public session the prosecutor – in the absence of the prosecutor the court – shall introduce the charges, and his motion for the adjudication of the case at public session, furthermore the motion for the kind, – in case of an indictment filed against a person determined by Section 537  – extent and duration of punishment or measure.

(2) After the introduction of the indictment and motions the court shall inform the accused about the consequences of waiving the trial and his confession  in front of the court, especially about the provisions written in section 542/A (5) and 542/C (1) and (3).

(3) Thereafter the court shall request the accused to speak up whether he wants to waive the trial and plead guilty.

(4) Before making such statement the court shall give opportunity to the accused to consult with his defence counsel.

(5) If the accused plead guilty, waives the trial, and this fact, the documents of the case, and – if it is necessary – the answers given to the questions asked from the prosecutor, accused and defence counsel are not considered to be an obstacle for a public session by the court, the court shall hear the accused about the act subjected to the indictment. In any other case the court shall transfer the case to trial. The decree thereof shall not be appealed.

 

Section 542/A[1310] (1) If the accused refuses to give testimony, the court shall transfer the case to trial, the decree thereof shall not be appealed. The accused shall be advised thereof before the beginning of the interrogation.

(2) If the court finds that the mental state of the accused, the volunteership or the credibility of the confession provide reasonable doubt after the interrogation of the accused, furthermore if – except the case set forth in section 540 (1) – the confession of the accused made during the investigation departs essentially from the confession made in front of the prosecutor, the court shall transfer the case to trial. The decree thereof shall not be appealed.

(3) If the court does not find grounds for transferring the case to trial, the accused shall be heard about the circumstances of imposing a punishment.

(4) After the hearing of the accused the prosecutor– if he is present -, thereafter the defence counsel may speak.

(5) The court shall find the accused guilty on the basis of the confession and the documents of the case.

(6) If classification different from the indictment seems to be established, the court shall transfer the case to trial. The decree thereof shall not be appealed.

(7) The reasoning of the judgement finding the accused guilty shall contain the provisions of section 258 (3) a) to c), the indication of the circumstances of imposing a punishment and applied provisions of law and a reference to the fact of waiving the trial.

 

Section 542/B.[1311] If public session was initiated by the prosecutor on the ground of section 538 (10), and the court transferred the case to trial at the public session -presuming that there are no obstacles against holding a trial – the court shall hold the trial at once. The trial shall be governed by the provisions set forth in Chapter XIII.

 

The procedure of the second instance[1312]

 

Section 542/C[1313] (1) No appeal shall be granted against finding somebody guilty, or the facts of the case and classification identical with the indictment, furthermore against the kind, – in case of an indictment filed against a person determined by Section 537 – extent, and duration of punishment or measure imposed within a set scope of the indictment and established according to section 542/A (5).

  • In the appeal new facts and new evidence can be referred to only within the limits of section (1).
  • The court of second instance shall supervise the provisions of the judgement subjected to appeal regarding the establishment of the facts of the case, establishment of guilt and classification of the criminal offence, but regarding the establishment of guilt, the facts of the case identical with the indictment and established according to section 542/A (5) and the classification identical with the indictment the court may alter the judgement of first instance, if acquittal of the defendant or termination of the proceedings should take place.
  • To take evidence in the course of the procedure of second instance is allowed within the limits of section 542/A (5).
  • If the court of first instance held the public session without legal grounds, the court of second instance shall revoke the judgement of the court of first instance, and order the court of first instance to conduct a new procedure. In the course of the new procedure the provisions of this Chapter shall not be applicable.

 

 

Chapter XXVII[1314]

OMISSION OF THE TRIAL [1315]

 

Section 543 [1316]To the procedure for the omission of a trial, the provisions of this Act shall be applied with the derogations stipulated in this Chapter.

 

Section 544 (1)[1317] The court may adopt a ruling against the accused at large, with the omission of a trial, concerning the suspension of the execution of an imprisonment, penal labour of general interest, a fine, or suspension of the licence to practice, suspension of the driving licence, expulsion – against a soldier demotion and the termination of service as well –, and, as a measure apply probation, reprimand upon a criminal offence punishable by not more than a maximum of 5 years’ imprisonment by law, if

  1. a) the law permits the suspension of the execution of the imprisonment, imposition of penal labour of general interest ,a fine, suspension of the licence to practice, suspension of the driving licence, expulsion – against a soldier demotion and the termination of service, reduction of rank and extension of awaiting time also- or the application of probation, respectively,
  2. b) the facts of the case are simple,
  3. c) the accused has confessed the commission of the criminal offence,
  4. d) the objective of the punishment can be attained without a trial as well.

(2)[1318] A sentence for imprisonment exceeding 2 years may not be imposed without a trial.

(3)[1319] Unless regulated otherwise by this Act, the ruling delivered with the omission of a trial shall be governed by the provisions concerning judgments.

 

Section 545 (1) The ruling specified in Section 544 (1) may be delivered within 30 days following the arrival of the case at the court.

(2) In cases based on private prosecution the deadline stipulated in subsection (1) shall be reckoned from the day of the personal hearing.

 

Section 546[1320]

 

Section 547 (1) The court [1321]

a)[1322] may impose the suspension of the execution of an imprisonment, or penal labour of general interest, a fine, may order the suspension of the licence to practice, suspension of the driving licence, or expulsion – against a soldier demotion, the termination of service, reduction in rank or the extension of the waiting period as well – ,

  1. b) in the case of the suspension of the execution of an imprisonment, or probation, may impose supervision by a probation officer,

c)[1323] may also order in its ruling confiscation or forfeiture of property, or admit a civil claim, or refer the enforcement of the civil claim to other legal means,

d)[1324] may repeal the decision of ordering probation

e)[1325] may order the merger or separation of cases, suspension or termination of the proceedings.

(2) In respect of bearing the costs of criminal proceedings, the provisions set froth in Sections 338 to 340 shall be applied.

(3) The purview of the ruling delivered with the omission of a trial shall contain

  1. a) the designation of the criminal offence,

b)[1326] the imposed sentence, the ancillary penalty, probation or reprimand applied,

  1. c) other dispositions based on legal regulations,
  2. d) the warning of the conditions stipulated in Sections 548 and 550.

(4)[1327] To the justification of the ruling shall contain the facts of the case, a reference to existence of the legal conditions for passing a ruling, and the designation of the provisions of the law applied.

(5)[1328] The ruling may also delivered by the court secretary if the omission of the trial was motioned by the prosecutor.

 

Section 548 (1) The ruling delivered with the omission of a trial shall not be subject to an appeal; the prosecutor, the private accuser, the accused, the defence counsel, the private party and the other interested party – within 8 days of the service – may request that a trial be held.  Upon such a request, the court shall hold a trial.

(2)[1329] The prosecutor may not request that a trial be held on the grounds that the court had acted pursuant to Section 544 (1) if the omission of the trial was motioned by the prosecutor.

(3)[1330] Holding the trial may be requested by the private party only in connection with the disposition regarding civil claim, by the other interested only in connection with the disposition the confiscation and forfeiture of property, respectively.  If the trial was requested only by the private party, at the trial the court shall repeal the disposition regarding the civil claim and refers the enforcement of the claim to other legal means.

(4) The request for holding a trial – with the exception of the case stipulated in Section 549 (2) – shall have a delaying effect on the execution of the ruling.

(5)[1331] If the ruling delivered with the omission of a trial cannot be served on the accused, the court shall arrange for setting a date for the trial.

 

Section 549 (1)[1332] After the commencement of the trial, the court presents the ruling delivered with the omission of a trial and the request for holding a trial.

(2)[1333] If the request for holding a trial was filed under Section 548 (3), or, if the prosecutor, the accused or the defence counsel disapproved solely of the disposition concerning confiscation or forfeiture of property, the civil claim or the costs of criminal proceedings, the court shall only decide in this issue at the trial.

(3) The court – with the exception of the case stipulated in subsection (2) – shall repeal its ruling delivered with the omission of a trial and thereafter conducts the trial in compliance with the provisions of Chapter XIII.

(4) In the absence of a request to the detriment of the accused, the court may only impose a graver punishment, or apply a graver measure in lieu of a punishment, if new evidence arises at the trial and thereby the court establishes a new fact necessitating a graver classification or the imposition of a significantly graver punishment, or apply a graver measure in lieu of a punishment.

(5) The ruling delivered pursuant to subsection (3) shall not be subject to an appeal.

 

Section 550 (1) The petitioner may withdraw the request for holding a trial until the commencement thereof.

(2)[1334] The party having requested the trial shall be obliged to attend the trial.  If he fails to attend the trial and forthwith provide a substantial excuse in advance his request shall be regarded withdrawn.  This provision shall not apply to the prosecutor.

 

Chapter XXVIII[1335]

PROCEDURE AGAINST PERSONS ENJOYING IMMUNITY

Persons enjoying immunity due to holding a public office

Section 551[1336] (1) Against persons holding public office – until they hold such office – criminal proceedings may only be instituted after the suspension of their immunity.

(2) The persons enjoying immunity, as listed in subsections (1) may only be heard as suspects after the suspension of their immunity, and before that – with the exception of being caught in the act – no coercive measure may be applied against such persons.

 

Section 552 (1)[1337] If the criminal proceedings reveal any data suggesting that the defendant is a person enjoying immunity, in addition to the suspension of the proceedings, a motion shall be filed for the decision by the person authorised to suspend the immunity or grant the consent therefore.  Prior to the filing of the indictment, this motion shall be submitted by the Supreme Prosecutor, and thereafter, or in cases based on private prosecution, by the court.  In the event of catching the offender in the act, the motion shall be submitted immediately.

(2)[1338] If the person authorised to suspend the immunity or grant the consent therefore has rejected the motion, the proceedings shall be terminated.  Unless provided otherwise by law, the termination of the proceedings on such grounds shall not prevent the conducting of the criminal proceedings after the cessation of the personal immunity.

(3)[1339] After the suspension of the immunity, the proceedings shall be conducted out of turn in compliance with this Act.

Persons enjoying immunity under international law

Section 553 (1) In the cases of persons enjoying diplomatic immunity or other immunity under international law (hereinafter collectively: diplomatic immunity), the provisions stipulated in Sections 551 and 552 shall be applied with the derogations set forth in this Section.

(2) Against persons enjoying diplomatic immunity, no criminal procedural action may be taken before the suspension of their immunity.

(3)[1340] The motion for suspending diplomatic immunity shall be submitted by the court through the minister of justice, and by the Supreme Prosecutor directly to the minister of foreign affairs.

 

Section 554 (1)[1341] Until a decision made on the issue of diplomatic immunity, the court shall suspend the proceedings even if the person enjoying immunity acts as a private accuser.  If the court establishes the existence of immunity based on the position of the minister of foreign affairs, it shall terminate the proceedings.

(2)[1342] Should it become necessary in the course of the proceedings to hear a person enjoying diplomatic immunity as a witness, or should such a person act as a private party, prior to the filing of the indictment the Supreme Prosecutor, and thereafter, or in cases based on private prosecution the court, through the minister of justice submits the case – without suspending the proceedings – to the minister of foreign affairs requesting his opinion.

(3)[1343] If the immunity can be established based on the opinion of the minister of foreign affairs, the person enjoying immunity may not be heard and his civil claim may not be adjudicated.

(4) The persons enjoying immunity, as specified in Section 553 (1) may not act as a defence counsel or expert in criminal proceedings, and may not be employed as an official witness.

 

Chapter XXVIII/A[1344]

PROCEDURAL RULES CONCERNING PROMINENT CASES[1345]

 

Section 554/A[1346] To the procedure concerning prominent cases the provisions of this Act shall be applied with the derogations stipulated in this Chapter.

 

General rules[1347]

 

Section 554/B[1348] A prominent case includes

  1. the abuse of authority (Section 225 of the Criminal Code)
  2. crimes against the purity of public life (Sections 250 (2) a), (3), 225/B and 256 of the Criminal Code), if simultaneously with the perpetration of the crime
  3. ba) member of the body of representatives, mayor, deputy mayor, employee holding a high position at the office of the body of representatives of the of the local government, member of the Parliament, chief of a public office,
  4. bb) employee holding a high position at a publicly financed central institution, central administrative body or the regional bodies thereof (hereinafter, by the enforcement of this Act: administrative authority) can be reasonably suspected, or as a perpetrator only one of the above enumerated persons can come into question, or the crime was committed in relation to these persons, furthermore crimes against the purity of international public life (Title VIII, Chapter XV of the Criminal Code),
  5. participation in a criminal organization [Title VIII, Chapter XV of the Criminal Code],
  6. any crime committed within a criminal organization [Section 137 8. of the Criminal Code],
  7. [1349] bankruptcy fraud having serious consequences in financial life [Section 290 (4) of the Criminal Code], agreement restraining competition in public procurement and concession [Section 296/B of the Criminal Code], money laundering [Section 303 and 303/A of the Criminal Code], heavier classified cases of budget fraud [Section 310 (4) to (5) of the Criminal Code],
  8. crimes against property of a particularly high value, damage, loss or particularly significant value, damage, loss [Chapter XVIII of the Criminal Code], and
  9. [1350]crimes which does not have a statute of limitation:
  10. ga) crimes of war determined by Sections 11 and 13 of the decree No. 81 of 1945 of the Prime Minister, put into force by Act VII of 1945 and modified and amended by decree No. 1440 of 1995 of the Prime Minister;
  11. gb) other crimes against humanity (Chapter XI of the Criminal Code);
  12. gc) [1351]cases of homicide classified as being more serious [Section 166 (2) a) to j)];
  13. gd) cases of kidnapping and violence against a superior or person of authority classified as being more serious [Section 175/A (4), and 355 (5) a)];
  14. ge) terrorism, taking possession of aircraft, vehicle of railway, of the water, of public transport or capable of carrying great quantity of goods and cases of mutiny classified as being more serious, if death was caused on purpose [Sections 261 (1), 262 (2) and 352 (3) b)];

gf)[1352] criminal offences which do not have a statute of limitations according to international law as determined by the Act on the punishability and exclusion of prevalence of statue of limitatiosn concerning crimes against mankind, as well as the prosecution of certain crimes committed during communist dictatorship;

h)[1353] with the exception of cases falling under subsection g) gf), communist crimes determined by the Act on the punishability and exclusion of prevalence of statue of limitatiosn concerning crimes against mankind, as well as the prosecution of certain crimes committed during communist dictatorship.

 

Section 554/C[1354] The procedure shall be conducted out of turn concerning prominent cases. The fact that the procedure is conducted out of turn shall be ensured by every participant of the procedure by their own means.

 

The defence counsel[1355]

 

Section 554/D[1356] The defence counsel must be present during the procedure concerning prominent cases.

 

Means of evidence[1357]

 

Section 554/E[1358] In prominent cases the testimony of the witness can be examined by polygraph if the witness gives his consent thereto.

 

 

Consequences of failing to meet the obligation of the expert[1359]

 

Section 554/F[1360] If the expert fails to present his opinion within the given deadline through the fault of his own disciplinary penalty shall be imposed on him.

 

Custody[1361]

 

Section 554/G[1362] The custody ordered concerning prominent cases may last up to 120 hours at most. Upon the order of the prosecutor the defendant may not be allowed to get into touch with his defence counsel during the first 48 hours of the custody, if the individual circumstances of a certain case require so. This action shall not be subjected to any legal remedy.

 

Bail[1363]

 

Section 554/H[1364] In prominent cases the court may determine the amount of bail with regard to the personal conditions and the financial situation of the defendant but it cannot be less than 3.000.000 (three million) Hungarian HUF.

 

Completion of the denunciation[1365]

 

Section 554/I[1366] In case of a denunciation regarding a prominent case the authority performing the completion of the denunciation may hear the denouncer, representative of the local government, public body, financial institution concerned by the denunciation, as well as it may employ an advisor.

 

Section 554/J[1367]

 

Setting the date for trial[1368]

 

Section 554/K[1369] (1) The date of the trial shall be set – taking into consideration the order of arrival of the cases and the order concerning the priority handling of the cases – within 3 months allowing the court to conclude the case in a reasonable time without adjournment.

(2) The prosecutor and the defence councel shall be notified about whom are summoned to the date of the trial as witnesses by the court, simultaneously with serving notifications and summons.

 

 

The continuity of the trial[1370]

 

Section 554/L[1371] (1) In the case of adjournment, the date of resuming the trial shall be set, unless – considering the reason for the adjournment – the possibility of the resumption of the trial within 2 months seems to be questionable.

(2) Within 2 months, the trial may be resumed without repetition, unless the composition of the panel has changed; otherwise the trial shall be recommenced anew.

(4) The trial may be repeated by presenting the documents of the case within 2 months, if the person of the professional judge or the associate judge changed.  After the presentation of the documents of the case, the prosecutor, the accused and the defence counsel shall be advised that they may make observations thereon, and request the supplementation of the presentation.  The advice and the observations shall be entered in the minutes.

 

Hearing of the accused[1372]

 

Section 554/M[1373] Following the advice prescribed by Section 289 (2), if the accused decides to give a testimony he may present his testimony concerning the charges as a comprehensive whole, including his defence. Thereafter, the prosecutor, the defence counsel, then the presiding judge, members of the court, and at last the victim, the private party, other interested parties within the circle of their interest and the expert may ask questions from the accused.

 

Hearing of the witness[1374]

 

Section 554/N[1375] At the beginning of the hearing of the witness the presiding judge shall act according to Section 85 (2) and (3), afterwards, if there is no impediment to the witness’ testimony, the witness shall be heard by the person who initiated his hearing. Thereafter, the other party and the accused, then the presiding judge, the members of the court, the victim and the private party may ask questions from the witness.

 

Speech of the victim[1376]

Section 554/O[1377] In prominent cases it is forbidden to cut off the speech, determined by Section 314 (1), of the victim and the private party, furthermore, the speech may be interrupted only according to the rules of Section 314 (4). The victim is entitled to explicate his point of view regarding the facts of the case in a statement determined by Section 316.

 

 

 

PART SIX

Chapter XXIX[1378]

SPECIAL PROCEDURES

Title I

GENERAL RULES

 

Section 555 (1) In special procedures, the provisions of this Act shall be applied with the derogations stipulated in this Chapter.

(2) Unless provided otherwise, in the course of special procedures

  1. a) the procedure shall be instituted ex officio or upon the motion of the prosecutor, the defendant or the defence counsel,
  2. b) the court that delivered a conclusive decision in the first instance (in the basic case) prior to the special procedure shall be the acting court,
  3. c) the court shall act without the participation of associate judges, as a single judge,
  4. d) the court shall terminate the procedure, if the prosecutor withdraws his motion,
  5. e) the court shall adopt its decision based on the documents, and, if necessary, if shall hear the prosecutor, the defendant and the defence counsel at a session; and shall hold a trial if evidence is taken,
  6. f) minutes shall be drawn up when the prosecutor, the defendant and the defence counsel are heard,
  7. g) the court decision may be appealed by the prosecutor, the defendant and the defence counsel,
  8. h) the court of appeal shall consider the appeal against the judgement of the court of first instance at a panel session as well,

i)[1379] no procedure of third instance shall be conducted,

j)[1380] the costs of criminal proceedings shall be borne by the defendant, if the defendant was obliged to pay the costs of criminal proceedings in the basic case.

(3) For the purposes of this Chapter, the costs of criminal proceedings shall mean the costs and out-of-pocket expenses incurred in the course of the special procedure and advanced by the state [Section 74 (1)].

(4) In the course of the special procedure, the measures regulated in Section 73 may be implemented against an absconding defendant in order to hold a trial or session; a warrant of arrest may be issued if deprival of freedom may apply as a result of the special procedure.  When a warrant of arrest is issued, upon location, the defendant may be taken into custody.  The custody may last until the conclusion of the trial or session but not longer than 6 days.

 

Title II

THE SPECIFIC SPECIAL PROCEDURES

Subsequent establishment of the decree of security of imprisonment

 

Section 556 The court shall subsequently decide on the decree of security of imprisonment [Sections 41 (1) and 111 (2) of the Criminal Code], if the final judgement did not make a disposition thereon or the disposition was contrary to the law.  The disposition based on Section 45 (2) of the Criminal Code may not be substituted or reviewed.

Subsequent modification of the disposition concerning release on parole

Section 557 (1) The court adopts a decision subsequently, if the final judgement contained a disposition in respect of release on parole contrary to the law.

(2) If the court decides subsequently on the earliest date of release on parole from a life imprisonment, it shall hold a trial.

Postponement of the earliest day of release on parole in the case of life imprisonment

Section 558[1381] The court shall decide ex officio or upon the motion of the prosecutor on the postponement of the earliest day of release on parole in the case of life imprisonment (Section 47/B of the Criminal Code) at a trial.

Termination of parole

Section 559 The court shall adopt a decision concerning the termination of parole subsequently, if the court adjudicating the criminal offence committed during the parole has made no disposition to this effect.

Subsequent modification of the disposition concerning termination of release on parole.

Section 560 The court adopts a decision subsequently, if the final judgement contained a disposition on the termination of parole contrary to the law.

Subsequent establishment of penal labour of general interest

Section 561 The court adopts a decision subsequently, if its final judgement imposing penal labour of general interest failed to specify the work to be done as penal labour of general interest.

Subsequent decision on imprisonment to replace fine as ancillary penalty

Section 562 [1382]

Replacement of a fine with imprisonment[1383]

Section 563 (1)[1384] The court shall adopt a decision ex officio or upon the motion of the prosecutor on the replacement of the fine with imprisonment, if the convict has failed his obligation to pay the fine.

(2) The ruling announcing the replacement shall not be subject to an appeal.

Subsequent inclusion of the suspension of driver’s licence

Section 564 The court adopts a decision subsequently, if the final judgement did not contain a disposition on the inclusion of the withdrawal of the driver’s licence of the convict from the period of the suspension of the same, or the disposition was contrary to the law.

Exemption from the permanent withdrawal of a licence to practice or a driver’s licence, and from permanent expulsion [1385]

Section 565 (1) The convict may request exemption from the permanent withdrawal of a licence to practice or a driver’s licence from the court of first instance having proceeded in the basic case.

(2) Prior to the consideration of the request, the court shall obtain the statement of the prosecutor.  If the statutory conditions for the exemption are not met, the court shall reject the request; in other cases it shall adjudicate it on its merit.

(3)[1386] The convict may request exemption from permanent expulsion from the court of first instance having proceeded in the basic case.  The request may also be submitted to the foreign representation offices of Hungary.

(4)[1387] Prior to the consideration of the request, the court shall obtain the statements of the prosecutor, the responsible immigration authority and – if possible – the authority entitled to provide legal assistance in criminal matters at the place of residence of the convict.  If the statutory conditions for the exemption are not met, the court shall reject the request; in other cases it shall adjudicate it on its merit.

Review of the involuntary treatment in a mental institution

Section 566 (1)[1388] The court shall decide on the review of the involuntary treatment in a mental institution – i.e. on the necessity of the maintenance or termination thereof – in a panel, at a trial, by way of a ruling.  At the trial the prosecutor, the defence counsel and – provided that his health condition allows his attendance conditions and he is capable of exercising his rights – the person undergoing involuntary treatment in a mental institution shall be heard.  The review shall fall in the competence of the Pest Central District Court if the case in the first instance was not conducted by a Budapest-seated Local Court; and the Budapest Metropolitan Court of Justice, if the case in the first instance was not conducted by a Budapest-seated Court of Justice, respectively.

(2)[1389] The court shall review ex officio the necessity of an involuntary treatment in a mental institution prior to the lapse of 6 months calculated from the commencement thereof.  If the court does not terminate the involuntary treatment in a mental institution, the review shall be performed in every 6 months.  If the person obliged to undergo involuntary treatment in a mental institution had already been under the effect of the temporary involuntary treatment in a mental institution before the judgement has become final, the deadline shall be calculated from the commencement of the coercive measure.

(3)[1390] The involuntary treatment in a mental institution may be reviewed upon the motion of the prosecutor, the person undergoing the involuntary treatment in a mental institution, as well as the spouse, common-law partner, legal representative or defence counsel thereof, and the request of the head of the mental institution performing the involuntary treatment.  The court may omit the review of the involuntary treatment in a mental institution upon a motion, if a review has taken place within 3 months therefrom.

(4)[1391] Prior to the review, the expert opinion of a psychiatrist shall be obtained.  During the procedure, the medical doctor of the mental institution performing the involuntary treatment may participate in formulating the psychiatrist’s opinion as one of the experts.

(5) The ruling concerning the review of the involuntary treatment in a mental institution may be appealed both by the spouse and the legal representative of the person undergoing the involuntary treatment.

Subsequent order of probation

Section 567 (1)[1392] The court shall adopt a decision on ordering probation subsequently, if the final judgement contained no disposition thereon; or the sentence for imprisonment was suspended indefinitely due to a pardon and the convict is a notorious criminal [Section 82 (2) of the Criminal Code].

(2) Prior to ordering the probation, the court shall obtain the motion of the prosecutor.  The court shall hold a trial, if it deems that special rules of conduct should be prescribed [Section 82 (6) of the Criminal Code], or the prosecutor makes a motion for the imposition of special rules of conduct.

Procedure in the case of probation

Section 568 (1)[1393] The court having proceeded in the basic case shall ex officio or upon the motion of the prosecutor make a judgement at a trial on the extension of the probation period or the termination of the probation [Section 73 (1) and (2) of the Criminal Code], if the convict on probation has gravely violated the rules of conduct related to probation.  The court shall impose a punishment or in the event of a juvenile offender, order his placement in a detention home in case the rules of conduct related to probation have been gravely violated.

(2) In respect of the appeal against the court decision the provisions pertaining to the legal remedy against conclusive decisions shall be applied.

(3)[1394] If a new procedure is instituted against the convict on probation due to a criminal offence committed before or during the probation period, and the court having competence and jurisdiction to adjudicate this latter case have not consolidated the cases [Section 265 (2) and (3)], the court shall make a decision thereon upon the motion of the prosecutor or ex officio and set a date for the trial.  The trial shall be conducted in compliance with the provisions stipulated in Title III [1395] of Chapter XVI.  The decision ordering consolidation shall not be subject to an appeal.

Procedure for confiscation and forfeiture of property, as well as for the disposition of the seized object [1396]

Section 569 (1)[1397] Upon the motion of the prosecutor the court shall decide upon the confiscation or forfeiture of property as well as upon transferring the sized object into the property of the state, if no criminal proceedings have been instituted against anyone, or the criminal proceedings have been terminated, or suspended due to the unknown location or mental disease of the defendant.

(2) The procedure shall be conducted by the court having competence and jurisdiction to adjudicate the criminal offence; or, if such court cannot be designated, the court at which prosecutor has filed the motion to this effect.

(3) The court decision shall not be subject to an appeal, however, within 8 days of the service of the ruling, the prosecutor and those affected by the dispositions in the decision may request that a trial be held.

(4) The prosecutor and those interested owing to the motion shall be notified of the trial.  Should the person interested be unknown or absconding, or fail to command the Hungarian language, the court shall appoint a representative to act on his behalf.

(5)[1398] In respect of the trial, the provisions set forth in Chapter XXVII shall be applied as appropriate.  As regards bearing the costs of criminal proceedings, the relevant general provisions (Sections 338 to 340) shall be applied as appropriate. The interested person may also appeal the ruling delivered at the trial; such appeal shall have a delaying effect.

(6) The tasks of the court specified in subsections (1) and (2) may also be performed by the court secretary, without, however, being entitled to hold a trial.

Subsequent confiscation

Section 570 (1)[1399] If the court made no disposition on confiscation or forfeiture of property in its conclusive decision delivered based on the trial, it shall made the relevant decision subsequently, upon the motion of the prosecutor or ex officio.  The court procedure shall be governed by the provisions set forth in Section 569 (3).

(2)[1400] If the court holds a trial, it shall notify thereof the prosecutor, the defendant, the defence counsel and the person interested due to the motion.  In respect of the trial, the provisions set forth in Chapter XXVII shall be applied as appropriate.

(3) The interested person may also appeal the ruling delivered at the trial; such appeal shall have a delaying effect.

Subsequent order on items seized

Section 571 If the court made no disposition in its conclusive decision on the issue or destruction of an item seized, or the transfer of such item into the ownership of the state, or its disposition was contrary to the law, it shall made the relevant decision subsequently, upon the motion of the prosecutor or ex officio, applying the provisions of Section 570 as appropriate.

Subsequent order to execute an indefinitely suspended sentence and subsequent order of imprisonment suspended for probation [1401]

Section 572 (1)[1402] The court shall order the execution of an indefinitely suspended sentence upon the motion of the prosecutor or ex officio, if

  1. a) owing to a criminal offence committed during the part to be executed of the imprisonment, the perpetrator was sentenced to imprisonment to be executed as specified in Section 91/A b) of the Criminal Code, and the court proceeding in the latter criminal offence made no disposition on the execution thereof,
  2. b) owing to a criminal offence committed during the probation period, the convict was sentenced to imprisonment to be executed as specified in Section 91/A c) of the Criminal Code, and the court proceeding in the latter criminal offence made no disposition on the execution thereof,
  3. c) if the perpetrator on probation has gravely violated the rules of conduct related to probation.

(2)[1403] In the case specified in subsection (1) c), the court shall adopt a decision at a trial.

(3) In the absence of an order to execute the indefinitely suspended sentence, the costs of criminal proceedings shall be borne by the state.

(4)[1404]

(5) The appeal against the ruling ordering the execution of an indefinitely suspended sentence shall have a delaying effect.

(6)[1405] The court shall subsequently repeal the order to execute sentence suspended for a period of probation, if it ordered the execution of the imprisonment in violation of the law.

Subsequent disposition on general amnesty

Section 573 The court shall make a decision on the effect and the related legal consequences of the general amnesty subsequently, if in the final decision no disposition was made, or the disposition was contrary to the law.

Concurrent sentencing

Section 574 (1) Concurrent sentencing shall fall in the competence of the court of first instance having proceeded in the latest case concluded, provided that the procedures were conducted by courts having identical competence; in other cases the court of first instance having the greater competence shall proceed.

(2)[1406] If military criminal proceedings were instituted in any of the cases, the decision concerning concurrent sentencing shall be adopted by the court having conducted the military criminal proceedings, unless the effect of the military criminal proceedings in the latest case concluded was based on the provision of Section 470 (3).

(3)[1407] The court shall request the institution responsible for the execution of penalty to information about how much time the convicted has already spent from the imprisonment underlying the concurrent sentencing and if it is reasonable on the basis of the information received the court may suspend the execution of imprisonment imposed in the basic judgements. The part of the judgement of concurrent sentencing which discussed the suspension of execution of imprisonments concluded in the concurrent sentencing may be enforceable regardless of an appeal thereof.

(4)[1408] The court shall decide on concurrent sentencing in a judgement and reject the related motion in a ruling.  In the judgement the court may make dispositions of the conditions specified in Sections 556 and 557.

(4a)[1409] The court may omit to pass a decision on rejecting a motion which was filed again by the same person entitled with the same content as the former one or otherwise filed again with same content as the former one.

(5)[1410] The power of attorney or appointment of the defence counsel in the case having been processed by the court with competence for concurrent sentencing shall extend to the concurrent sentencing procedure as well.

(6)[1411] Upon the absence of an order on concurrent sentencing, the costs of criminal proceedings shall be borne by the state.

Subsequent concurrent sentencing

Section 575 The court shall adopt a decision concerning concurrent sentencing, and the term of the concurrent sentence subsequently, if the final judgement announcing the concurrent sentence made a disposition thereon contrary to the law.

Subsequent inclusion of preliminary arrest and house arrest [1412]

Section 576[1413] (1) The court shall adopt a decision on the inclusion of preliminary arrest or house arrest subsequently, if it made no disposition thereon in its final judgement, or the disposition was contrary to the law.

(2) In the procedure conducted pursuant to subsection (1) the disposition based on Section 99 (3) of the Criminal Code may only be reviewed if the related disposition in the final judgement violates the law.

Dispensation by court decision

Section 577 (1) The convict or the legal representative thereof may request subsequent dispensation from aggravating circumstances upon prior conviction from the court of first instance having proceeded in the basic case.  In the case of several convictions, the court having the greater competence shall act, or, in the absence of such a court, the court having imposed the gravest punishment.  If the sentences are of identical gravity, any of the courts may proceed in the case.

(2)[1414] If military criminal proceedings were instituted in any of the cases, the court having conducted the military criminal proceedings shall act in the case, unless the effect of the military criminal proceedings in the latest case concluded was substantiated by the provisions of Section 470 (3).

(3) Prior to considering the request, the court shall obtain the statement of the prosecutor.  If the statutory conditions for the dispensation are not met, the court shall reject the request; in other cases it shall adjudicate it on its merit.

(4) The court shall repeal the decision announcing the dispensation subsequently, upon the motion of the prosecutor or ex officio, if the dispensation has lost its effect [Sections 102 (2) and 104 (2) of the Criminal Code], or it is subsequently established that the dispensation was prohibited by law.

Subsequent decision concerning the costs of criminal proceedings

Section 578 (1)[1415] The court shall make a decision on bearing the costs of criminal proceedings subsequently, if the final decision did not contain a disposition thereon, or the disposition was contrary to the law.  The appeal against this ruling has a delaying effect.

(2)[1416]  The court shall make a decision on the expenses of the accused and charges and expenses not given in advance to the defence counsel thereof [Section 339 (2)] subsequently, if it was not possible to order when the final judgement was passed.

Recognition of a foreign judgement

Section 579[1417]

Title III

COMPENSATION AND REIMBURSEMENT

Compensation

Section 580 (1) preliminary arrest and temporary involuntary treatment in a mental institution shall be subject to compensation, if [1418]

  1. the investigation was terminated because
  2. a) the action does not constitute a criminal offence,
  3. b) it cannot be ascertained from the data of the investigation that the criminal offence has been committed,
  4. c) it was not the suspect who committed the criminal offence, or it cannot be ascertained from the data of the investigation that the criminal offence has been committed by the suspect,
  5. d) a ground for the preclusion of punishability exists,
  6. e) the procedure cannot continue due to statutory limitation,
  7. f) a final court verdict has already been delivered on the action;
  8. the court
  9. a) has acquitted the defendant,

b)[1419] has terminated the procedure due to statutory limitation of punishability, the lack of a private prosecution, denunciation a wish to punish, or lawful indictment necessary to initiate the proceedings, or dropping the charges or because a final ruling has been delivered in the case.

III.[1420] The court found guilty the defendant in final judgement, but did not impose imprisonment, penal labour of general interest, fine or expulsion.

(2)[1421] If the court found guilty the defendant in final judgement, compensation shall be paid for preliminary arrest and house arrest, if its duration exceeds

  1. a) the duration of imprisonment,
  2. b) duration of penal labour of general interest,
  3. c) number of daily rate of fine,
  4. d) duration of corrective education in youth custody centre

which was imposed in a final decision.

(3)[1422] Notwithstanding subsection (1)-(2), no compensation shall be paid if the defendant[1423]

  1. a) has escaped, or has attempted to escape, or absconded from the court, the prosecutor or the investigating authority,
  2. b) committed a crime in order to prevent the establishment of the facts of the case, and this was established in a final judgement,

c)[1424] was attempting to mislead the court, the prosecutor and the investigation authority, and with this he produced a reason due to his actions for turning the reasonable doubt of a committed crime on himself and for imposing, lengthen or uphold his preliminary arrest, house arrest or temporary involuntary medical treatment,

d)[1425] violated the rules of the prohibition of leaving residence, house arrest, restraining order or bail and for this reason his preliminary arrest was ordered,

  1. e) was acquitted with an order to an involuntary treatment in a mental institution.

 

Section 581 (1)[1426] The defendant shall be entitled to compensation for imprisonment, placement in a detention home or an involuntary treatment in a mental institution served under a final judgement, if the defendant was acquitted due to extraordinary legal remedy, received a less severe sentence, was placed on probation or was reprimanded, or the procedure against him was terminated, or it was established that the involuntary treatment in a mental institution was ordered without legal justification.

(2) No compensation may be paid, if the defendant

  1. a) failed to disclose in the basic case the facts and evidence underlying the judgement delivered after the re-trial,

b)[1427]

  1. c) was acquitted with an order to an involuntary treatment in a mental institution.

(3)[1428]

 

Section 582[1429] (1) In respect of the method and extent of the compensation the provisions of the Civil Code pertaining to liability for torts applicable with the differences set forth by this Act. .

(2) The compensation shall become due by the time of the delivery of the decision terminating the investigation underlying the compensation furthermore by the time of the decision taken as a result of acquittal, ruling of terminating the procedure and extraordinary remedy become final.

 

Section 583 (1)[1430] The defendant may submit a claim for compensation within 6 months of being notified of the decision terminating the investigation, the final judgement of acquittal, the final ruling on termination, judgment establishing guilt according to Section 580 (1) III. and (2), or the final decision delivered as a result of extraordinary legal remedy procedure. This time limit is a term of preclusion.

(2) The claim shall specify the amount of compensation requested, the evidence underlying the claim and have the supporting documents attached.

(3)[1431] If the investigation was terminated, the compensation claim shall be submitted to the court which had ordered the preliminary arrest, house arrest, or the temporary involuntary treatment in a mental institution. The compensation claim shall be submitted to the court that proceeded in the case at first instance concerninc cases determined by Section 580 (1) II and III, Section 580 (2), and Section 581 (1).

(4) If the defendant dies prior to the conclusion of the compensation procedure, or dies prior to the lapse of the deadline without having submitted a claim, his heir may request that the procedure be conducted or submit a claim for compensation within the deadline, respectively.

(5)[1432] The defendant shall be notified about the legal ground for his compensation, the deadline to submit a motion therefore, the starting date of the deadline, and that failing to submit a claim means that in cannot be enforced any more, simultaneously with serving the decision determined by subsection (1).

 

Section 584[1433] (1) The court shall send the claim, together with the documents of the criminal case for consideration to the court having competence and jurisdiction under the Code of Civil Procedures to conduct the procedure.  The ruling ordering that the documents be forwarded shall not be subject to an appeal.

(2)[1434] In the course of considering the claim for compensation, the court specified in subsection (1) shall act in compliance with the rules set forth in the Code of Civil Procedures, while taking into account the derogations set forth in this Act.  The litigating parties shall be the defendant (heir) as a plaintiff and the minister of justice representing the Hungarian State as the respondent.

(3) Prior to the consideration of a compensation claim substantiated by any of the provisions set forth in Section 580 (1) I. – if required – the court shall obtain the statement of the prosecutor having proceeded in the basic case.  Upon the motion of the respondent, the statement of the prosecutor’s office shall be obtained.

(4) The compensation shall be paid by the state.

Reimbursement

Section 585 (1)[1435] The amount paid as a fine and the costs of criminal proceedings with the lawful interest calculated from the time of payment until the time of reimbursement shall be reimbursed to the defendant, if the defendant was acquitted, or the procedure against him was terminated due to an extraordinary legal remedy procedure, or the decision delivered thereby contains no such payment obligation, or contains a payment obligation for a lower amount.

(2) In the case of forfeiture of property and confiscation the provisions stipulated in subsection (1) shall be applied, provided that the confiscated item shall be returned in kind, or, if this is not practicable, the amount reimbursed shall be the market value established at the time of the forfeiture of property or confiscation, increased by the prevailing legal interest rate for the period lapsed up to the date of the reimbursement.

(3)[1436] Reimbursement shall be ordered by the court having adopted the decision on the acquittal or the termination of the procedure, or the court which have omitted the obligation or ordered the payment of a lower amount.  The reimbursement shall be settled according to provisions of separate laws.

Title IV

SECURITY

 

Section 586 (1)[1437] In case of a crime punishable by not more than 8 years of imprisonment upon the request of a defendant living abroad, up to the filing of the indictment the prosecutor, thereafter the court may permit the deposit of a security. In such a case the procedure may be conducted in the absence of the defendant. The deposit of a security shall not be permitted if the criminal offence caused death.

(2)[1438] The amount of the security shall be determined by the prosecutor, or the court, in an extent required for the enforcement of the fine, forfeiture of property to be imposed on the defendant as well as the costs of criminal proceedings to be incurred.

(3)[1439] In the request for permission of depositing a security, the defendant shall authorise the defence counsel to receive the official documents addressed to the defendant (mailing agent), furthermore he shall make a statement in the request that he – if it is necessary in order to execute the penalty – is going to return to Hungary.

(4)[1440] After depositing the security, the documents addressed to the defendant shall be served on the mailing agent.  The mailing agent shall immediately advise the defendant of the summons addressed to the defendant.  If the defendant leaves the territory of Hungary and fails to be present despite the summons served on the mailing agent,

  1. a) no arrest on a bench warrant is issued,
  2. b) the procedure shall not be terminated,
  3. c) the summons shall not be announced by way of a publication,

and the trial shall be held regardless of the absence of the defendant.

(5)[1441] If the prosecutor or the court permitted the deposit of a security, and the defendant left the territory of Hungary, the provisions stipulated in Chapter XXV may not be applied in the procedure.

(6) The participation of a defence counsel is statutory in the procedure.

 

Section 587 (1)[1442] If the court pronounces the defendant guilty or impose a sentence with the omission of a trial, the security shall be transferred to the state when the decision becomes final.

(2)[1443] If the court imposes a fine, applies forfeiture of property, or obliges the defendant to pay the costs of criminal proceedings, the security transferred to the state shall be expended to execute such dispositions.

(3)[1444] Upon the imposition of a sentence of imprisonment to be executed or partially suspended, the security shall be repaid to the convict after the sentence has been served.  No measures may be taken to execute other punishment.

(4)[1445] The security shall be refunded to the defendant in full, or, in the case of several criminal offences in proportionate parts,

  1. a) upon the partial termination of the investigation, and
  2. b) if the court has partially acquitted the defendant or partially terminated the procedure against the defendant.

(5)[1446] The security shall be returned to the defendant proportionally, if the imposed fine, the applied of confiscation of property or the imposed cost for the criminal procedure exceeds the amount of security.

 

Chapter XXX[1447]

EXECUTION OF THE DECISIONS

Title I

ENFORCEABILITY

Enforceability of the judgement

Section 588 (1) The judgement may be enforced after it has become final.

(2) The judgement of the court of first instance shall become final on the day when

  1. a) it is announced, provided that this Act excludes the possibility of an appeal,
  2. b) those entitled to lodge an appeal declare that they do not wish to lodge an appeal or when they withdraw the appeal,
  3. c) the deadline for an appeal has lapsed without the announcement of an appeal,

d)[1448] the court of second instance rejected the appeal, or upheld the judgement of the court of first instance only if a procedure of third instance shall not take place.

(3)[1449] The judgement of the court of second instance becomes final when

  1. a) it was passed, presuming that the to file an appeal is excluded by law,
  2. b) the persons entitled to file an appeal have made a statement of not wanting to file an appeal or they have withdrawn the appeal,
  3. c) the deadline for filing an appeal has passed without a submission of an appeal,
  4. d) the court of third instance has rejected the appeal, or sustained the decision of the court of second instance.

(4)[1450] The decision of the court of third instance shall become final on the day it was passed.

(5)[1451] After the conclusive decision has become final, the presiding judge shall certify the finality and the enforceability thereof by a clause on the original copy of the decision, indicating the date when the decision has become final as well as the date of enforceability.

(6)[1452] If the decision becomes partially final, the clause shall indicate the date of partial finality as well as the part which has become final and the disposition that may be enforced.

(7)[1453] If necessary, both the accused and the defence counsel shall be notified of the establishment of the finality and enforceability.

Enforceability of a ruling

Section 589 (1)[1454] The enforceability of a ruling shall be governed by the provisions of Section 347 (2).

(2) In the event that a ruling delivered with the omission of a trial may be subject to a request for holding a trial, the ruling shall become enforceable on the day when the deadline for submitting the request has lapsed and none of those entitled have requested that a trial be held, or the request for holding a trial was withdrawn by the petitioner, or the petitioner failed to attend the trial.  This provision shall also apply to the dispositions of the ruling delivered with the omission of a trial pursuant to Section 549 (2), in respect of which no request was submitted for holding a trial.

 

Title II

THE TASKS OF THE COURT AND THE PROSECUTOR IN THE COURSE OF EXECUTING THE PUNISHMENT [1455]

General provisions

Section 590 (1)[1456] The execution of punishments and measures, as well as the collection of the disciplinary penalty, the execution of the detention replacing the disciplinary penalty and the collection of the costs of criminal proceedings due to the state shall be the responsibility of the court having proceeded when the above become enforceable.  The prosecutor shall be responsible for making arrangements for the collection of the disciplinary penalty imposed by the prosecutor, as well as the execution of probation ordered during the postponement of filing the indictment and the reprimand applied by the prosecutor.

(2) The measures set forth in subsection (1) shall be implemented by the presiding judge.

(3) If the punishment or the remaining period of punishment should be enforced in respect of an absconding convict, the judge to enforce the punishment shall take measures for locating the convict and issues warrant of arrest in the case of a sentence for imprisonment.

Postponement of the execution of imprisonment

Section 591[1457] (1)[1458] Upon the request of the convict, the presiding judge may permit the postponement of the commencement of a sentence for imprisonment not exceeding 2 years, for a maximum of 3 months, for substantial reasons, thus, in particular with consideration to the personal or family conditions of the convict.

(2) If the disease of the convict directly jeopardises the life thereof, the presiding judge

  1. a) may permit a postponement of a definite term in excess of that specified in subsection (1),
  2. b) may extend the postponement permitted under subsection (1), or
  3. c) may permit the postponement of a sentence for imprisonment even if it exceeding 2 years.

(3) Regardless of a petition, the execution of the sentence for imprisonment shall be postponed ex officio in the case of a woman, who

  1. a) surpassed the fourth month of her pregnancy – maximum up to the end of the sixth month following the expected date of giving birth,
  2. b) takes care of her less than six-month old baby.

(4) In the cases specified in subsections (2) and (3) a) the presiding judge shall establish the existence of the health conditions for postponement based on the opinion of a forensic medical expert, and shall make a decision on the petition considering the statement of the head of the Health Service of the National Headquarters of Law Enforcement regarding the feasibility of the medical treatment of the convict in the penal institution as required by the convict’s state of health.

(5) [1459]

(6)[1460] If the conditions set forth in subsections (1) to (5) are met no postponement is allowed, if it gravely threatened the public safety or public order, or if there is a risk that the convict may escape or hide.

(7) If the petition for the postponement of the imprisonment is submitted at a time that does not allow for arrangements prior to the commencement of the sentence before the date set therefore, the presiding judge shall not consider the petition and notify the petitioner thereof.  If the imprisonment has commenced, the petition shall be sent to the penal institution for a measure for the interruption of the execution of the imprisonment, if appropriate.

Postponement and permission of instalment payments in the case of fines and fines as ancillary penalty [1461]

Section 592[1462] (1) [1463]If the convict provides probable proof that the prompt and lump-sum payment of the fine caused significant financial difficulties to himself and his dependant relatives which surpasses the objective of the punishment, and there is reasonable cause to believe that the convict will duly meet his payment obligation by the extended deadline, the court may permit a maximum of 3 months’ postponement, or may permit the payment of the fine or the fine as ancillary penalty over 2 years, in instalments.

(2)[1464] For significant reasons, the postponement for the payment of the fine may be extended on one occasion, for a maximum of 3 further months.

(3)[1465] The instalment shall be a monthly amount, which can be divided by the daily sum payable according to the judgement concerning the fine

(4)[1466] After the replacement with imprisonment, no postponement or instalment payment may be permitted for the settlement of the fine.

Postponement and permission of instalment payments in the case of a disciplinary penalty and costs of criminal proceedings due to the state [1467]

Section 593[1468] (1) The postponement of the payment of the disciplinary penalty exceeding the amount of 10.000 HUF and cost of the criminal proceedings payable to the state, as well as the instalment payments may be permitted in compliance with the conditions and within the limits stipulated in Section 592, after seizure has been implemented by the court bailiff, if the bailiff has submitted the report on seizure to the court.

(2) In the event of an obligation to pay disciplinary penalty and costs of criminal proceedings in an amount smaller than that stipulated in subsection (1) the presiding judge may grant a permission for a maximum of 2 months’ postponement or instalment payment over 3 months without waiting for the seizure, based on the available data.

Postponement of corrective education

Section 594 The execution of a final judgement ordering the corrective education of a juvenile offender may be postponed by the presiding judge under the conditions and within the limits stipulated in Section 591 (1).

Rules of procedure for permission of postponement and instalment payment [1469]

Section 595[1470] (1) The request for postponement and instalment payment has no delaying effect.

(2) If the defendant submitted the request immediately after the conclusive decision has become final, it shall be decided upon by the court which had delivered the conclusive decision; the court shall provide justification for its decision.

(3)[1471] If the request of the defendant was submitted later, its consideration shall be governed by the rules of special procedures (Chapter XXIX).

(4)[1472] The decision concerning the postponement or the instalment payment of a fine, a disciplinary penalty and the costs of criminal proceedings payable to the state shall not be subject to an appeal.

(5)[1473] The decision concerning the postponement of the execution of imprisonment and corrective education may be appealed by the prosecutor, the convict and the defence counsel.  If the postponement was permitted by the court of second instance pursuant to subsection (2), in respect of the consideration of the appeal the provisions stipulated in Title IV of Chapter XIV shall be applied as appropriate.

Measure to ensure the execution of the sentence [1474]

Section 596[1475] (1) The court may order the immediate execution of a 5-year or more imprisonment imposed in a final judgement against a defendant at liberty.  The court shall order the immediate execution of the imprisonment imposed in a final judgement, if the sentence was delivered on the grounds of a criminal offence committed in a criminal organisation.

(2) In the case specified in subsection (1) the court shall directly request the commander of the penal institution operating at its seat to appoint a prison guard and shall hand over the to such guard.  In the absence of a penal institution at the seat of the court, or there is an obstacle to the appointment of a prison guard, the court shall directly contact the police to have the convict escorted to the penal institution.

(3)[1476] If the defendant is not in preliminary arrest at the time when the decision of the court concerning the definite sentence of imprisonment becomes final and the court does not order the immediate execution of the imprisonment, but – considering the imprisonment to be executed or other reasons – there is reasonable cause to believe that the convict would avoid, through escape or hiding, the execution of the sentence, until the convict is received by the penal institution, a safety measure may be ordered to ensure that the sentence for imprisonment will be executed.

(4) The above measure shall be ordered, if the court granted permission for the postponement of a sentence for imprisonment exceeding 2 years [Section 591 (2) c)].

(5) The decision on ordering the safety measure shall be adopted by the court.  The convict subject to the measure shall not be allowed to leave the area or district specified in the court decision without permission and may not change his place of stay or residence.  The decision may also prescribe that defendant should regularly report to the police.

(6) The obedience to the rules concerning the execution of imprisonment shall be supervised by the police, in accordance with the rules concerning the supervision of obedience to the prohibition of leaving residence.  If the convict violates the dispositions of the safety measure, the police shall forthwith notify the court having ordered the measure and may take the convict into custody until the court decision is adopted, but not longer than for 6 days.  Upon the violation of the dispositions in the decision on the safety measure, the court may order the immediate execution of the imprisonment and take the measures regulated in Section 590 (3).

(7) The measure to ensure the execution of the sentence for imprisonment shall be terminated if the sentence has become unenforceable.

(8)[1477] If the court ordered in addition to the imprisonment not be executed, the extradition of the defendant, and the conclusive decision becomes final upon its announcement, in order to execute extradition, the court shall order that the defendant shall be taken to the responsible immigration authority.  In order to take the defendant to such authority, the presiding judge shall contact the police.

 

Title III

PROCEDURE FOR CLEMENCY

Plea for mercy

Section 597[1478] (1) Motions for pardoning – ex officio or upon a petition – requesting the termination of criminal proceedings may be submitted by the Supreme Prosecutor before the indictment is filed, or thereafter the minister of justice; while those requesting the waiver or mitigation of a yet not enforced sentence, probation or education in a reformatory institution, or dispensation for aggravating circumstance upon prior conviction may be submitted by the minister of justice to the President of the Republic of Hungary.

(2) No plea for mercy may be submitted for the mitigation or waiver of a measure not enumerated in subsection (1) and the subsequent waiver of an already enforced punishment or measure.

(3) A plea for mercy may be submitted by the defendant, the defence counsel and the legal representative of the juvenile and relative of the defendant.

(4) The plea for mercy requesting the termination of criminal proceedings shall be submitted to the prosecutor or court proceeding in the case.  Plea for mercy requesting the remission or mitigation of a yet not enforced sentence or measures regulated by subsection (1), or for exemption from disadvantages resulted from having a criminal record shall be submitted to the court of first instance having proceeded in the case.

(5) In the course of the procedure for clemency, the prosecutor and the court shall obtain and manage the personal data of the defendant required for the relevant decision.

Handling the plea for mercy

Section 598 (1)[1479] The documents containing the data required for the decision, and the plea for mercy shall be escalated

  1. a) before the filing of the indictment, by the prosecutor to the Prosecutor General,
  2. b) after the filing of the indictment, by the court to the minister of justice

without delay. The plea for mercy shall not have delaying effect on the continuance of the procedure.

(2)[1480] Upon a petition or a motion for the remission or mitigation of the punishment the minister of justice may order the postponement or interruption of the execution of the sentence or measures regulated by Section 597 (1) until the decision of the President of the Republic of Hungary.  In the course of preparing the motion, the minister of justice may – with a delaying effect on the commencement of the sentence – order the medical examination of the convict by a specialist at the central hospital of penal institutions.

(3)[1481] The Supreme Prosecutor or the minister of justice shall escalate the plea for mercy to the President of the Republic of Hungary even if they make no motion for granting pardon.

(4)[1482] The notification on the decision of granting pardon shall be served on the defendant and the party having submitted the plea for mercy by the court or prosecutor proceeding in the case.  If the plea for mercy is submitted after the decision has become final, the notification of the granting pardon shall be served on the defendant and the party having submitted the plea for mercy by the court which had processed the case in the first instance.  If the convict serves a sentence of imprisonment or corrective education in a youth custody centre, the notification of granting pardon shall be served by way of the penal institution or the youth custody centre to the court proceeded in first instance.

(5)[1483] The notification regulated by subsection (4) shall contain the number of the decision of mercy, the date of the adoption thereof, the date of the countersign of the minister of justice, the name of the court and prosecutor passed the decision which concerns the decision on mercy, the numbers and dates of the decisions in question, and the content of the decision on mercy. If the President of the Republic of Hungary has exercised the prerogative of pardoning, the notification shall contain information of the legal consequences concerning the pardon.

(6)[1484] If the termination of the criminal proceedings due to a pardon was initiated by the court or the prosecutor ex officio, the defendant may request the resumption of the procedure within 8 days of receiving the decision terminating the procedure.

Waiver of the costs of criminal proceedings or a disciplinary penalty

Section 599[1485] (1) The obligation to pay the costs of criminal proceedings payable to the state and a disciplinary penalty may be remitted foully or partially by the minister of justice for specifically sufficient reasons.

(2) The request for remitting the obligation to pay the costs of criminal proceedings payable to the state and a disciplinary penalty may be submitted by the obligor to pay the costs of criminal proceedings payable to the state or the person against whom the disciplinary penalty was imposed (hereinafter: obligor of payment), the defence counsel, legal representative of a juvenile, or the representative of the obligor of payment specified by Section 56.

(3) The court of first instance shall submit the request aiming to remit the payment of the cost of the procedure and disciplinary penalty belonging to the state to the minister of justice accompanied  by the required data, in particularly he estent of outstanding debt, justification about the data of the already deposited money, documents of the criminal case (partial documents) including data nad documents obtained according to subsection (4) and probably the available minutes of the judicial seizure.

(4) The court shall obtain – in compliance with the rules of (Section 71) – the personal data of the obligor of payment required for the decision, including detailed information concerning his state of income and property, and the partial study of living conditions disclosing personal conditions, and state of income and property of the obligor of payment, furthermore the evaluation of the institution, if the defendant is in custody.

(5) The partial study of living conditions is prepared by the probation officer.

.

 

Chapter XXXI[1486]

CLOSING PROVISIONS

 

Section 600[1487] The court secretary may also respond to the requests received from other courts and may conduct the procedures specified in Title II and III of Chapter XXIX, with the exception of those stipulated in Section 557 (2), Section 558, Section 565, Section 566, Section 567 (2), Section 568, Section 572-577, Section 579, Section 586 and Section 587.

Interpreting provisions

Section 601 (1)[1488] Any provisions in this Act referring to Courts shall be construed to include the district and city courts.

(2) Any provisions in this Act referring to measures applied in lieu of punishment shall be construed to include reprimand (Section 71 of the Criminal Code), probation (Section 72 of the Criminal Code) and detention home (Section 118 of the Criminal Code).

(3)[1489] Regulations in this Act referring to a relative shall be governed by Section 137.6 of the Criminal Code, and references to public organisations shall mean budgetary organisations.

(4) Regulations pertaining to business organisations in this Act shall refer to businesses listed under Section 685 c) of Act IV of 1959 on the Civil Code.

(5)[1490] Whenever this Act makes legal consequences subject to a punishment stipulated by law, this shall be construed as the upper limit of the sentence that may be imposed pursuant to the Special Part of the Criminal Code.

Interim provisions

Section 602 (1) If at the time of the entry into force of this Act, the investigating authority performs procedural actions in the case in order to supplement the denunciation ordered pursuant to a former legal regulation, the investigating authority shall prepare a report within 3 days following the entry into force hereof and shall either reject the denunciation or order an investigation, as stipulated in this Act.

(2) Complaints filed in the course of an investigation pursuant to a former legal regulation shall be considered.  If this Act allows the victim to act as a substitute private accuser after the rejection of the complaint, the party having filed the complaint shall be notified thereof.

(3) Supplementary investigations ordered in the case pursuant to a former legal regulation shall be conducted in compliance with the provisions of this Act.

(4) Investigations ordered by the court in the case of a private prosecution or due to re-trial shall be conducted in compliance with the provisions of this Act.

(5) [1491] The National Tax and Customs Office shall conduct the investigation in cases hat opened after 31st December 2011 or was in process on 1st January 2012 concerning acquisition of illegal financial profit, tax fraud, tax fraud committed regarding employment, misuse inland revenue, receiving of stolen godds regarding inland revenue, smuggling, violation of financial interest of the European Community.

 

Section 603 (1)[1492] If the Supreme Court repeals the decision of the court adopted prior to the entry into force of this Act in an extraordinary legal remedy procedure, and orders the court to conduct a new procedure, the repeated procedure shall be conducted by the court having competence and jurisdiction under this Act.

(2)[1493] Pursuant to Section 416 (4) b) and 421. (2), any motion filed against a decision delivered after the consideration of a motion for review or an appeal on legal grounds pursuant to a former legal regulation shall be regarded excluded by law.  Motions for review under Section 416 (1) f) may also be submitted after the decision of the Constitutional Court published following the entry into force of this Act.

(3) If the court returns the documents to the prosecutor in the course of the prosecution, the subsequent procedure shall be conducted in compliance with the provisions of this Act.

(4)[1494] If a trial was requested in connection with a court ruling delivered prior to the entry into force of this Act, the procedure shall be conducted in compliance with the provisions of this Act.

(5) If the court suspends the procedure, after the suspension the procedure shall be conducted in compliance with the provisions of this Act.

(6)[1495] Procedures related to a motion for review or an appeal on legal grounds filed pursuant to a former legal regulation shall be conducted in compliance with the former legal regulation, if the motion has arrived at the Supreme Court prior to the entry into force of this Act.

(7) [1496] County Court shall have in competence in criminal procedures that started after 31st December 2011 or was in progress on 1st Janaury 2012 concerning tax fraud resulting in exceptionally large or bigger loss in income, tax fraud regarding employment resulting in exceptionally large or bigger loss in income, misuse inland revenue resulting in exceptionally large or bigger loss in income, receiving of stolen goods regarding inland revenue commited regaring product of exceptionally large or exceptionally significant value, smuggling resulting in exceptionally large or bigger loss of custom income.

 

Section 603/A [1497] Provisions of Chapeter XXVIII/A of the Criminal Procedure Code shall be applied to criminal procedures that started after 31st December 2011 or was in progress on 1st Janaury 2012 concerning acquisition of illegal financial profit, tax fraud resulting in exceptionally large or bigger loss in income, tax fraud regarding employment resulting in exceptionally large or bigger loss in income, and violation of financial interest of the Eurpean Community.

Authorisations

Section 604[1498] (1) The Government is hereby authorised to issue a decree for the regulation of the following:

  1. a) the rules pertaining to the personal protection of the participants in the criminal proceedings, and the members of the court, prosecutor’s office, investigating authority and penal institution proceeding in the case,
  2. b) the obligations relating to covert intelligence gathering of those performing communication service and forwarding mail and the detailed rules of their co-operation with the authorities,[1499]
  3. c) the tasks that may be performed by the court administrator in criminal cases.[1500]

(2) The minister of justice is hereby authorised to issue a decree for the regulation of the following: [1501]

a)[1502] together with the relevant ministers – the detailed rules of the search for the place of stay of a defendant of unknown residence, or an unknown person reasonably suspected of having committed a criminal offence, the establishment of the residence and identity and ordering the arrest of such persons,[1503]

b)[1504] together with the minister of interior and the minister of finance, – the costs of the defence counsel appointed in the course of criminal proceedings and the participants of criminal proceedings, the remuneration and costs of the representatives of these persons – with the exception of legal aid counsels -, and the detailed rules of personal exemption granted to the defendant and the substitute private accuser from paying the costs,[1505]

c)[1506] together with the minister of finance and the minister of police – the rules of advancing the costs of criminal proceedings, and the collection and settlement of the costs of criminal proceedings payable to the state, as well as the rules of the reimbursement of the out-of-pocket expenses of the accused and the defence counsel and the remuneration of the defence counsel by the state,[1507]

d)[1508] together with the minister of finance – the detailed rules of the remuneration of the expert and the advisor, the costs to be reimbursed by the witness and the expert, and the compensation for professional examination,[1509]

  1. e) [1510]
  2. f) [1511]together with the minister of health – the health institutions designated for making a diagnosis on mental state, the costs related to the diagnosis of mental state in a psychiatric hospital and the settlement of such costs,

g)[1512] together with the relevant ministers– provisions pertaining to interpreters and translators, as well as the detailed rules of the remuneration and reimbursed costs of interpreters and translators,

h)[1513] together with the minister of police – the rules of implementing house arrest and prohibition of leaving residence with the help of a tool tracking the move of the defendant,

  1. i) the rules for depositing bail at the court,[1514]

j)[1515] together with the minister of police and the minister of finance – the rules of seizure and handling, registration, preliminary sale and destruction of items seized in the course of criminal proceedings,[1516]

  1. k) the rules of recording procedural action in a court procedure by means other than the minutes, and the detailed rules of holding a trial via live link,[1517]

l)[1518] together with the relevant ministers – the tasks to be performed by the court during the execution of decisions delivered in criminal cases,[1519]

m)[1520] together with the minister of police and the minister controlling the National Tax and Customs Office – the issue of copies of documents produced in the course of criminal proceedings,[1521]

  1. n) [1522]together with the minister of police and the minister of finance – the rules of notification by way of a press announcement applicable in criminal proceedings,[1523]

o)[1524] the rules of management of courts,[1525]

p)[1526] the rules of making a diagnosis of a mental state of a detained defendant and the implementation of the temporary involuntary treatment in a mental institution[1527]

q)[1528]

r)[1529] the cooperation in investigation of the prosecutors between the bodies of the prosecutor’s office and police, and the detailed rules concerning the expenses incurred in connection therewith.[1530]

(3)[1531] The minister of police and the minister controlling the National Tax and Customs Office are hereby authorised to regulate –together with the minister of justice – in a Decree the detailed rules of the investigation conducted by the investigating authorities under their control, including recording procedural actions by means other than the minutes and the information to be disclosed to the press in the investigation stage of criminal proceedings.[1532]

(4) Authorisation is granted

a)[1533] to the minister of defence to regulate – together with the relevant ministers– the rules of implementing close control and surveillance of the prohibition of leaving residence ordered against a soldier,[1534]

b)[1535] to the minister controlling the armed force, to designate – together with the minister of justice – the commanders entitled to conduct an investigation, as well as to establish the detailed rules of their competence and their investigation[1536]

c)[1537] to the minister of police to regulate the rules of unified statistic system of the investigating authorities and prosecutors, as well as the rules concerning the information gathering and management

in a Decree.

(5) Authorisation is granted

  1. a) to the national commander (head) of the investigating authority to order in an injunction – together with the Prosecutor General – in connection with investigations,
  2. b) to the Supreme Prosecutor to order in an injunction in the course of performing the prosecutor’s responsibilities relating to criminal proceedings,

c)[1538] to the president of the National Judiciary Council’s Office to order in the regulation pertaining to court procedures,

d)[1539] to the minister of justice, to order in a Decree regarding the penal duties of the court,

to use a standard form for summons, notifications, decision, minutes and other documents frequently used in the procedure.

(6)[1540] The minister of health is hereby authorised – together with the minister of drug prevention and coordination of tasks regarding drugs, the minister of police and in agreement minister of justice – to issue a Decree to determine the rules of a treatment for drug addiction, other therapeutic process treating drug users or preventive education.[1541]

(7)[1542] The minister of police shall have authorization to regulate by a Decree, in agreement with the minister of justice and minister of finance, the detailed rules of the payment of expenses incurred during the execution of the compulsory attendance in a criminal procedure, and during the arrest of the defendant and taking him to certain court prosecutor or investigating authority in case he is found.[1543]

(8)[1544] The minister of police shall have authorization to regulate by a Decree, in agreement with the minister of justice, the competence and authority of the investigation authorities controlled by him.

Entry into force

Section 605 (1)[1545] This Act – with the exception of Section 607 – shall enter into effect on July 1, 2003; its provisions shall also be applied to criminal proceedings pending at the time of entry into force hereof.  The entry into effect of Section 607 is regulated in a separate legal regulation.[1546]

(2) In respect of criminal proceedings pending at the time of entry into force of this Act, prior procedural actions having been taken in compliance with a former legal regulation shall remain in effect even if it is regulated otherwise by this Act.

(3)[1547] The procedure shall be conducted by the court having competence and jurisdiction pursuant to the former legal regulation, if the documents of the case have arrived at the court prior to the entry into effect of this Act.  Cases still pending at the Supreme Court, which fall in the competence of the High Court of Appeals pursuant to this Act, shall be referred to the High Court of Appeals by July 1, 2003.

(4)[1548] If the court of second instance, or the High Court of Appeals or the Supreme Court repeals the decision of the court of first instance delivered prior to the entry into force of this Act, the repeated procedure – with the exception regulated in subsection (5) – shall be conducted by the court having competence and jurisdiction under this Act.

(5) Procedures repeated due to a repeal prior to the entry into force of this Act shall be conducted by the court having competence and jurisdiction under the former legal regulation, if the documents of the case to repeat the procedure have arrived at the court prior to the entry into force of this Act.

(6) Motions for retrial shall be considered by the court having competence and jurisdiction under the former legal regulation, if the motion has arrived at the court prior to the entry into force of this Act.

(7).[1549]

(8)[1550]

(9)- (10)[1551]

(11)[1552]

(12)[1553]

 

Section 606 (1) Should any legal regulation refer to Act I of 1973 repealed by this Act, it shall be construed as the relevant provision in this Act.

(2) The entry into force of the provisions in this Act pertaining or related to witness protection and covert investigators prior to the date of effect stipulated in Section 605 (1) shall be regulated in a separate Act[1554] – by the appropriate amendment of Act I of 1973.[1555]

(3) The separate act specified in subsection (2) shall also regulate the entry into force of the provisions regarding the amendment of Act XXXIV of 1994 on the Police [Section 605 (8) to (12)] prior to the date of entry into force of this Act as stipulated in Section 605 (1).[1556]

 

Section 607[1557]

 

The correspondence with the law of the European Union[1558]

 

Section 608[1559] (1) Section 36 (5) of this Act shall serve the compliance with the framework decision of the Council of June 13, 2002 [2002/465/IB] on united investigation troops.

(2) Section 28 (7), Section 114/A (1), Section 190 (3), Section 216, Section 221/A, Section 224 (4), Section 226 (2), Section 263 (4), Section 266 (3) c), Section 272 (2) b), Section 287 (1), Section 459 (2)-(4) and Section 485/C (3) of this Act, alongside Section 32 d), Section 35, Section 107/A of the Criminal Code [Act IV of 1978], and Section 7(2) of Act V of 1972 on prosecutors’ office of the Republic of Hungary shall serve the compliance with Article 2 (1), Article 9 (2) and Article 10 of the framework decision of the Council of March 15, 2001 [2001/220/IB]on the legal status of the victim in the criminal procedure.

 

 

[1] This Act was promulgated on 23 March 1998. Section 605 (1) and Section 607 come into effect on 1 January 2000, Section 605 (8)-(12) comes into effect on 1 September 1999, the rest of the Act comes into effect on 1 July 2003. See: Section 163 (1) and Section 171 (1) of Act CX of 1999, Section 61 (4) of Act LXXV of 1999, Section 2 (6) of Act XXII of 2002.

[2] Section 2 was established by Section 1 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[3] Section 3 was established by Section 2 (1) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[4] Section 3 (2) was established by Section 1 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[5] Section 3 (3) was established by Section 1 of Act LXXXIX of 2011. Effective: since 13th July, 2011. See: Section 27 (2) of Act LXXXIX of 2011.

[6] Section 3 (4) was enacted by Section 2 (2) of Act LI of 2006. Revised by Section 81 a) of Act CL of 2011.

[7] Translator’s note: the official name of the Supreme Court was changed to „Curia”, but since this name can be confusing to other – especially common law – countries, we kept the more well-known „Supreme Court” throughout the whole Criminal Procedure Code.

[8] Section 4 was established by Section 3 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[9] Section 5 (3) was established by Section 2 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[10] The title of Section 6 was established by Section 3(1) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[11] Section 6 (3) was enacted by Section 3 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[12] Section 6 (3) d) was established by Section 4 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[13] See: Resolution No.6/2009 for the uniformity of criminal law.

[14] Section 6 (4) was enacted by Section 3 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[15] Section 6 (5) was enacted by Section 3 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[16] See: Section 103 (1) e) of Act LXIX of 1999.

[17] Section 9 (2) was established by Section 4 of Act I of 2002. Revised by Section 202 a) of Act CLXXIX of 2011.

[18] Section 9 (3) was established by Section 4 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[19] Section 9 (4) was enacted by Section 5 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[20] Section 13 (1) was revised by Section 203 a) of Act CLXI of 2011.

[21] Section 13 (2) a) was revised by Section 203 a) of Act CLXI of 2011.

[22] Section 13 (2) b) was revised by Section 203 a) of Act CLXI of 2011.

[23] Section 13 (2) c) was enacted by Section 5 (1) of Act I of 2002. Revised by Section 81 a) of Act CL of 2011.

[24] Section 13 (3) was enacted by Section 6 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[25] Section 13 (3) a) was revised by Section 203 a) of Act CLXI of 2011.

[26] Section 13 (3) b) was revised by Section 81 a) of Act CL of 2011.

[27] Section 13 (4) was established by Section 5 (2) of Act I of 2002. The numbers were changed by Section 6 of Act LI of 2006.

[28] Section 13 (5) was enacted by Section 5 (2) of Act I of 2002. The numbers were changed by Section 6 of Act LI of 2006.

[29] Section 14 (1) a) was established by Section 6 (1) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[30] Section 14 (2) was revised by Section 203 a) of Act CLXI of 2011.

[31] Section 14 (3) was established by Section 7 (1) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[32] Section 14 (4) was established by Section 123 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010. Revised by Section 203 a) of Act CLXI of 2011.

[33] Section 14 (5) was established by Section 7 (2) of Act LI of 2006. Revised by Section 81 a) of Act CL of 2011.

[34] Section 14 (7) was established by Section 7 (3) of Act LI of 2006. Revised by Section 81 a) of Act CL of 2011, Section 203 b) of Act CLXI of 2011.

[35] Section 15 was revised by Section 203 a) of Act CLXI of 2011.

[36] Section 16 (1) was established by Section 7 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[37] Revised by Section 203 a) of Act CLXI of 2011.

[38] Section 16 (1) d) was revised by Section 88 (2) a) of Act II of 2003 and Section 59 (5) of Act LCCCIII of 2009.

[39] Section 16 (1) e) was established by Section 28 (1) of Act II of 2003, and was revised by Section 42 (21) of Act CLV of 2009, Section 168 of Act CCI of 2011.

[40] Section 16 (1) f) was established by Section 29 (1) of Act II of 2003. Effective: since 1st July, 2003. Revised by Section 29 (3) b) of act XCI of 2005.

[41] Section 16 (1) g) was established by Section 36 of Act XXVII of 2007. Effective: since 1st June, 2007.

[42] Section 16 (1) h) was established by Section 6 (1) of Act LXIII of 2011. Effective: since 1st January, 2012.

[43] The marking of Section 16 (1) i) was changed by Section 29 (2) of Act II of 2003.

[44] Section 16 (1) j) was enacted by Section 9 (1) of Act CCX of 2011. Effective: since 1st January, 2012.

[45] Section 16 (2) was revised by Section 203 a) of Act CLXI of 2011.

[46] The second sentence of Section 17 (1) was enacted by Section 8 (1) of Act I of 2002.  The text of the second sentence was revised by Section 165 (1) of Act CLXXXIII of 2010.

[47] Section 17 (3) was established by Section 8 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[48] Section 17 (4) was established by Section 8 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[49] Section 17 (5) was established by Section 124 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010. Revised by Section 203 c) of Act CLXI of 2011.

[50] Section 17 (6) was established by Section 37 of Act XXVII of 2007. Revised by Section 203 c) of Act CLXI of 2011.

[51] Section 17 (8) was enacted by Section 8 (3) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[52] Section 17 (9) was enacted by Section 2 of Act LXXXIX of 2011. Effective: since 13th July, 2011. See: Section 27 (2) of Act LXXXIX of 2011.

[53] Section 17 (10) was enacted by Section 9 (2) of Act CCX of 2011. Effective: since 1st January, 2012.

[54] Section 18 (1) was revised by Section 80 c) of Act CL of 2011.

[55] Section 18 (2) was revised by Section 80 d) of Act CL of 2011.

[56] Section 18 (3) was enacted by Section 8 of Act LI of 2006. Revised by Section 203 c) of Act CLXI of 2011.

[57] Section 20 (2) a) was revised by Section 203 a) of Act CLXI of 2011.

[58] Section 20 (2) b) was established by Section 2 (1) of Act XXII of 2002. Revised by Section 203 d) of Act CLXI of 2011.

[59] Section 20 (2) c) was established by Section 2 (1) of Act XXII of 2002. Revised by Section 81 b) of Act CL of 2011, Section 203 e) of Act CLXI of 2011.

[60] Section 20 (3) was revised by Section 81 a) of Act CL of 2011.

[61] Section 20/A was enacted by Section 125 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010. Revised by Section 203 f) of Act CLXI of 2011.

[62] Section 21 (3) b) was established by Section 9 (1) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[63] Section 21 (3) c) was established by Section 9 (1) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st April, 2006.

[64] Section 21 (3) d) was enacted by Section 9 (1) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st April, 2006.

[65] Section 21 (3) e) was established by Section 10 (1) of Act I of 2002, its marking was changed by Section 9 (1) of Act LI of 2006.

[66] Section 21 (5) was established by Section 9 (2) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st April, 2006.

[67] Section 21 (6) was enacted by Section 9 (3) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st April, 2006.

[68] Section 22 was established by Section 2 (2) of Act XXII of 2002. Revised by Section 88 (2) c) of Act II of 2003, Section 81 a) of Act CL of 2011.

[69] Section 23 (3) was enacted by Section 12 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[70] The number of Section 23 (4) was changed by Section 12 of Act I of 2002.

[71] Section 23 (5) was enacted by Section 10 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[72] Section 24 was established by Section 2 of Act LXXXIII of 2009. Effective: since 13th August, 2009.

[73] Section 24/A was enacted by Section 3 of Act LXXXIII of 2009. Effective: since 13th August, 2009.

[74] Section 24/A (1) was revised by Section 81 a) of Act CL of 2011.

[75] Section 25 was established by Section 126 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010. Effective: since 1st March, 2011. See Section 179 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010.

[76] Section 27 was established by Section 14 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[77] Section 28 was established by Section 15 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[78] Section 28 (4) was established by Section 4 of Act LXXXIII of 2009. Effective: since 13th August, 2009.

[79] Section 29 a) was established by Section 30 (1) of Act II of 2003. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[80] Section 29 b) was established by Section 30 (1) of Act II of 2003. Revised due to Section 26 (1) a) of Act CXXXVI of 2009. Revised by Section 203 g) of Act CLXI of 2011.

[81] Section 29 c) was established by Section 16 (1) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[82] Section 29 d) was established by Section 16 (1) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[83] Section 29 e) was established by Section 155 of Act CXXVIII of 2011. Effective: since 1st January, 2012.

[84] Section 29 f) was established by Section 16 (1) of Act I of 2002. Revised by Section 38 (2) b) of Act LXXIX of 2008 and Section 59 (5) of Act LXXXIII of 2009, Section 68 (6) a) of Act CLXI of 2010.

[85] Section 29 g) was enacted by Section 16 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[86] Section 29 h) was enacted by Section 9 (3) of Act CCX of 2011. Effective: since 1st January, 2012.

[87] Section 30 (1) was established by Section 17 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[88] Section 30 (3) was established by Section 14 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[89] Section 31 (4) was established by Section 2 (4) of Act XXII of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[90] Section 31 (5) was enacted by Section 18 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[91] Section 32 (1) was enacted by Section 19 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[92] Section 32 (2) was enacted by Section 19 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[93] Section 32 (3) was enacted by Section 19 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[94] The number of Section 32 (4) was changed by Section 19 of Act I of 2002.

[95] Section 32 (5) was established by Section 3 of Act LXXXIX of 2011. Effective: since 13th July, 2011. See: Section 27 (2) of Act LXXXIX of 2011.

[96] Section 32 (6) was enacted by Section 21 (2) of Act CXXIII of 2006. Effective: since 1st January, 2007.

[97] Section 33 was established by Section 20 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[98] Section 34 was established by Section 15 of Act LI of 2006. Revised by Section 203 h) of Act CLXI of 2011.

[99] Section 35 (2) was established by Section 16 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July 2006.

[100] Section 36 (2) was established by Section 31 of Act II of 2003. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[101] Section 36 (2) was established by Section 158 (1) of Act CXXII of 2010. Effective: since 1st January, 2011. See: Section 97 (1)-(2) of Act CXXII of 2010.

[102] Section 36 (2) a) was established by Section 38 (1) OF Act XXVII of 2007. Revised by Section 10 (15) b) of Act LXIII of 2011.

[103] Section 36 (2) b) was established by Section 158 (2) of Act CXXII of 2010. Effective: since 1st January, 2011.

[104] Section 36 (2) c) was established by Section 6 (2) of Act LXIII of 2011. Effective: since 1st January, 2012.

[105] Section 63 (2) e) was overruled by Section 172.3 of Act CXXII of 2010. Effective: since 1st January, 2011.

[106] Section 36 (3) is overruled by Section 21 (1) k) of Act XC of 2007. Of no effect: since 1st January, 2008.

[107] Pursuant to Section 88 (2) a) of Act II of 2003, the original Section 36 (4) will lose effect and will not enter into force.  Pursuant to Section 88 (2) b) of Act II of 2003, the numbering of Section 36 (5) shall be amended to 36 (4). See Act LXVI of 2002.

[108] Section 36 (5) was established by Section 5 of Act LXXXIII of 2009. Effective: since 13th August, 2009.

[109] See Decrees No. 15/1994 (VII.14.) of the Ministry for Home Affairs, No. 59/1997 (X.31.) of the Ministry for Home Affairs and No.3/1991 (I.29.) of the Ministry of Finance, Joint Decree No. 17/2003 (VII.1.) of Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Justice, Joint Decree No. 1/2004 (I.9.) of the Ministry of Interior and Ministry of Justice.

[110] Section 37 (2) was established by Section 32 of Act II of 2003. Revised by Section 31 (1) k) of Act XC of 2007, Section 158 (5) 2 of Act CXXII of 2010.

[111] Section 37 (3) was enacted by Section 23 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[112] Section 40 was established by Section 24 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[113] Section 42 was established by Section 33 of Act II of 2003. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[114] Section 43 (3) was established by Section 26 (1) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[115] Section 43 (3) b) was established by Section 18 81) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[116] Section 43 (5) was enacted by Section 26 (2) of Act I of 2002. The last sentence was enacted by Section 18 (2) of Act LI of 2006. Revised by Section 81 c) of Act CL of 2011.

[117] Section 43 (6) was enacted by Section 26 82) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[118] Section 44 was established by Section 27 of Act I of 2002. Effective since 1st July, 2003.

[119] Section 44 (1) was established by Section 19 (1) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[120] Section 44 (5) was established by Section 19 (2) of Act LI of 2006. Revised by Section 81 a) of Act CL of 2011, Section 203 i) of Act CLXI of 2011.

[121] Section 45 (1) e) was established by Section 34 of Act II of 2003. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[122] Section 45 (1) f) was enacted due to Section 10 (1) of Act CLXIII of 2007. Effective: since 1st January, 2008.

[123] Section 45 (1) g) was enacted by Section 28 of Act6 I of 2002. Its marking was changed by Section 10 (1) of Act CLXIII of 2007.

[124] Section 46 a) was enacted by Section 20 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[125] Section 46 b) was revised by Section 88 (2) a) of Act II of 2003. Its marking was changed by Section 20 of Act LI of 2006.

[126] Section 46 c) was established by Section 24 of Act CXXV of 2009. Effective: since 1st January, 2011.

[127] The marking of Section 46 d) was changed by Section 20 of Act LI of 2006.

[128] The marking of Section 46 e) was changed by Section 20 of Act LI of 2006.

[129] The marking of Section 46 f) was changed by Section 20 of Act LI of 2006.

[130] The text of the second sentence was established by Section 30 (1) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[131] Section 47 (2) was enacted by Section 30 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[132] Section 47 (3) was enacted by Section 6 of Act LXXXIII of 2009. Effective: since 13th August, 2009.

[133] The number of Section 47 (4) was changed by Section 6 of Act LXXXIII of 2009.

[134] Section 47 (5) was enacted by Section 128 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010. Effective: since 1st March, 2011. See: Section 179 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010.

[135] Section 48 (1) was established by Section 21(1) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[136] Section 48 (3) was enacted by Section 31 (1) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[137] Section 48 (4) was established by Section 21 (2) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[138] The number of Section 48 (5) was changed by Section 31 (1) of Act I of 2002.

[139] The number of Section 48 (6) was changed by Section 31 (1) of Act I of 2002.

[140] The number of Section 48 (7) was changed and established by Section 31 (1)-(2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[141] Section 48 (8) was established by Section 7 of Act LXXXIII of 2009. Effective: since 13th August, 2009.

[142] Section 48 (9) was established by Section 21 (3) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[143] Please refer to the Decree of the Ministry of Justice No. 7/2002 (III.30.) IM.

[144] Section 49 (1) was established by Section 21 (4) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[145] Section 49 (2) was enacted by Section 32 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[146] Section 50 (1) e) was enacted by Section 129 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010. Effective: since 1st March, 2011. See: Section 179 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010.

[147] Section 50 (1) f) was enacted by Section 129 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010. Effective: since 1st March, 2011. See: Section 179 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010.

[148] Section 50 (2) was established by Section 33 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[149] See: Resolution No. 2/2005 for the uniformity of criminal law. Published in Hungarian Official Gazette No 2005/91.

[150] Section 51 (3) was established by Section 34 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[151] Section 52 (3) was established by Section 35 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[152] Section 52 (4) was established by Section 22 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[153] Section 53 (1) was established by Section 36 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[154] Section 53 (1) d) was enacted by Section 23 (1) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[155] Section 53 (1) e) was enacted by Section 23 (1) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[156] Section 53 (3) was enacted by Section 23 (2) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[157] Section 54 (4) was established by Section37 (1) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[158] See: Act III of 1952.

[159] Section 54 (5) was overruled by Section 285 (1) b) of Act LI of 2006. Of no effect: since 1st July, 2006.

[160] The number of Section 54 (6) was changed by Section 37 (2) of Act I of 2002.

[161] The number of Section 54 (7) was changed by Section 37 (2) of Act I of 2002. The last sentence was enacted by Section 24 of Act 24 of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[162] Section 54 (8) was enacted by Section 37 83) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July 2003.

[163] The number of Section 55 (1) was changed by Section 38 of Act I of 2002.

[164] Section 55 (2) was enacted by Section 38 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[165] Section 55 (3) was enacted by Section 38 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[166] Section 56 was established by Section 39 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[167] The text of the second sentence of Section 56 (1) was established by Section 25 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[168] The text of the second sentence of Section 56 (4) was enacted by Section 25 (2) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[169] Section 56 (5) was established by Section 10 (2) of Act CLXIII of 2007. Effective: since 1st January, 2008.

[170] Section 56 (6) was established by Section 10 (3) of Act CLXIII of 2007. Effective: since 1st January, 2008.

[171] Section 57 was established by Section 40 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[172] Section 57 (1) was established by Section 26 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[173] Section 57 (3) was established by Section 82 (1) of Act LXXX of 2003. Effective: since 1st January 2008 due to Section 72 (5) of this Act which was established by Section 48 (12) of Act CXXXV of 2005.

[174] Section 58 (3) was established by Section 41 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[175] Please refer to Act CLVI of 1997.

[176] The title of Section 59 was established by Section 36 of Act II of 2003. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[177] Section 59 was established by Section 36 of Act II of 2003. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[178] Section 60 (1) was enacted by Section 27 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[179] The number of Section 60 (2) was changed by Section 27 of Act LI of 2006.

[180] Section 61 was established by Section 28 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[181] See Act LXXXV of 1999.

[182] Section 63 (4) was enacted by Section 16 of Act CLXII of 2007. Effective: since 1st January, 2008.

[183] Section 63/A was enacted by Section 29 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[184] Section 63/A (1) was established by Section 8 of Act LXXXIII of 2009. Effective: since 13th August, 2009.

[185] Section 63/A (2) was established by Section 8 of Act LXXXIII of 2009. Effective: since 13th August, 2009.

[186] The title of Section 63/A was enacted by Section 1 of Act CXXXII of 2004. Effective: since 1st January, 2005.

[187] Section 63/A was enacted by Section 1 of Act CXXXII of 2004. Effective: since 1st January, 2005.

[188] Section 64/A c) was enacted by Section 4 of Act LXXXIX of 2011. Effective: since 13th July, 2011. See: Section 27 (2) of Act LXXXIX of 2011.

[189] The text of the second sentence was established by Section 30 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[190] Section 66 (5) was enacted by Section 21 (3) of Act CXXIII of 2006. Effective: since 1st January, 2007

[191] The text of the second sentence of Section 67 (1) was enacted by Section 42 (1) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[192] Section 67 (2) was established by Section 9 of Act LXXXIII of 2009. Effective: since 13th August, 2009.

[193] Section 67 (3) was established by Section 9 of Act LXXXIII of 2009. Effective: since 13th August, 2009.

[194] Section 67. (5) was established by Section 42 (2 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[195] Section 67/A was enacted by Section 10 of Act LXXXIII of 2009. Effective: since 1st January, 2012.

[196] Section 68 (1) was established by Section 130 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010. Effective: since 1st March, 2011. See: Section 179 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010.

[197] Section 69 (1) was established by Section 43 (1) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003. Revised by Section 165 (2) a) of Act CLXXXIII of 2010.

[198] Section 69 (1) c) was revised by Section 165 (2) b) of Act CLXXXIII of 2010.

[199] Section (1a) was enacted by Section 131 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010. Effective: since 1st March, 2011. See: Section 179 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010.

[200] Section (1b) was enacted by Section 131 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010. Effective: since 1st March, 2011. See: Section 179 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010.

[201] Section 69. (2) was established by Section 43 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[202] Section 69. (3 was established by Section 43 (2) of Act I of 2002. Revised by Section 165 (2) c) of Act CLXXXIII of 2010.

[203] See Government Decree No. 254/2001 (XII. 18.)

[204] Section 70 (1) f) was enacted by Section 12 of Act LXXXIII of 2009. Effective: since 1st January, 2012.

[205] Section 70 (3) was established by Section 32 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[206] The text of the first sentence of Section 70. (4) was established by Section 44 (1) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003. The text of the second sentence of Section 70 (4) was established by Section 2 of Act CXXXII of 2004. Effective: since 1st January, 2005.

[207] Section 70 (5) was established by Section 44 (1) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[208] Section 70 (6) was enacted by Section 44 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[209] Section 70 (7) was enacted by Section 44 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[210] Section 70 (8) was enacted by Section 44 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[211] Section 70(9) was enacted by Section 44 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[212] Section 70/A was enacted by Section 3 of act CXXXII of 2004. Effective: since 1st January, 2005.

[213] Section 70/A and its subtitle was enacted by Section 45 of Act I of 2002.

[214] Enacted by Section 45 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[215] Section 70/B (6) was established by Section 33 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[216] The text of the third sentence of Section 70/b (7) was enacted by Section 39 of Act XXVII of 2007. Effective: since 1st June, 2007.

[217] Section 70/B (10) was established by Section 132 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010. Effective: since 1st March, 2011. See: Section 179 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010.

[218] Established by Section 42 (21) of Act CLV of 2009. Effective: since 1st June, 2010.

[219] Section 70/C was enacted by Section 46 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003. The number of Section 70/C was changed by Section 3 of Act CXXXII of 2004.

[220] Section 70/C (1) was revised by Section 42 (21) of Act CLV of 2009.

[221] Section 70/C (2) was revised by Section 42 (21) of Act CLV of 2009.

[222] See Act CLV of 2009.

[223] Section 70/C (3) was revised by Section 42 (21) of Act CLV of 2009.

[224] Section 70/C (3) a) was revised by Section 42 (21) of Act CLV of 2009.

[225] Section 70/C (3) b) was revised by Section 42 (21) of Act CLV of 2009.

[226] Section 70/C (3) c) was revised by Section 42 (21) of Act CLV of 2009.

[227] Section 70/C (3) d) was revised by Section 42 (21) of Act CLV of 2009.

[228] Section 70/C (4) was revised by Section 42 (21) of Act CLV of 2009.

[229] Section 70/C (5) was revised by Section 42 (21) of Act CLV of 2009.

[230] Section 70/C (5) a) was revised by Section 42 (21) of Act CLV of 2009.

[231] Section 70/D was enacted by Section 18 of Act CXXXVI of 2009. Effective: since 13th January, 2010.

[232] Section 70/D (1) was revised by Section 68 (6) b) of Act CLXI of 2010.

[233] The text of the first sentence of Section 70/D (3) was revised by Section 68 (6) c) of Act CLXI of 2010.

[234] Section 71 (1) was established by Section 47 (1) of Act I of 2002. The text of the third sentence was established by Section 34 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[235] Section 71 (6) were enacted by Section 47 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[236] Section 71 (7) were enacted by Section 47 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[237] Section 71 (8) were enacted by Section 47 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[238] Enacted by Section 37 of Act II of 2003. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[239] Section 71/A. was enacted by Section 37 of Act II of 2003. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[240] Section 71/B. was enacted by Section13 of Act LXXXIII of 2009. Effective: since 13th August, 2009.

[241] Established by Section 48 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[242] Section 73 was established by Section 48 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[243] Section 73 (2) WAS REVISED BY Section 21 (1) k) of Act XC of 2007.

[244] Section 73 (9) was enacted by Section 35 of Act LI of 2006, Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[245] Section 73/A was enacted by Section 38 of Act CV of 2007. Effective: since 10th August, 2007.

[246] Section 74 (1) a) was established by Section 49 (1) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[247] Section 74 (2) was established by Section 49 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[248] Section 74 (3) was established by Section 49 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[249] Section 74 (3) b) was overruled by Section 285 (1) b) of Act LI of 2006. Of no effect: since 1st July, 2006.

[250] Section 74 (3) c) was established by Section 36 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[251] Section 74 (4) was established by Section 49 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[252] Section 74 (5) was established by Section 12 (1) of Act XCII of 2008. Effective: since 12th January, 2009.

[253] Title III was enacted by Section 38 of Act II of 2003. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[254] Enacted by Section 38 of Act II of 2003. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[255] Section 74/A was enacted by Section 38 of Act II of 2003. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[256] Section 74/A (3) was revised by Section 42 (21) of Act CLV of 2009, Section 68 (6) d) of Act CLXI of 2010.

[257] Section 74/B was enacted by Section 38 of Act II of 2003. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[258] See Act LXVI of 1995.

[259] Section 74/B (6) was overruled by Section 59 (6) of Act LXXXIII of 2009. Of no effect: since 13th August, 2009.

[260] Section 75 (1) was established by Section 37 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[261] Section 75 (4) was enacted by Section 50 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[262] Section 79 (2) was established by Section 51 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[263] Pursuant Section 308 (2) of Act I of 2002, the original Section 79 (3) shall be repealed and not enter into force, simultaneously, the number of Section 79 (4) shall be changed to Section 79 (3). Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[264] Please refer to Decree No. I/1969 (.8.) IM of the Ministry of Justice.

[265] See Decree No. 1/1969. (I.8.) of Ministry of Justice, Decree No. 14/2008. (VI.27.) of Ministry of Justice and Police.

[266] Section 80 was established by Section 52 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[267] Section 81 (1) d) was enacted by Section 38 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[268] Section 81 (2) was revised by Section 42 (21) of Act CLV of 2009.

[269] Section 81 (3) was established by Section 53 of Act I of 2002. Revised by Section 42 (21) of Act CLV of 2009.

[270] See: Act LXV of 1995.

[271] Section 82 (1) b) was established by Section 54 (1) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[272] Section 82 (1) c) was established by Section 54 (1) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[273] Section 82 (2) was established by Section 133 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010. Effective: since 1st March, 2011. See: Section 179 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010.

[274] Section 82 (4) was enacted by Section 39 (2) of Act I of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[275] Section 82 (5) was established by Section 54 (2) of Act I of 2002. The text of the first sentence was established by Section 42 of Act XXVII of 2007. Effective: since 1st June, 2007.

[276] Section 83 was established by Section 55 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[277] The former last sentence was overruled by Section 285 (1) b) of Act LI of 2006. Of no effect: since 1st July, 2006.

[278] Section 83 (2) was revised by Section 285 (1) b) of Act LI of 2006.

[279] Section 84 was established by Section 40 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[280] Section 85 (3) was established by Section 134 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010. Effective: since 1st March, 2011. See: Section 179 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010.

[281] Section 85 (4) was established by Section 50 of Act Cl of 2011. Effective: since 1st January, 2012.

[282] Section 85 (5) and was enacted by Section 56 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[283] Section 85 (6) was enacted by Section 56 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[284] Section 86 (3) was established by Section 42 (1) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[285] Section 86 (4) was enacted by Section 42 (2) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[286] The text of the first sentence was established by Section 57 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[287] Pursuant to Section 308 (2) of Act I of 2002, Sections 89–92 and the subtitles thereof shall be overruled and not enter into force since 1st July, 2003.

[288] Section 96 (1) was enacted by Section 5 of Act LXXXIX of 2011. Effective: since 13th July, 2011. See: Section 27 (2) of Act LXXXIX of 2011.

[289] Section 96 (2) was established by Section 58 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[290] Section 96 (3) was enacted by Section 58 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[291] Section 97 c) was established by Section 59 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[292] Established by Section 60 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[293] Section 98 was established by Section 60 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[294] See Government Decree No. 34/1999. (II. 26.).

[295] Enacted by Section 61 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[296] Section 96 was enacted by Section 61 of act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[297] See Act LXXXV of 2001.

[298] Section 99 (2) a) was established by Section 62 of Act I of 2002. Revised by Section 26 (4) fb) of Act CXXXVI of 2009.

[299] Section 99 (2) b) was revised by Section 26 (4) fb) of Act CXXXVI of 2009.

[300] Section 99 (3) was established by Section 43 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[301] Section 102 was established by Section 63 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[302] Section 102 (1) was established by Section 35 (1) of Act XLVII of 2005. Effective: 1st January, 2006.

[303] Section 102 (3) was established by Section 35 (2) of Act XLVII of 2005. Effective: since 1st January, 2006.

[304] Section 102 (4) was established by Section 35 (2) of Act XLVII of 2005. Effective: since 1st January, 2006.

[305] Section 103 (1) b) was established by Section 25 of Act CLXI of 2010. Effective: since 1st January, 2011.

[306] Section 103 (1) e) was established by Section 35 (3) of Act XLVII of 2005. Effective: since 1st January, 2006.

[307] Section 103 (1) f) was enacted by Section 35 (3) of Act XLVII of 2005. Effective: since 1st January, 2006.

[308] The marking was changed by Section 35 (3) of Act XLVII of 2005.

[309] The marking was changed by Section 35 (3) of Act XLVII of 2005.

[310] Section 103 (2) was enacted by Section 3 of Act CXVII of 2006. Effective: since 26th of December, 2006.

[311] Section 103 (3) was established by Section 35 (4) of Act XLVII of 2005. The number thereof was changed by Section 3 of Act CXVIII of 2006.

[312] The number of Section 103 (4) was changed by Section 3 of Act CXVIII of 2006.

[313] The number of Section 103 (5) was changed by Section 3 of Act CXVIII of 2006.

[314] Section 105 (6) was enacted by Section 65 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[315] Section 105 (6) and (7) was enacted by Section 65 of Act I of 2002.

[316] Please refer to Decree No. 3/1986. (II. 21.) IM of the Ministry of Justice.

[317] Section 105 (7) was enacted by Section 65 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[318] The last sentence of Section 106 (1) was enacted by Section 66 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[319] Section 106 (3) was established by Section 44 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[320] Section 107 (1) was revised by Section 89 (4) c) of Act XXVII of 2007.

[321] Please refer to Section 52 (3) of Decree No. 2/1988. (V. 19.) IM of the Ministry of Justice.

[322] Section 107 (3) was enacted by Section 67 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[323] The former second sentence was overruled by Section 38 f) of the Act XLVII of 2005. Of no effect: since 1st January, 2006.

[324] Section 108 (6) was established by Section 68 (1)of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[325] Section 108 (8) was established by Section 45 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006..

[326] Section 110 was revised by Section 143 (6) a9 of Act LXXV of 2009. See also: Section 140 (6) of Act LXXV of 2009.

[327] Section 110 (2) was overruled by Section 144 (8) a) of Act LXXV of 2009. Of no effect: since 1st October, 2009. See also: Section 140 (6) of Act LXXV of 2009.

[328] Pursuant to Section 308 (2) of Act I of 2002, Section 110 (3) shall be repealed and shall not enter into force from 1st July, 2003.

[329] Section 111 was established by Section 69 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[330] Section (3) – (4) was overruled by Section 28 of Act LXXXIX of 2011. Of no effect: since 13th July, 2011.

[331] Section 112 (2) was established by Section 35 (7) of Act XLVII of 2005. Effective: since 1st January, 2006.

[332] The second sentence was enacted by Section 35 (8) OF Act XLVII of 2005. Effective: since 1st January, 2006.

[333] Section 114 (1) was established by Section 70 of Act I of 2002. Revised by Section 202 b) of Act CLXXIX of 2011.

[334] Section 114 (2) was established by Section 25 of Act CXXV of 2009. Effective: since 1st January, 2011.

[335] Section 114 (3) was established by Section 46 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[336] Enacted by Section 39 of Act II of 2003. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[337] Section 114/A was enacted by Section 39 of Act II of 2003. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[338] The text of the first sentence was established by Section 47 (1) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st January, 2007.

[339] Please also refer to Chapter II of Decree No. 17/2003. (VI. 24.) IM of the Ministry of Justice.

[340] Section 303 was established by Section 47 (2) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[341] Section 115 (1) was established by Section 14 of Act LXXXIII of 2009. Effective: since 13th August, 2009.

[342] Section 116 (3) was established by Section 15 of Act LXXXIII of 2009. Effective: since 13th August, 2009.

[343] Section 117 (1) was established by Section 16 of Act LXXXIII of 2009. Effective: since 13th Agust, 2009..

[344] Section 117 (2) was established by Section 135 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010. Effective: since 1st March, 2011. See: Section 179 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010.

[345] The last two  sentences of Section 117 (4) were enacted by Section 71 (3) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[346] Section 118 (1) was established by Section 72 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[347] Section 119 (2) was established by Section 73 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[348] Pursuant to Section 308 (2) of Act I of 2002, Section 119 (5) and (6) shall be repealed and shall not enter into force from 1st July, 2003.

[349] Enacted by Section 49 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[350] Section 120 (1) was revised by Section 285 (1) b) of Act LI of 2006.

[351] Section 122 (1) was established by Section 74 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[352] Section 123 (4) was enacted by Section 75 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[353] Section 123 (5) was enacted by Section 75 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[354] Section 124 (2) was established by Section 76 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[355] Section 126 (2) was established by Section 17 of Act LXXXIII of 2009. Effective: since 13th August, 2009.

[356] Section 129 (2) a) was established by Section 77 (1) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[357] Section 130 (2) was established by Section 50 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[358] The last sentence of Section 131 (1) was established by Section 78 (1) of Act I of 2002. Revised by Section 203 a) of Act CLXI of 2011.

[359] Section 131 (3) was revised by Section 203 a) of Act CLXI of 2011.

[360] Section 131 (4) was established by Section 51 (1) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[361] Section 131 (4) was established by Section 51 (2) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[362] Section 132 (1) was established by Section 40 of Act II of 2003. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[363] Section 132 (2) was established by Section 51 (1) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[364] Section 132 (3) was established by Section 18 (1) of Act LXXXIII of 2009. Effective: since 1st July, 2010.

[365] Section 132 (4) was enacted by Section 52 (3) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[366] Section 132 (5) was established by Section 18 (2) of Act LXXXIII of 2009. Effective: since 1st July, 2010.

[367] Section 133 (2) was established by Section 53 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[368] Section 135 (2) was established by Section 54 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[369] Section 135 (3) was established by Section 41 (1) of Act II of 2003. Revised by Section 59 (5) of Act LXXXIII of 2009.

[370] Section 135 (4) was established by Section 80 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[371] Section 136 (2) was established by Section 55 (1) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[372] Section 136 (3) was established by Section 19 of Act LXXXIII of 2009. Effective: since 13th August, 2009.

[373] The number of Section 136 (4) was changed by Section 55 (2) of Act LI of 2006.

[374] Established by Section 56 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[375] Enacted by Section 82 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[376] Section 137 (2) was established by Section 82 (3) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[377] Section 137 (3) was established by Section 20 of Act LXXXIII of 2009. Effective: since 13th August, 2009.

[378] Section 137 (4) was established by Section 82 (4).of Act I of 2002. Revised by Section 29 b) of Act CXXXI of 2004.

[379] Section 137 (5) was established by Section 57 (1) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[380] Section 137 (6) was enacted by Section 82 (5).of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[381] Section 137 (7) was enacted by Section 82 (5).of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[382] Section 137 (8) was established by Section 57 (2) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[383] Section 137 (9) was enacted by Section 57 (3) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[384] Enacted by Section 83 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[385] Section 138 was established by Section 83 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[386] Section 138 (1) was established by Section 58 (1) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[387] Section 138 (2) was enacted by Section 58 (2) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[388] The number of Section 138 (3) was changed and the text thereof was established by Section 58 (2)-(3) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[389] The number of Section 138 (4) was changed by Section 58 (2) of Act LI of 2006.

[390] The number of Section 138 (5) was changed by Section 58 (2) of Act LI of 2006.

[391] Enacted by Section 59 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[392] Section 138/A was enacted by Section 59 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[393] Section 138/A (7) was enacted by Section 22 (1) of Act LXXII of 2009. Effective: since 1st October, 2009.

[394] Section 138 /B was enacted by Section 60 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[395] Section 138 /B (1) was established by Section 22 (2) of Act LXXII of 2009. Effective: since 1st October, 2009.

[396] Section 139 (1) was established by Section 84 of Act I of 2002. The number thereof was changed by Section 61 of Act LI of 2006.

[397] Section 139 (2) was enacted by Section 61 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[398] Section 141 (2) was revised by Section 89 (4) c) of Act XXVII of 2007.

[399] The text of the first sentence of Section 142 (3) was established by Section 85 of Act I of 2002. Revised by Section 203 a) of Act CLXI of 2011.

[400] Section 142 (4) was revised by Section 203 a) of Act CLXI of 2011.

[401] Section 143 (1) was established by Section 62 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[402] Section 144 (1) was revised by section 89 (4) c) of Act XXVII of 2007.

[403] Section 145 (1) was established by Section 63 (1) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[404] Section 145 (2) was enacted by Section 63 (2) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[405] The number of Section 145 (3) was changed by Section 63 (2) of Act LI of 2006.

[406] Section145 (4) was enacted by Section 43 (2) of Act II of 2003. The number thereof was changed by Section 63 (2) of Act LI of 2006.

[407] Established by Section 64 (1) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[408] Section 146 was established by Section 64 (2) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[409] Section 146 (2) was established by Section 44 (1) of Act XXVII of 2007. Effective: since 1st June, 2007.

[410] Section 146 (3) was established by Section 44 (1) of Act XXVII of 2007. Effective: since 1st June, 2007.

[411] Section 146 (4) was established by Section 44 (2) of Act XXVII of 2007. Effective: since 1st June, 2007

[412] Section 147 was established by Section 65 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006. See Resolution for the Uniformity of Criminal Law No. 2/2009. Published in the Official Gazette No. 2009/60.

[413] The text of the second sentence of Section 147 (4) was established by Section 45 of Act XXVII of 2007. Effective: since 1st June, 2007.

[414] Section 148 was established by Section 66 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[415] See: Resolution No. 2/2009 for the uniformity of criminal law. Published in Hungarian Official Gazette No 2009/60.

[416] Section 149 (1) was established by Section 88 (1) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st August, 2003.

[417] Section 149 (2) c) was established by Section 88 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[418] Section 149 (3) was established by Section 88 (3) of Act I of 2002. The second sentence was enacted by Section 46 of Act II of 2003. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[419] Section 149 (4) was established by Section 88 (3) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[420] Section 149 (5) was established by Section 88 (3) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[421] Section 149 (6) was established by Section 67 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[422] Section 149 (7) was established by Section 88 (3) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[423] Section 150 (1) was established by Section 89 (1) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[424] Section 150 (3) was established by Section 89 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[425] Section 150 (6) was overruled by Section 89 (3) b) of Act XXVII of 2007. Of no effect: since 1st June, 2007.

[426] Section 151 (1) was established by Section 21 (1) of Act LXXXIII of 2009. Effective: since 13th August, 2009.

[427] Section 151 (2) was established by Section 21 (2) of Act LXXXIII of 2009. Effective: since 13th August, 2009. See also Section 57 of Act LXXXIII of 2009.

[428] Section 151 (3) was established by Section 69 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[429] Section 151 (4) was established by Section 90 (1) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[430] Section 151 (6) was established by Section 90 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[431] Section 152 (1) was established by Section 91 (1) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[432] Section 152 (5) was established by Section 91 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[433] Section 153 (2) was established by Section 92 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[434] Section 154 (1) was established by Section 51 of Act CL fo 2011. Effective: since 1st January, 2012.

[435] Section 155 (1) was established by Section 70 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[436] Section 155 (6) was established by Section 94 (1).of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[437] Section 155 (7) was enacted by Section 94 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[438] The number of Section 155 (8) was changed by Section 94 (2) of Act I of 2002.

[439] Section 155 (9) was enacted by Section 22 of Act LXXXIII of 2009. Effective: since 13th August, 2009.

[440] Established by Section 95 (1) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[441] Section 156 (2) a) was established by Section 95 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[442] Section 156 (5) was enacted by Section 95 (3) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[443] Section 157 (1) was established by Section 96 of Act I of 2002. Revised by Section 26 (4) fb) of Act CXXXVI of 2009.

[444] Enacted by Section 97 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[445] Section 158 /A was enacted by Section 97 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[446] The Number of Title IX was changed by Section 97 of Act I of 2002.

[447] Established by Section 98 (1) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[448] Enacted by Section 98 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[449] Section 159 was established by Section 52 of Act CL of 2011. Effective: since 1st January, 2012.

[450] Section 160 was established by Section 99 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[451] Section 160 (3) was established by Section 53 of Act CL of 2011. Effective: since 1st January, 2012.

[452] The number Title X was changed by Section 97 of Act I of 2002.

[453] Section 161 (5) was established by Section 54 of Act CL of 2011. Effective: since 1st January, 2012.

[454] Section 161 (6) was enacted by Section 49 Act II of 2003. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[455] Section 161 (7) was enacted by Section 49 Act II of 2003. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[456] Section 162 (1) was established by Section 73 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[457] Section 162 (3) was established by Section 100 (1) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[458] Section 162 (7) was established by Section 55 of Act CL of 2011. Effective: since 1st January, 2012.

[459] Section 165 was established by Section 23 of Act LXXXIII of 2009. Effective: since 13th August, 2009.

[460] Section 165/A was overruled by Section 165 (2) d) of Act CLXXXIII of 2010. Of no effect: since 1st March, 2011.

[461] Section 166 (2) d) was established by Section 75 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[462] Section 166 (3) was established by Section 101 (1) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[463] The last two sentences of Section 166 (7) were enacted by Section 101 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[464] For the detailed rules, please refer to Joint Decree No. 23/2003. (VI. 24.) BM–IM of the Ministry of Interior and the Ministry of Justice and Joint Decree No. 17/2003. (VII. 1.) PM–IM of the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Justice.

[465] The last sentence of Section 168 (1) was enacted by Section 46 of Act XXVII of 2007. Effective: since 1st June, 2007.

[466] The former second sentence was overruled by Section 285 (1) b) of Act LI of 2006. Of no effect: since 1st July, 2006.

[467] Section 168 (4) was enacted by Section 136 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010. Effective: since 1st March, 2011. See: Section 179 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010.

[468] Section 169 (1) was established by Section 102 (1) of Act I of 2002. The text of the first sentence was established by Section 76 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[469] Section 169 (2) d) was enacted by Section 102 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[470] Section 169 (5) was established by Section 25 of Act LXXXIII of 2009. Effective: since 13th August, 2009.

[471] Section 170 (2) was established by Section 77 (1) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[472] The second, third and fourth sentences of Section 170 (3) were enacted by Section 103 (2) of Act I of 2002. The text of the first sentence was established by Section 77 (2) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[473] The text of the first sentence of Section 170 (4) was established by Section 103 (3) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[474] Section 170 (5) was enacted by Section 103 (4) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[475] Section 170 (6) was enacted by Section 103 (4) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[476] Enacted by Section 78 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[477] Section 172/A was enacted by Section 78 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[478] Section 172/A (2) was established by Section 137 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010. Effective: since 1st March, 2011. See: Section 179 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010.

[479] Section 174 (1) d) was revised by Section 10 of Act CCX of 2011.

[480] Section 174 (3) b) was established by Section 104 (1) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[481] Section 174 (5) was overruled by Section 59 (6) of Act LXXXIII of 2009. Of no effect: since 13th August, 2009.

[482] Section 175 (2) was established by Section 105 (1) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[483] Section 175 (3) was established by Section 105 (1) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[484] Section 175 (4) was established by Section 26 of Act LXXXIII of 2009. Effective: since 13th August, 2009.

[485] Section 175 (5) was enacted by Section 105 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[486] Section 175 (6) was enacted by Section 105 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[487] Section 175 (7) was enacted by Section 105 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[488] Section 175/A was enacted by Section 26 of Act CLXI of 2010. Effective: since 1st January, 2011.

[489] Section 176 was established by Section 106 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[490] Section 176 (1) was established by Section 138 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010. Effective: since 1st March, 2011. See: Section 179 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010.

[491] Section 176 (2) was established by Section 138 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010. Effective: since 1st March, 2011. See: Section 179 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010.

[492] Section 176 (3) was established by Section 138 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010. Effective: since 1st March, 2011. See: Section 179 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010.

[493] Section 176 (4) was overruled by Section 28 of Act LXXXIX of 2011. Of no effect: since 13th July, 2011.

[494] Section 177 was established by Section 107 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[495] Section 178 was established by Section 108 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[496] The text of the first sentence of Section 178 (1) was established by Section 80 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[497] Please refer to Act XXXIV of 1994.

[498] Section178/A was enacted by Section 109 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[499] Section 178/A (1) was established by Section 158 (3) of Act CXXII of 2010. Effective: since 1st January, 2011.

[500] Section 178/A (2) was established by Section 27 of Act CLXI of 2010. Effective: since 1st July, 2011.

[501] Section 178/B was enacted by Section 28 of Act CLXI of 2010. Effective: since 1st July, 2011.

[502] Act XXXVIII of 1996 on international legal aid in criminal matters

[503] The last sentence of Section 179 (1) was enacted Section 50 by of Act II of 2003. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[504] Section 179 (4) was established by Section 82 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[505] Section 179 (5) was enacted by Section 82 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[506] Section 181 was established by Section 56 of Act CL of 2011. Effective: since 1st January, 2012.

[507] Section 182 (1) was established by Section 111 (1) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[508] Section 182 (5) was enacted by Section 111 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[509] Section 183 was established by Section 83 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[510] The second and third sentences of Section 184 (2) were established by Section 51 (1) of Act II of 2003. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[511] Section 184 (4) was established by Section 84 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[512] Section 184 (5) was enacted by Section 113 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[513] Section 184 (6) was enacted by Section 113 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[514] Section 184 (7) was enacted by Section 51 (2) of Act II of 2003. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[515] Section 184 (8) was enacted by Section 21 (4) d) of Act CLXXXIV of 2005. Effective: since 1st January, 2006. It shall be applicable for procedures initiated after this date.

[516] Section 184 (9) was overruled by Section 285 (1) b) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[517] The last sentence of Section 185 (1) was enacted by Section 114 of Act I of 2002. The text of the first sentence was established by Section 52 of Act II of 2003. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[518] Section 186 (4) was established by Section 28 of Act LXXXIII of 2009. Effective: since 13th August, 2009. See also Section 58 of Act LXXXIII of 2009.

[519] Section 188 (1) c) was established by Section 29 of Act LXXXIII of 2009. Effective: since 13th August, 2009.

[520] Section 188 (1) f) was enacted by Section 116 (1) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[521] Section 188 (1) g) was enacted by Section 53 (1) of Act II of 2003. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[522] Section 188 (1) h) was enacted by Section 85 (1) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[523] Section 188 (2) was established by Section 85 (2) of Act LI of 2006. The former last sentence was overruled by Section 28 of Act LXXXIX of 2011. Of no effect: since 13th July, 2011.

[524] Section 188 (3) c) was overruled by Section 285 (1) b) of Act LI of 2006. Of no effect: since 1st July, 2006.

[525] Section 188 (6) was established by Section 116 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[526] Section 189 (1) was established by Section 30 (1) of Act LXXXIII of 2009. Effective: since 13th August, 2009.

[527] Section 189 (2) was established by Section 30 (2) of Act LXXXIII of 2009. Effective: since 13th August, 2009.

[528] Section 190 (1) h) was established by Section 53 (3) of Act II of 2003. Revised by Section 14 (2) b) of Act XIII of 2007.

[529] Section 190 (1) i) was overruled by Section 59 (6) of Act LXXXIII of 2009. Of no effect: since 13th August, 2009.

[530] Section 190 (1) j) was enacted by Section 87 (2) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[531] Section 190 (2) was established by Section 31 of Act LXXXIII of 2009. Effective: since 13th August, 2009.

[532] Section 190 (3) was enacted by Section 87 (4) of Act LI of 2006. Revised by Section 285 (3) of the same Act.

[533] The number of Section 190 (4) was changed by Section 87 (4) of Act LI of 2006.

[534] The number of Section 190 (5) was changed by Section 87 (4) of Act LI of 2006.

[535] Section 191 (2) was established by Section 88 (1) of Act LI of 2006. Decision No. 56/2010. (V. 5.) of the Constitutional Court 1. overruled the part “the prosecutor, and”. The former last sentence was overruled by Section 28 of Act LXXXIX of 2011. Of no effect: since 13th July, 2011.

[536] Section 191 (3) was established by Section 88 (2) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[537] Section 191 (5) was enacted by Section 53 (4) of Act II of 2003. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[538] Established by Section 29 of Act CLXI of 2010. Effective: since 1st January, 2011.

[539] Section 192 (2) was established by Section 118 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[540] Section 192 (3) was established by Section 118 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[541] Section 192 (4) was established by Section 118 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[542] Pursuant to Section 308 (2) of Act I of 2002, Section 192 (5)–(7) shall be repealed and shall not enter into force from 1st July, 2003.

[543] Section 192/A was enacted by Section 30 of Act CLXI of 2010. Effective: since 1st January, 2011.

[544] The text of the first sentence of Section 193 (1) was established by Section 53 (5) of Act II of 2003. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[545] The text of the first sentence of Section 193 (2) was established by Section 119 (1) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[546] Section 193 (3) was established by Section 89 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[547] Section 193 (4) was established by Section 89 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[548] Section 193 (5) was established by Section 89 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[549] Section 193 (6) was established by Section 89 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[550] Section 193 (7) was enacted by Section 47 of Act XXVII of 2007. Effective: since 1st June, 2007.

[551] Section 194 (2) was established by Section 90 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[552] Section 195 (1) was established by Section 6 of Act LXXXIX of 2011. Effective: since 13th July, 2011. See: Section 27 (2) of Act LXXXIX of 2011.

[553] Section 195 (1) was established by Section 6 of Act LXXXIX of 2011. Effective: since 13th July, 2011. See: Section 27 (2) of Act LXXXIX of 2011.

[554] Section 195 (6a) was enacted by Section 57 of Act CL of 2011. Effective: since 1st January, 2012.

[555] Section 195 (8) was enacted by Section 91 (2) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[556] Section 196 was established by Section 48 of Act XXVII of 2007. Effective: since 1st June, 2007.

[557]

[558] The number of Section 197 (1) was changed by Section 120 (1) of Act I of 2002.

[559] Section 197 (2) was enacted by Section 120 (1) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[560] See Decision No. 56 /2010. (V. 5.) of the Constitutional Court 3.

[561] Section 199 (2) was established by Section 120 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[562] Section 199 (3) was established by Section 120 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[563] Title V was established by Section 1 of Act CLXXXIII of 2007. Effective: since 1st January, 2008.

[564] Established by Section 1 of Act CLXXXIII of 2007. Effective: since 1st January, 2008.

[565] Established by Section 1 of Act CLXXXIII of 2007. Effective: since 1st January, 2008.

[566] Section 200 was established by Section 1 of Act CLXXXIII of 2007. Effective: since 1st January, 2008.

[567] Section 200 (1) b) was established by Section 31 of Act CLXI of 2010. Effective: since 1st January, 2011.

[568] Section 200 (1) c) was established by Section 31 of Act CLXI of 2010. Effective: since 1st January, 2011.

[569] Section 201 was established by Section 1 of Act CLXXXIII of 2007. Effective: since 1st January, 2008.

[570] Section 201 (1) was established by Section 32 of Act CLXI of 2010. Effective: since 1st January, 2011.

[571] Section 201 (1) d) was revised sue to Section 82 a) of Act CL of 2011.

[572] Section 201 (2) b) was established by Section 158 (4) of Act CXXII of 2010. Revised by Section 203 g) of Act CLXI of 2011.

[573] Section 202 was established by Section 1 of Act CLXXXIII of 2007. Effective: since 1st January, 2008.

[574] Established by Section 1 of Act CLXXXIII of 2007. Effective: since 1st January, 2008.

[575] Section 203 was established by Section 1 of Act CLXXXIII of 2007. Effective: since 1st January, 2008.

[576] Established by Section 1 of Act CLXXXIII of 2007. Effective: since 1st January, 2008.

[577] Section 204 was established by Section 1 of Act CLXXXIII of 2007. Effective: since 1st January, 2008.

[578] Section 204 (5) was revised by Section 68 (9) a) of Act CLXI of 2010.

[579] Established by Section 1 of Act CLXXXIII of 2007. Effective: since 1st January, 2008.

[580] Section 205 was established by Section 1 of Act CLXXXIII of 2007. Effective: since 1st January, 2008.

[581] Section 205 (1) was revised by Section 42 (21) of Act CLV of 2009.

[582] Established by Section 1 of Act CLXXXIII of 2007. Effective: since 1st January, 2008.

[583] Section 206 was established by Section 1 of Act CLXXXIII of 2007. Effective: since 1st January, 2008.

[584] Established by Section 1 of Act CLXXXIII of 2007. Effective: since 1st January, 2008.

[585] Section 206/A was established by Section 139 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010. Effective: since 1st March, 2011. See: Section 179 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010.

[586] Section 206/A (5) was revised by Section 203 j) of Act CLXI of 2011.

[587] Section 207 (1) was established by Section 122 (1) of Act I of 2002. Revised by Section 203 a) of Act CLXI of 2011.

[588] Section 207 (2) a) was established by Section 96 (1) of Act LI of 2006. Revised by Section 89 (4) c) of Act XXVII of 2007.

[589] Section 207 (2) b) was established by Section 140 (1) of Act CLXXXIII of 2010. Effective: since 1st march, 2011. See: Section 179 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010.

[590] Section 207 (2) c) was established by Section 140 (1) of Act CLXXXIII of 2010. Effective: since 1st march, 2011. See: Section 179 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010.

[591] Section 207 (2) e) was established by Section 96 (2) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[592] Section 207 (2a) was enacted by Section 140 (2) of Act CLXXXIII of 2010. Effective: since 1st march, 2011. See: Section 179 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010.

[593] The third sentence of Section 207 (3) was enacted by Section 122 (3) of Act I of 2002. Revised by Section 59 (5) of Act LXXXIII of 2009.

[594] The second sentence of Section 207 (5) was enacted by Section 122 (4) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[595] Section 207 (6) was enacted by Section 122 (5) of Act I of 2002. Revised by Section 203 a) of Act CLXI of 2011.

[596] Section 208 (1) was revised by Section 203 a) of Act CLXI of 2011.

[597] Section 208 (2) was revised by Section 203 a) of Act CLXI of 2011.

[598] Section 209 (1) was established by Section 8 of Act LXXXIX of 2011. Effective: since 13th July, 2011. See: Section 27 (2) of Act LXXXIX of 2011.

[599] Section 210 (1) a) was established by Section 97 (1) of Act LI of 206. Revised by Section 2 359 of Act LXXXII of 2007.

[600] Section 210 (1) b) was enacted by Section 97 (2) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[601] The marking of Section 210 (1) c) was changed by Section 97 (2) of Act LI of 2006.

[602] The marking of Section 210 (1) d) was changed and established by Section 97 (2)-(3) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[603] The marking of Section 210 (1) e) was changed by Section 97 (2) of Act LI of 2006.

[604] The marking of Section 210 (1) f) was changed by Section 97 (2) of Act LI of 2006.

[605] Section 210 (2) was established by Section 97 (4) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[606] Section 211 (1) was established by Section 98 (1) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[607] The text of the second sentence of Section 211 (4) was established by Section 98 (2) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[608] Section 211 (5) was established by Section 124 (2)of Act I of 2002. Effctive: since 1st July, 2003.

[609] Section 213 (2) was established by Section 125 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[610] Section 215 (2) was revised by Section 203 k) of Act CLXI of 2011.

[611] Section 215 (3) was established by Section 126 of Act I of 2002. Revised by Section 203 a) of Act CLXI of 2011.

[612] The text of the second instance of Section 215 (5) was established by Section 99 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[613] Section 216 was established by Section 127 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[614] Section 216 (1) d) was established by Section 100 (1) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st January, 2007.

[615] Section 216 (1) e) was established by Section 100 (2) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st January, 2007.

[616] Section 216 (2) was established by Section 100 (3) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st January, 2007.

[617] The number of Section 216 (3) was changed by Section 100 (3) of Act LI of 2006.

[618] The number of Section 216 (4) was changed by Section 100 (3) of Act LI of 2006.

[619] Section 216 (5) was enacted by Section 100 (4) of Act LI of 2006. Revised by Section 82 b) of Act CL of 2011.

[620] The text of Section 217 (3) e) was amended by Section 128 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[621] Section 217 (2) f) was established by Section 33 of Act CLXI of 2010. Effective: since 1st January, 2011.

[622] Section 217 (3) h) was established by Section 141 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010. Effective: since 1st march, 2011. See: Section 179 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010.

[623] The second sentence of Section 218 (1) was enacted by Section 129 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[624] Section 218 (4) was enacted bySection 56 (1) of Act II of 2003. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[625] Section 219 (1) was established by Section 58 of Act CL of 2011. Effective: since 1st January, 2012.

[626] Section 219 (3) was established by Section 130 (2) of Act I of 2002. Revised by Section 202 c) of Act CLXXIX of 2011.

[627] Section 219 (4) was enacted by Section 130 (3) of Act I of 2002. The text of the first sentence wwas eestablished by Section 101 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[628] Section 219 (5) was enacted by Section 130 (3) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[629] Section 219 (6) was enacted by Section 130 (3) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[630] The number of Section 220 (1) was changed by Section 102 of Act LI of 2006.

[631] Section 220 (2) was enacted by Section 102 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[632] Section 221 was established by Section 131 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003. Pursuant to Section 308 (2) of Act I of 2002, the original subtitle of Section 221 shall be repealed and shall not enter into force from 1st July, 2003.

[633] Enacted by Section 103 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st January, 2007.

[634] Section 221/A was enacted by Section 103 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st January, 2007.

[635] Section 221/A (1) was established by Section 9 of Act LXXXIX of 2011. Effective: since 13th July, 2011. See: Section 27 (2) of Act LXXXIX of 2011.

[636] Section 221/A (2) was established by Section 9 of Act LXXXIX of 2011. Effective: since 13th July, 2011. See: Section 27 (2) of Act LXXXIX of 2011.

[637] Section 221 (3) b) was revised by Section 56 (5) c) of Act LXXX of 2009.

[638] Section 221/A (4) was established by Section 10 of Act LXXXIX of 2011. Effective: since 13th July, 2011. See: Section 27 (2) of Act LXXXIX of 2011

[639] Section 221 (6) was revised by Section 29 (2) a) of Act CLXII of 2007.

[640] Section 222 (2) was established by Section 56 (2) of Act II of 2003. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[641] Section 222/A was enacted by Section 11 of Act LXXXIX of 2011. Effective: Since 13th July, 2011. See: Section 27 (2) of Act LXXXIX of 2011. Revised by Section 81 e) of Act CL of 2011.

[642] Section 223 (1) b) was established by Section 34 of Act CLXI of 2010. Effective: sicne 1st January, 2011.

[643] Established by Section 104 (1) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st January, 2007.

[644] Section 224 was established by Section 134 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[645] Section 224 (1) was established by Section 12 of Act LXXXIX of 2011. Effective: since 13th July, 2011. See: Section 27 (2) of Act LXXXIX of 2011.

[646] Section 224 (2) was established by Section 12 of Act LXXXIX of 2011. Effective: since 13th July, 2011. See: Section 27 (2) of Act LXXXIX of 2011.

[647] Section 224 (4) was established by Section 142 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010. Effective: since 1st march, 2011. See: Section 179 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010.

[648] Established by Section 135 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[649] Section 225 was established by Section 135 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[650] Section 225 (1) was revised by Section 56 (5) d) of Act LXXX of 2009.

[651] Section 225 (3) was established by Section 58 (1) of Act II of 2003. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[652] Section 225 (4) was established by Section 58 (1) of Act II of 2003. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[653] Section 226 (1) was established by Section 13 of Act LXXXIX of 2011. Effective: since 13th July, 2011. See: Section 27 (2) of Act LXXXIX of 2011.

[654] Section 226 (2) was established by Section 105 (1) of Act LI of 2006. Revised by Section 285 (3) of the same Act.

[655] Section 226 (3) was overruled by Section 29 (2) a) of Act CLXII of 2007. Of no effect: since 1st January, 2008.

[656] Enacted by Section 17 of Act CLXII of 2007. Effective: since 1st January, 2008.

[657] Section 226/A was enacted by Section 17 of Act CLXII of 2007. Effective: since 1st January, 2008.

[658] Section 227 (1) d) was enacted by Section 21 (4) of Act CXXIII of 2006. Effective: since 1st January, 2007.

[659] Section 227 (1) e) was enacted by Section 137 (1) of Act I of 2002. Its marking was changed by Section 21 (4) of Act CXXIII of 2006.

[660] Section 227 (2) was revised by Section 88 (2) c) of Act II of 2003.

[661] Section 227 (4) was enacted by Section 137 (2) of Act I of 2002 and its text established by Section 60 of Act II of 2003.

[662] Section 227 (4) a) was established by Section 106 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[663] Section 228 (1) was established by Section 59 of Act CL of 2011. Effective: since 1st January, 2012.

[664] Section 228 /A was enacted by Section 49 of Act XXVII of 2007. Effective: since 1st June, 2007.

[665] Section 228/A (1) was established by Section 60 of Act CL of 2011. Effective: since 1st January, 2012.

[666] Section 229 (1) was established by Section 108 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[667] Section 229 (3) was enacted by Section 15 (1) of Act CLI of 2007. Effective: since 1st January, 2008. It shall be applicable to cases started after this date.

[668] Section 229 (4) was enacted by Section 15 (1) of Act CLI of 2007. Effective: since 1st January, 2008. It shall be applicable to cases started after this date.

[669] Section 230 (1) was established by Section 139 of Act I of 2002. Pursuant to Section 88 (2) a)-b) of Act II of 2003, the original Section 230 (1) shall be repealed and shall not enter into force simultaniously, the number of former subsection (2) shall be changed to (1).  The second sentence was enacted by Section 82 (2) of Act LXXX of 2003. Effective: since 1st January, 2008 as defined Section 72 (5) of Act LXXX of 2003 established by Section 148 (12) of Act CXXXV of 2005. The text of the first sentence was established by Section 109 of Act LI of 2006.

[670] Section 230 (2) was established by Section 139 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003. Its number was changed by Section 88 (2) b) of Act II of 2003.

[671] Section 231 was established by Section 110 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[672] Section 232 was established by Section 111 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[673] Section 233 was established by Section 112 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[674] Section 237 (3) c) was established by Section 141 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[675] Section 237 (3) d) was revised by Section 42 (21) of Act CLV of 2009.

[676] Section 237 (3a) was enacted by Section 143 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010. Effective: since 1st march, 2011. See: Section 179 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010.

[677] The text of the second sentence of Section 238 (1) was established by Section 142 (1) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[678] The second sentence of Section 238 (2) was enacted by Section 142 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[679] Section 238 (3) was established by Section 142 (3) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[680] Section 238 (4) was established by Section 142 (3) of Act I of 2002. Revisd by Section 42 (21) of Act CLV of 2009.

[681] Section 239 (2) was established by Section 113 (1) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[682] Section 239 (3) was established by Section 113 (2) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[683] Section 241 (1) a) was annulled by Decision No. 72/2009. (VII. 10.) of the Constitutional Court 1. Of no effect: since 31st December, 2010.

[684] Section 241 (1) b) was overruled by Section 285 (1) b) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[685] Section 241 (1) c) was annulled by Decision No. 72/2009. (VII. 10.) of the Constitutional Court. Of no effect: since 31st December, 2010.

[686] Section 241 (1) d) was annulled by Decision No. 72/2009. (VII. 10.) of the Constitutional Court. Of no effect: since 31st December, 2010.

[687] Section 241 (1) e) was annulled by Decision No. 72/2009. (VII. 10.) of the Constitutional Court. Of no effect: since 31st December, 2010.

[688] Section 241 (1) f) was annulled by Decision No. 72/2009. (VII. 10.) of the Constitutional Court. Of no effect: since 31st December, 2010.

[689] Section 241 (2) was established by Section 35 (1) of Act CLXI of 2010. Revised by Section 203 l) of Act CLXI of 2011.

[690] Section 241 (3) was enacted by Section 35 (2) of Act CLXI of 2010. Effective: since 1st January, 2011.

[691] Section 242 (1) a) was established by Section 144 of Act I of 2002. Revised by Section 203 a) of Act CLXI of 2011.

[692] Section 242 (1) b) was established by Section 114 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[693] Section 242 (1) c) was established by Section 144 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010. Effective: since 1st march, 2011. See: Section 179 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010.

[694] The text of the second sentence of Section 244 (3) was established by Section 145 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[695] The subtitle and Sections 244/A–244/D were enacted by Section 146 of Act I of 2002.

[696] Section 244/A was enacted by Section 146 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[697] Section 244/B was enacted by Section 146 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[698] Section 244/C was enacted by Section 146 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[699] Section 244/D was enacted by Section 146 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[700] Section 245 (4) was established by Section 147 of Act I of 2002. Revised due to Decision No. 104/2007. (XII. 13.) of the Constitutional Court.

[701] Section 250 (1) was revised by Section 31 (5) ba) of Act CXXV of 2009.

[702] Section 250 (2) c) was established by Section 115 (1) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[703] Section 250 (2) h) was established by Section 148 (1) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[704] The second sentence of Section 250 (4) wwas enacted by Section 148 (2) of Act I of 2002. The third sentence thereof was enacted by Section 61 of Act II of 2003. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[705] Section 250 (5) was enacted by Section 148 (3) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[706] Section 250 (6) was enacted by Section 148 (3) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[707] Section 250 (7) was enacted by Section 148 (3) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[708] Section 251 (5) was enacted by Section 149 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[709] Please refer to Decree No. 14/2003. (VI. 19.) IM of the Ministry of Justice.

[710] The text of the first sentence of Section 252 (5) was established by Section 115 (2) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[711] Section 253 (2) was established by Section 150 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[712] Pursuant to Section 308 (2) of Act I of 2002, Section 253 (5) shall be repealed and shall not enter into force from 1st July, 2003.

[713] The second sentence of Section 254 (1) was established by Section 62 of Act II of 2003, and its third sentence was enacted by Section 151 (1) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[714] Section 255 was established by Section 152 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[715] Section 255 (2) was revised due to Decision No. 11/2007. (III. 7.) of the Constitutional Court.

[716] Section 256 (3) was established by Section 153 (1) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[717] Section 256 (6) was enacted by Section 153 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[718] Section 256 (7) was enacted by Section 153 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[719] The second sentence of Section 257 (1) was enacted by Section 154 (1) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[720] Section 257 (2) was overruled by Section 82 c) of Act Cl of 2011. Of no effect: since 1st January, 2012.

[721] The third sentence of Section 257 (4) was enacted by Section 154 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[722] Section 258 (1) b) was established by Section 116 (1) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[723] Section 258 (2) c) was amended by Section 155 (1) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[724] Section 258 (2) d) was established by Section 18 of Act CLXII of 2007. Effective: since 1st January, 2008.

[725] Section 258 (3) a) was established by Section 155 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[726] Section 258 (3) e) was established by Section 155 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[727] Section 258 (4) was established by Section 116 (2) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[728] The sentence in parentheses of Section 259 (1) was enacted by Section 156 (1) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[729] Section 259 (2) was established by Section 156 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[730] Section 260 (1) was established by Section 117 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[731] Section 260 (2) was established by Section 117 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[732] Section 260 (4) was enacted by Section 157 (2)of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[733] Section 261 was established by Section 158 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[734] The second sentence of Section 262 (1) was established and  the former third sentence thereof was overruled by Section 118 (1) and Section 285 (1) b) of Act LI of 2006.  Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[735] Section 262 (4) was established by Section 118 (2) of Act LI of 2006.  Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[736] Section 262 (5) was established by Section 159 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[737] Section 262 (6) was established by Section 159 (2) of Act I of 2002. Revised by Section 202 d) of Act CLXXIXof 2011.

[738] Enacted by Section 2 of Act XIX of 2006. Effective: since 1st April, 2006.

[739] Section 262/A was enacted by Section 2 of Act XIX of 2006. Effective: since 1st April, 2006. In order to apply this, see: Section 3 of the same Act.

[740] Section 262/B was enacted by Section 2 of Act XIX of 2006. Effective: since 1st April, 2006. In order to apply this, see: Section 3 of the same Act.

[741] Section 262/B (3) was revised by Section 81 b) of Act CL of 2011, Section 203 a) of Act CLXI of 2011.

[742] Section 263 (1) was established by by Section 145 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010. Effective: since 1st march, 2011. See: Section 179 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010.

[743] Section 263 (3) was established by Section 160 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[744] Section 263 (4) was enacted by Section 119 (2) of Act LI of 2006.  Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[745] The third sentences of Section 265 (1) was enacted by Section 161 (1) of Act I of 2002. The text of the second sentence was established by Section 63 (1) of Act II of 2003. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[746] Section 265 (2) was established by Section 161 (2)of Act I of 2002. Effctive: since 1st July, 2003.

[747] Section 265 (3) was established by Section 161 (2)of Act I of 2002. Effctive: since 1st July, 2003

[748] Section 265 (4) was enacted by Section 161 (3) of Act I of 2002. Effctive: since 1st July, 2003

[749] Section 265 (5) was enacted by Section 161 (3) of Act I of 2002. Effctive: since 1st July, 2003

[750] Section 265 (6) was enacted by Section 63 (2) of Act II of 2003. Effctive: since 1st July, 2003

[751] Section 266 (1) was established by Section 64 (1) of Act II of 2003. Effctive: since 1st July, 2003

[752] Section 266 (3) was established by Section 120 (1) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[753] Section 266 (4) was established by Section 120 (2) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[754] Section 266 (5) was established by Section 64 (3) of Act II of 2003. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[755] Section 266 (6) was established by Section 64 (4) of Act II of 2003. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[756] Section 266 (7) was established by Section 120 (3) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[757] The number of Section 266 (8) was changed by Section 162 (4) of Act I of 2002.

[758] Section 266 (9) was established by Section 64 (5) of Act II of 2003. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[759] Section 267 (1) c) was established by Section 65 (1) of Act II of 2003. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[760] Section 267 (1) d) was established by Section 65 (1) of Act II of 2003. Revised by Section 14 (2) b) of Act XIII of 2007.

[761] Section 267 (1) g) was enacted by Section 163 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[762] Section 267 (1) h) was established by Section 121 (1) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[763] Section 267 (1) i) was enacted by Section 65 (2) of Act II of 2003. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[764] Section 267 (1) j) was enacted by Section 121 (2) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[765] Section 267 (1) k) was enacted by Section 121 (2) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[766] Section 267 (1) l) was enacted by Section 121 (2) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[767] Section 267 (3) was established by Section 32 (1) of Act LXXXIII of 2009. Effective: since 13th August, 2009.

[768] Section 267 (4) was established by Section 32 (2) of Act LXXXIII of 2009. Effective: since 13th August, 2009.

[769] Section 267 (5) was established by Section 32 (2) of Act LXXXIII of 2009. Effective: since 13th August, 2009.

[770] The number of Section 267 (6) was changed by Section 32 (2) of Act LXXXIII of 2009.

[771] The number of Section 267 (7) was changed by Section 32 (2) of Act LXXXIII of 2009.

[772] Section 268 was established by Section 164 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[773] Section 268 (1) was established by Section 14 of act LXXXIX of 2011. Effective: since 13th July, 2011. See: Section 27 (2) of Act LXXXIX of 2011.

[774] Section 268 (2) was established by Section 33 of Act LXXXIII of 2009. Effective: since 13th August, 2009.

[775] The second sentence of Section 268 (3) was enacted by Section 66 (2) of Act II of 2003. Its number was changed by Section 33 of Act LXXXIII of 2009.

[776] The number of Section 268 (4) was changed by Section 33 of Act LXXXIII of 2009.

[777] Section 270 was established by Section 165 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[778] Section 270 (1) was established by Section 123 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[779] Enacted by Section 124 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[780] Section 270/A was enacted by Section 124 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[781] Section 271 was established by Section 146 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010. Effective: since 1st march, 2011. See: Section 179 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010.

[782] Section 271 (2) was revised by Section 203 a) of Act CLXI of 2011.

[783] Section 272 was enacted by Section 125 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[784] Section 272 (9) was enacted by Section 34 of Act LXXXIII of 2009. Effective: since 13th August, 2009.

[785] Section 273 (1) was established by Section 167 (1) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[786] Section 273 (4) was established by Section 167 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[787] Section 274 was established by Section 168 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[788] Section 275 (1) was enacted by Section 126 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[789] Section 275 (2) was established by Section 147 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010. Effective: since 1st march, 2011. See: Section 179 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010.

[790] Section 276 (1) c) was established by Section 167 (2) of Act CCI of 2011. Effective: since 1st January, 2012.

[791] Section 276 (1) e) was enacted by Section 127 (2) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[792] The marking of Section 276 (1) f) was changed by Section 127 (2) of Act LI of 2006.

[793] The marking of Section 276 (1) g) was changed by Section 127 (2) of Act LI of 2006.

[794] The marking of Section 276 (1) h) was changed by Section 127 (2) of Act LI of 2006.

[795] Section 276 (1) i) was established by Section 169 (1) of Act I of 2002. Its marking was changed by Section 127 (2) of Act LI of 2006. Revised by Section 59 (5) of Act LXXXIII of 2009.

[796] Section 276 (4) was enacted by Section 169 (2) of Act I of 2002.

[797] Section 278 (1) was established by Section 15 of Act LXXXIX of 2011. Effective: since 13th July, 2011. See: Section 27 (2) of Act LXXXIX of 2011.

[798] Section 278 (3) was established by Section 128 (1) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[799] Section 278 (4) was established by Section 128 (2) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[800] Section 279 (3) was established by Section 148 (1) of Act CLXXXIII of 2010. Effective: since 1st march, 2011. See: Section 179 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010.

[801] Section 279 (4) was established by Section 61 of Act Cl of 2011. Effective: since 1st January, 2012.

[802] Section 280 (2) was established by Section 129 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[803] The number of Section 280 (3) was changed by Section 129 of Act LI of 2006.

[804] Section 281 (2) was established by Section 149 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010. Effective: since 1st march, 2011. See: Section 179 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010.

[805] Section 281 (3) was established by Section 149 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010. Effective: since 1st march, 2011. See: Section 179 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010.

[806] Section 281 (4) was established by Section 170 (1) of Act I of 2002. The second sentence thereof was enacted by Section 130 (1) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[807] Section 281 (5) was established by Section 170 (1) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[808] Section 281 (6) was established by Section 150 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010. Effective: since 1st march, 2011. See: Section 179 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010.

[809] Section 281 (7) was established by Section 130 (2) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[810] Section 281 (8) was enacted by Section 170 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[811] Section 281 (9) was established by Section 151 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010. Effective: since 1st march, 2011. See: Section 179 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010.

[812] Section 282 (3) was enacted by Section 171 of Act I of 2002, which concurrently amended the original numbering of subsection (3) to subsection (4).

[813] The number of Section 282 (4) was changed by Section 171 of Act I of 2002.

[814] Section 284 (2) b) was established by Section 172 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[815] Established by Section 173 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[816] Section 285 was established by Section 173 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[817] Section 286 was established by Section 16 of Act LXXXIX of 2011. Effective: since 13th July, 2011. See: Section 27 (2) of Act LXXXIX of 2011.

[818] Established by Section 173 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[819] Section 287 was established by Section 173 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[820] Section 287 (1) was established by Section 131 of Act LI of 2006. Revised by Section 285 (3) of the same Act.

[821] Section 287 (4) was established by Section 17 of Act LXXXIX of 2011. Effective: since 13th July, 2011. See: Section 27 (2) of Act LXXXIX of 2011.

[822] Established by Section 173 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[823] Section 288 was established by Section 173 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[824] Section 288 (3) was established by Section 67 (1) of Act II of 2003. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[825] Section 288 (4) was enacted by Section 67 (2) of Act II of 2003. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[826] Section 289 was established by Section 173 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[827] Section 289 (2) was established by Section 152 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010. Effective: since 1st march, 2011. See: Section 179 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010.

[828] Section 290 was established by Section 173 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[829] Established by Section 153 (1) of Act CLXXXIII of 2010. Effective: since 1st March, 2011.

[830] Section 291 was established by Section 173 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[831] Section 291 (1) was established by Section 153 (2) of Act CLXXXIII of 2010. Effective: since 1st March, 2011. See: Section 179 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010.

[832] Section 291 (2) was established by Section 153 (2) of Act CLXXXIII of 2010. Effective: since 1st March, 2011. See: Section 179 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010.

[833] Section 291 (3) was established by Section 153 (2) of Act CLXXXIII of 2010. Effective: since 1st March, 2011. See: Section 179 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010.

[834] Established by Section 173 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[835] Section 292 was established by Section 173 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[836] Section 293 was established by Section 62 of Act CL of 2011. Effective: since 1st January, 2011.

[837] Section 294 was established by Section 173 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[838] Established by Section 173 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[839] Section 295 was established by Section 173 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[840] Section 295 (3) was enacted by Section 68 of Act II of 2003. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[841] Established by Section 154 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010. Effective: since 1st March, 2011.

[842] Section 296 was established by Section 154 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010. Effective: since 1st March, 2011. See: Section 179 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010.

[843] Section 297 was established by Section 173 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[844] Established by Section 155 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010. Effective: since 1st March, 2011.

[845] Section 299 was established by Section 155 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010. Effective: since 1st March, 2011. See: Section 179 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010.

[846] Established by Section 156 (1) of Act CLXXXIII of 2010. Effective: since 1st March, 2011. See: Section 179 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010.

[847] Section 301 (1) was established by Section 156 (2) of Act CLXXXIII of 2010. Effective: since 1st March, 2011. See: Section 179 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010.

[848] Section 301 (2) was established by Section 156 (2) of Act CLXXXIII of 2010. Effective: since 1st March, 2011. See: Section 179 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010.

[849] Section 301 (3) was established by Section 156 (2) of Act CLXXXIII of 2010. Effective: since 1st March, 2011. See: Section 179 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010.

[850] Section 301 (4) was enacted by Section 175 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[851] Section 304 (2) was enacted by Section 176 (1) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[852] Section 304 (3) was enacted by Section 176 (1) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[853] The number of Section 304 (4) was changed by Section 176 (1) of Act I of 2002.

[854] The number of Section 304 (5) was changed and established by Section 176 of Act I of 2002. The text of the second sentence thereof was established by Section 132 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[855] Section 305 was enacted by Section 177 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[856] The text of the first sentence of Section 305 (1) was revised by Section 88 (2) c) of Act II of 2003.

[857] Section 305 (2) was established by Section 50 of Act XXVII of 2007. Effective: since 1st June, 2007.

[858] Section 305 (3) was revised by Section 59 (5) of Act LXXXIII of 2009.

[859] Established by Section 178 Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[860] Section 306 was enacted by Section 178 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[861] Section 307 was established by Section 167 (3) of Act CCi of 2011. Effective: since 1st January, 2012.

[862] Section 308 (4) was enacted by Section 157 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010. Effective: since 1st March, 2011. See: Section 179 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010.

[863] Section 309 was established by Section 180 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[864] Section 309 (1) was established by Section 133 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[865] Section 310 (1) was established by Section 181 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[866] Section 310 (4) was established by Section 134 of Act LI of 2006. Revised by Section 165 (2) e) of Act CLXXXIII of 2010.

[867] Section 312 (1) was established by Section 15 (2) of Act CLI of 2007. Effective: since 1st January, 2008. It shall be applicable to cases started after this date.

[868] The text of the first sentence of Section 312 (3) was established by Section 182 of Act I of 2002. The text of the second sentence thereof was established by Section 135 (2) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[869] Section 312 (4) was enacted by Section 15 (3) of Act CLI of 2007. Effective: since 1st January, 2008. It shall be applicable to cases started after this date.

[870] Section 312 (5) was enacted by Section 15 (3) of Act CLI of 2007. Effective: since 1st January, 2008. It shall be applicable to cases started after this date.

[871] The number of Section 312 (6) was changed by Section 15 (3) of Act CLI of 2007.

[872] The former second sentence of Section 312 (7) was overruled by Section 285 (1) of Act LI of 2006. Of no effect: since 1st July, 2006. Its number was changed by Section 15 (3) of Act CLI of 2007.

[873] The number of Section 312 (8) was changed by Section 15 (3) of Act CLI of 2007.

[874] The number of Section 312 (9) was changed by Section 15 (3) of Act CLI of 2007.

[875] Section 314 (2) was established by Section 183 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[876] Section 314 (5) was enacted by Section 37 of Act CLXI of 2010. Effective: since 1st January, 2011.

[877] The text of the second sentence of Section 316 was established by Section 184 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[878] Section 317 was established by Section 63 of Act CL of 2011. Effective: since 1st January, 2012.

[879] Section 318 (2) was established by Section 26 of Act CXXV of 2009. Effective: since 1st January, 2011.

[880] The second sentence of Section 321 (2) was enacted by Section 186 (1)of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[881] The text of the first sentence of Section 321 (3) was established by Section 186 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[882] Section 321 (4) was enacted by Section 186 (3) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[883] Section 322 was established by Section 187 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[884] The text of the second sentence of Section 322 (2) was established and the third sentence thereof was enacted by Section 69 of Act II of 2003. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[885] Section 323 (1) was established by Section 136 (1) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[886] Section 323 (2) was established by Section 188 (1) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[887] Section 323 (3) was established by Section 136 (2) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[888] Section 323 (4) was revised by Section 158 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010. Effective: since 1st March, 2011. See: Section 179 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010.

[889] Section 324 was established by Section 137 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[890] Section 325 (3) was established by Section 37 of Act LXXXIII of 2009. Effective: since 13th August, 2009.

[891] Established by Section 189 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[892] Section 327 was established by Section 189 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[893] Section 327 (1) was established by Section 138 (1) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[894] Section 327 (3) was established by Section 38 of Act CLXI of 2010. Effective: since 1st January, 2011.

[895] Section 330 (4) was established by Section 190 (1) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[896] Section 331 (4) was established by Section 190 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[897] Section 332 (1) d) was established by Section 139 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[898] Section 332 (1) e) was established by Section 139 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[899] Section 332 (1) f) was enacted by Section 139 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[900] Section 332 (1) g) was enacted by Section 139 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[901] Section 332 (3) was established by Section 191 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[902] Section 332 (4) was enacted by Section 191 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[903] Section 332 (5) was enacted by Section 70 of Act II of 2003. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[904] The second sentence of Section 334 was enacted by Section 71 of Act II of 2003. The text of the first sentence was established by Section 140 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[905] Section 335 (1) was established by Section 193 of Act I of 2002. The text of the second sentence thereof was established by Section 72 of Act II of 2003. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[906]

[907]

[908] Section 337 (2) was established by Section 194 (1) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[909] Section 337 (3) was enacted by Section 194 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[910] The second sentence of Section 338 (3) was enacted by Section 195 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[911] Section 339 (2) was established by Section 196 of Act I of 2002. Revised by Section 31 (5) bb) of Act CXXV of 2009, Section 202 e) of act CLXXIX of 2011.

[912] Section 339 (3) was established by Section 141 (1) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[913] Section 339 (5) was established by Section 141 (2) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[914] Section 340 (3) was enacted by Section 15 (4) of Act CLI of 2007. Revised by Section 143 (6) b) of Act LXXV of 2009. See also: Section 140 (6) of Act LXXV of 2009.

[915] Section 341 (1) was established by Section 142 (1) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[916] Section 341 (2) was established by Section 142 (2) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[917] Title IV was overruled by Section 68 (9) b) of Act CLXI of 2010. Of no effect: since 1st January, 2011.

[918] Section 342 was overruled by Section 68 (9) b) of Act CLXI of 2010. Of no effect: since 1st January, 2011.

[919] The text of the first sentence of Section 343 (2) was established by Section 15 (5) of Act CLI of 2007. Effective: since 1st January, 2008. It shall be applied in cases started after this date. The text of the second and third sentence was established by Section 143 (1) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[920] Section 343 (3) was established by Section 82 (5) of Act LXXX of 2003. Effective: since 1st January, 2008 specified by Section 72 (5) of Act LXXX of 2003 established by Section 48 (12) of Act CXXXV of 2005.

[921] Section 343 (4) was established by Section 15 (6) of Act CLI of 2007. Effective: since 1st January, 2008. It shall be applied to cases started after this date.

[922] Section 343 (5) was established by Section 15 (6) of Act CLI of 2007. Effective: since 1st January, 2008. It shall be applied to cases started after this date.

[923] Section 343 (6) was established by Section 15 (6) of Act CLI of 2007. Effective: since 1st January, 2008

[924] Section 343 (7) was established by Section 15 (6) of Act CLI of 2007. Effective: since 1st January, 2008

[925] The number of Section 343 (8) was changed by Section 73 of Act II of 2003.

[926] Section 343 (9) was enacted by Section 143 (2) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[927] Section 344 (1)was established by Section 74 of Act II of 2003. Its number was changed by Section 144 of Act LI of 2006.

[928] Section 344 (2) was enacted by Section 144 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[929] Section 344 (3) was enacted by Section 144 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[930] Section 346 (1) was established by Section 145 (1) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[931] Section 346 (5) was established by Section 145 (2) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[932] Section 346 (6) was enacted by Section 159 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010. Effective: since 1st March, 2011. See: Section 179 of Act CLXXXIII of 2010.

[933] Enacted by Section 146 (1) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[934] Section 347 was established by Section 146 (2) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[935] The text of the second sentence of Section 348 (1) was established by Section 198 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[936] Section 348 (3) was established by Section 147 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[937] Section 348 (4) was overruled by Section 1285 (1) b) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[938] Section 349 (3) was enacted by Section 39 of Act LXXXIII of 2009. Effective: since 13th August, 2009.

[939] Section 351 (1) was established by Section 199 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[940] Section 352 (1) b) was established by Section 148 (1) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[941] Section 352 (3) was established by Section 148 (2) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[942] Section 353 was established by Section 149 of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[943] The second sentence of Section 354 (1) was enacted by Section 202 (1) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[944] Section 354 (4) was established by Section 19 of Act CXXXVI of 2009. Effective: since 1st May, 2010. See: Section 25 (2) of Act CXXXVI of 2009.

[945] Section 354 (4) e) was established by Section 39 of Act CLXI of 2010. Effective: since 1st January, 2011.

[946] Section 354 (5) was enacted by Section 202 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[947] Section 354 (6) was enacted by Section 202 (2) of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[948] Section 355 was enacted by Section 203 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[949] Section 358 (1) a) was established by Section 150 (1) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[950] Section 358 (1) d) was established by Section 204 of Act I of 2002. Effective: since 1st July, 2003.

[951] Section 358 (1) f) was established by Section 150 (2) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[952] Section 358 (1) g) was established by Section 150 (2) of Act LI of 2006. Effective: since 1st July, 2006.

[953] Section 358 (1) h) was established by Section 150 (2) of Act LI o